Cotton Report 1994
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Cotton Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Forage and Grain Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Cotton Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Cotton Report 1994
- 1993 Weather Conditions
- The 1994 Arizona Cotton Advisory Program
- Practical Uses of Crop Monitoring for Arizona Cotton
- Plant Population Evaluation for Upland Cotton
- Evaluation of Date of Planting on the Yield of Several Upland Varieties at Marana, 1993
- Cultural and Management Practices for Pima Cotton Production
- Upland Cotton Variety Resposne to Row Spacing
- Boll Sampling to Predict Lint Yield in Upland and Pima Cotton
- Cotton Defoliation Evaluations, 1993
- Defoliation Research on Pima and Upland Cotton at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1993
- Defoliation Research on Pima and Upland Cotton at the Marana Agricultural Center in 1993
- Defoliation of Pima and Upland Cotton at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1993
- Effect of Plant Water Status on Defoliation and Yield of Pima Cotton
- Dry Matter Accumulation by Upland and Pima Cotton
- The Effect of Night Temperature on Cotton Reproductive Development
- Boll Maturity Estimates for Mid- and Late-Season Flowering Dates in Arizona
- Physiological Response of Cotton to Terminal Damage
- Evaluation of a Feedback vs. Scheduled Approach to PIX Application
- The Effects of PIX Application Timing on Upland Cotton Lint Yield and Growth and Development Parameters
- Effect of Foliar Applications of PGRIV on Yield of Upland and Pima Cotton
- Methanol Effect on Upland Cotton
- Methanol Treatments on Pima and Upland Cotton
- Plant Growth Regulator Studies at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1993
- Arizona Upland Cotton Variety Testing Program
- Upland Regional Cotton Variety Test at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1993
- Short Staple Variety Demonstrations, Graham County, 1993
- Short Staple Cotton Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1993
- Short Staple Variety Trials in Cochise County, 1993
- Short Staple Variety Trial, Greenlee County, 1993
- Pima Cotton Genetics
- Pima Cotton Improvement
- Pima Regional Variety Test Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1993
- Long Staple Cotton Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1993
- Use of Leaf Water Potentials to Determine Timing of Initial Post-Plant Irrigation
- Initial Post Plant Irrigation Effects on Low Desert Upland Cotton Yields Using Leaf Water Potential Measurements
- Irrigation Efficiencies and Lint Yields of Upland Cotton Grown at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1993
- The Use of AZSCHED to Schedule Irrigation on Cotton, Safford Agricultural Center - 1993
- Nutsedge Control in Cotton Using Norflurazon (Zorial Rapid 80): A Progress Report
- Do Prowl and Treflan Cause Cotton Injury?
- Cotton Producers Working in Unison: The Multi-Component IPM Program in Marana, AZ
- Evaluation of Trap Crops as a Component of a Community-Wide Pink Bollworm Control Program
- Validity of the Pinhead Square Treatment Program for Pink Bollworm Suppression and Impact of Several Insecticides on Arthropod Fauna in Cotton
- Influence of Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora Gossypiella, (Saunders) (Lepidoptera : Gelechiidae), Female Age on Oviposition Capacity and Egg Hatchability
- Potential for Pink Bollworm Control with Entomopathogenic Nematodes
- Control of Sweepotato (Silverleaf) Whitefly, Bemisia Tabaci, on Cotton in Paloma, Arizona
- A Community-wide Approach to Whitefly Management
- Sweetpotato Whitefly (Bemisia Tabaci Gennadius) Population Relationships to Cotton Yield and Quality
- Numerical and Binomial Sequential Sampling Plans for Adult Bemisia Tabaci in Cotton
- Action Thresholds for Whiteflies in Arizona
- Chemical Control of the Sweetpotato Whitefly in Cotton
- Whole Season Rotational Pesticide System for Integrated Pest Management for Control of Sweetpotato Whitefly in Cotton
- Novel Pyrethroid Combinations for Control of Sweetpotato Whitefly and Their Impact on Lygus
- Varietal and Nitrogent-level Effects on Sweepotato Whitefly Populations in Cotton
- Seasonal Distribution of Cotton Leafperforator: Pheromone Dispenser Persistence and Effect of Trap Height on Moth Catches in Pheromone Baited Traps
- Preliminary Field Evaluation of an Insect Growth Regulator, Buprofezin, for Control of the Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia Tabaci
- Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Uptake by Upland and Pima Cotton
- Nitrogen Management Experiments for Upland and Pima Cotton, 1993
- Potassium Fertilization of Upland and Pima Cotton
- A Comparison of Three Cotton Tillage Systems: Six Year Summary
- The Pegasus Rapid Plowdown System: A New Concept in Cotton Tillage
- 1993 Cotton Seed Treatment Evaluations
1993 Cotton Seed Treatment EvaluationsCottonseed was treated with several fungicide treatments in an effort to protect the seed and seedling from disease. Seed germination and vigor was evaluated in three Arizona locations; Maricopa, Marana, and Safford. Stand counts were taken on two separate dates after emergence and percent emergence was calculated. Among the three locations only one, Marana, showed significant differences among treatments. The highest percent emergence being seeds treated with Nu-Flow ND at a rate of 7.5 fl oz/cwt. The untreated control placed last in the ranking at this location.
The Pegasus Rapid Plowdown System: A New Concept in Cotton TillageThis new concept in tillage is to open a deep, temporary slot next to the cotton row and to insert the stalks and/or roots into the slot before the soil falls back in. The Pegasus Rapid Plow Down System is a relatively simple implement which offers good residue burial and reliability. Our limited field test data indicate that this invention requires less energy and field work time than conventional tillage systems.
A Comparison of Three Cotton Tillage Systems: Six Year SummaryTwo reduced cotton tillage systems, both of which utilize controlled traffic farming techniques, were compared to a conventional tillage system in terms of energy requirements, field work time requirements, crop yield, and operating costs. Six seasons of testing show the Sundance system to have the lowest energy requirement of 31.95 Hp- Hr /Ac, the Uprooter -Shredder-Mulcher the second lowest at 47.16 Hp- Hr /Ac, and conventional tillage the highest at 66.89 Hp- Hr /Ac. Field work times of the two reduced tillage systems were about 58% that of conventional tillage. Costs of the two reduced tillage systems are lower than for conventional tillage. We have never measured a significantly lower lint yield with either of the two reduced tillage systems, relative to conventional tillage.
Potassium Fertilization of Upland and Pima CottonIn a continuing effort to assess the agronomic necessity of potassium (K) fertilization in Arizona cotton (Gossypium spp.) production, one new and two on-going (Maricopa and Safford Ag. Centers), K fertility studies were conducted in 1993. They included locations ranging from western (Yuma) to eastern (Safford) Arizona, with both Upland (G. hirsutum L.) and American Pima (G. barbadense L.) cotton, using soil and foliar applications of K. The results indicated that there was no response to the added K at any of the locations by either Upland or Pima cotton.
Nitrogen Management Experiments for Upland and Pima Cotton, 1993Two field experiments were conducted in Arizona in 1993 at two locations (Maricopa and Safford). Both experiments have been conducted for five consecutive seasons, with consistent plot locations. The purposes of the experiments were to validate and refine nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for both Upland and Pima cotton. The experiments each utilized N management tools such as pre - season soil tests for NO₃⁻-N, in-season plant tissue testing (petioles) for N fertility status, and crop monitoring to ascertain crop fruiting patterns and crop N needs. Results at both locations revealed a strong relationship between the crop fruit retention levels and N needs for the crop. This pattern was further reflected in final yield analysis as a response to the N fertilization regimes used. The effects of N fertility levels have been consistently evident in crop maturity and its relationship to lint yields.
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Uptake by Upland and Pima CottonSeveral investigations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) uptake by Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have been conduced, however no investigations of this type have included American Pima cotton (G. barbadense L.). We conducted a study to describe the total N, P, and K uptake and the partitioning of each nutrient into various plant parts for both Upland and Pima cotton. During the growing seasons of 1990, 1991, and 1992 at two south-central Arizona locations, both Upland (var. DPL 90) and Pima (var. S-6) cotton were grown. Beginning 14 to 20 d after emergence, whole cotton plants were removed and cotton plants were separated into stems, leaves (including petioles), burs (carpel walls), lint, and seeds. The bur fraction, also included squares, flowers, immature bolls, and burs from mature bolls. The appropriate analyses for total N, P, and K were determined on each fraction (except lint). Regression analyses was used to model nutrient uptake as a function of both days after planting (DAP) and heat units after planting (HUAP). Regression analyses indicated that HUAP was equally good, and in most cases superior to using DAP to model total nutrient uptake and partitioning within both Upland and Pima cotton. In every case there was close agreement between the predicted and actual total nutrient uptake. For Upland cotton the actual total N, P, and K uptake was 199, 29, and 250 kg ha⁻¹ and the predicted total N, P, and K uptake was 199, 29, and 255 kg ha⁻¹, respectively. For Pima cotton the actual total N, P, and K uptake was 196, 29, and 215 kg ha⁻¹ and the predicted was 210, 29, and 229 kg ha⁻¹, respectively. The pattern of nutrient partitioning in Upland cotton were similar to the findings of others and Pima showed the same general patterns of partitioning as Upland cotton. Seeds were a major sink of nutrients. Nutrient uptake in seeds resulted in decreasing uptake in leaves and stems. Presumably, due to mobilization of nutrients from those parts to the seeds during seed development. The nutrient requirements to produce 100 kg lint ha' for Upland cotton was 15, 2.2, and 19 kg ha⁻¹ for N, P, and K, respectively and was 20, 3.0, and 22 kg ha⁻¹, respectively for Pima cotton.
Preliminary Field Evaluation of an Insect Growth Regulator, Buprofezin, for Control of the Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia TabaciTwo rates of buprofezin and a combination, buprofezin + endosulfan, were compared against Ovasyn® and the standard pyrethroid combination Danitol® + Orthene®. Targeted pests were all stages of the sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF). Danitol + Orthene was the most effective treatment against all SPWF stages. All buprofezin treatments, including the buprofezin + endosulfan combination, were moderately effective against all SPWF stages relative to the untreated check, while Ovasyn had control levels similar to the untreated check. Danitol + Orthene had the highest yield at 4030.2 lbs seed cotton/A, and buprofezin + endosulfan had the second highest yield, 2172 lbs/A. All other treatments yielded amounts similar to the untreated check, 863.0 lbs/A. Effects of these control practices on beneficial and other non- target arthropods have not yet been analyzed. Lygus populations were extreme in this test and favored the Danitol + Orthene treatment over the SPWF -specific buprofezin treatments.
Seasonal Distribution of Cotton Leafperforator: Pheromone Dispenser Persistence and Effect of Trap Height on Moth Catches in Pheromone Baited TrapsThe cotton leafperforator (CLP) Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck. is a sporadic pest in cotton fields of southwest desert area. The cotton leafperforator sex pheromone was identified and synthesized by Hall et al. (1992), thus providing a sensitive method for detecting CLP moths. Tests were conducted in 1992 and 1993 to determine the effective life of CLP polyethylene pheromone dispensers, correlate CLP male moth catches to cotton field infestations, determine the seasonal distribution, and effect of trap height on moth catches. The polyethylene pheromone dispensers were effective for about 4 weeks. The best correlation coefficients for 1993 data, were obtained by comparing CLP moth catches per night to main stem leaf damage at 6 node position from top of plants at field edges. Horseshoe stage CLP per leaf and trap catches had the highest correlation coefficient, r= 0.78. There was more than twice as much CLP damage to leaves at field edges when compared to leaves 10 m into the field. The first CLP moth capture occurred in early to late July and increased rapidly each year in August to 100 to 200 per trap night, but was variable in September, with a high of 300 and a low of 9 per trap night. CLP- baited delta traps placed 0.3 m above ground caught more moths than traps placed at greater heights from 11 to 21 August.
Varietal and Nitrogent-level Effects on Sweepotato Whitefly Populations in CottonFour cotton varieties, each differing in leaf pubescence, and three nitrogen (N) levels were investigated for effects upon development of SPWF populations. The N treatments appeared to have no effect upon population development. However, there was a direct correlation of increased SPWF numbers with increased hairiness. Both DPL 5415 and SALCOTIO had significantly lower seasonal means of all stages than did the more hairy varieties of CB1135 and STV453.
Novel Pyrethroid Combinations for Control of Sweetpotato Whitefly and Their Impact on LygusCombinations of two insecticides, often a pyrethroid with an organophosphate, have been used more successfully in sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF) control programs rather than single insecticides when SPWF populations are chronically high. Ten combinations of various insecticides were compared for their effectiveness against all SPWF stages. Applications were by ground, broadcast over -the -top of plots 12 rows x 40 ft on five application dates. Three sampling methods were used: leaf turns and sweeps for adult counts, and microscopic leaf counts for immature stages. Danitol® +Orthene® emerged as the most consistently effective combination on all SPWF stages when compared to the untreated plots. Over all dates and SPWF life stages, the combinations were ranked according to the following order of descending efficacy: Danitol + Orthene 5 Danitol + Lorsban® Karate® + Penncap -M® = Scout Xtra® + Orthene = Asana® + Curacron® = Asana + Orthene < Asana + Phaser® = Scout + Phaser = Asana + Lorsban = Asana + Vydate® < untreated check. Yields were also affected by the combinations, but attributed to SPWF and Lygus suppression. Orthene treatment combinations yielded consistently greater than other entries and was likely due to superior Lygus control and at least average SPWF control. The Asana + Vydate was ranked among the best in Lygus control but low in SPWF control, while Karate + Penncap, Danitol + Lorsban, and Asana + Curacron were ranked high in SPWF control but low in Lygus control. The remaining treatments were more or less intermediate in SPWF and Lygus control. Rankings of these combinations for Lygus control were in the following order of descending efficacy: Asana + Vydate = Scout + Orthene = Asana + Orthene = Danitol + Orthene < Scout + Phaser = Danitol + Lorsban = Karate + Penncap < Asana + Curacron < Asana + Phaser = Asana + Lorsban < untreated check.
Whole Season Rotational Pesticide System for Integrated Pest Management for Control of Sweetpotato Whitefly in CottonA season long pesticide rotational system for cotton management of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (SPWF) was put in place. The system tried to minimize pesticide impact on midseason build -up of beneficials against SPWF. SPWF thresholds were used to begin use of "potent, efficient" insecticides to stop exponential increase of SPWF in late season. Insecticide class rotation was a key element of the system to prevent insecticide resistance. Comparisons between test blocks and best agricultural practices for rest of field showed that SPWF eggs and large immature of September populations, yields (2.68 bales /Ac), and beneficials were about the same among the blocks. The cotton was free of stickiness in the entire field.
Chemical Control of the Sweetpotato Whitefly in CottonVarious registered and experimental insecticides were evaluated for sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) control in several field experiments at Yuma, Arizona in 1993. Best controls were obtained with insecticide mixtures, particularly a pyrethroid and an organophosphate, rather than with individual materials. Results of these experiments indicate that severe population densities can be controlled using insecticide combinations, even though sustained use of these insecticides would probably lead quickly to the development of resistance.
Action Thresholds for Whiteflies in ArizonaThree field tests were set -up for evaluation of action threshold levels for sweetpotato whitefly control with two different chemical combinations. The thresholds used to initiate treatments were ca. 1, 10, and 25 adult whiteflies per leaf designated as "early ", "moderate ", or "late ". Immatures were present during these treatment initiation points at the rate of ca. 5 nymphs and ca. 10 eggs per sq.in. in the 'early' plots, 15.3 nymphs and 39.1 eggs per sq.in. in the 'moderate' plots, and 52.1 nymphs and 299.3 eggs per sq.in. in the 'late' plots. The insecticides used included a pyrethroid combination [Danitol® (.1 lb a.i/A) + Orthene® (.5)] and a non-pyrethroid combination [endosulfan(.75) + Ovasyn® (.25)1 Applications were by ground, broadcast, over-the-top, at 20 GPA. Populations were monitored as whitefly adults (leaf turns & net sweeps) and nymphs and eggs (leaf counts). Once applications were triggered, they continued ca. weekly. The early threshold required seven applications, starting 10 July, and produced yields (4038.8 lbs seed cotton/A) which were 2 or 3 times larger than the untreated check (1589.3 lbs seed cotton/A). Lint or leaf stickiness was not apparent; however, 2 or 3 sprays were required before any significant differences in whitefly populations could be found. Whitefly numbers were lowered significantly in both insecticide regimens, with somewhat lower numbers present in the pyrethroid treated plots. The late threshold was sprayed only twice, starting 12 August, and yielded no more cotton (1719.2 lbs seed cotton/A) than the untreated check (1395.0 lbs seed cotton/A). Lint and leaf surfaces were covered in stickiness and sooty mold. Whitefly populations were excessive and led to premature cut -out and poor fruit retention. The moderate threshold (10 adults per leaf) received five applications, starting 22 July, and produced high yielding and high quality cotton (3462.2 lbs seed cotton/A). Some stickiness and sooty mold growth was observable only on the lowest leaves. This was a result of limited honeydew production prior to the threshold and well before any boll opening. Lygus populations were extremely high and caused large differences in yields which favored the pyrethroid combination slightly and the earliest threshold significantly. Given commercial farm control realities (e.g., delays in sampling or application, differences in coverage or application, variable efficacy), the ideal threshold for initiation of treatments is likely between 1 and 10 adults per leaf.
Numerical and Binomial Sequential Sampling Plans for Adult Bemisia Tabaci in CottonFixed-precision numerical and binomial sequential sampling plans are reported for adults of Bemisia tabaci (Strain B) on cotton. Both plans are based on whole leaf sample units from the fifth mainstem node (counted from the terminal). Numerical sampling plans allow for the efficient estimation of adult population density. Numerical sampling stop lines are presented relating the cumulative number of adults counted to the number of leaves examined for two levels of statistical precision. Binomial plans were developed to allow classification of adult population density for pest management decision -making application. These plans were devised for three action threshold levels; 5, 10 or 15 adults per leaf Binomial sampling stop lines are presented relating the cumulative number of infested leaves to the number of leaves examined as an aid for determining the need for population suppression.
Sweetpotato Whitefly (Bemisia Tabaci Gennadius) Population Relationships to Cotton Yield and QualitySweetpotato whitefly (SPWF) Bemisia tabaci Gennadius strain B has been a devastating pest of cotton in Arizona and California in recent years. Management systems involving cultural procedures, SPWF population monitoring crop sanitation, crop sequencing chemical control and other technology are developing slowly. SPWF population information in relation to cotton yield and quality losses are urgently needed Preliminary studies with cotton insecticide treatments initiated each week from shortly after cotton seedling emergence to late in the cotton season were conducted at the Irrigated Desert Research Station, Brawley, CA in 1993. The results suggest significant correlations for numbers of SPWF per leaf disc from cotton leaves vs. cotton yield and lint stickiness. Cotton lint yield was negatively correlated to all stages of SPWF populations (-0.783 or higher). Lint stickiness was high positively correlated to SPWF populations (0.707 or higher) and cotton defoliation was positively correlated to SPWF populations (0.876 or higher).
A Community-wide Approach to Whitefly ManagementAn extension supported, grower controlled, community pest management group was initiated in the Laveen and Tolleson communities of Arizona with the management of sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF) as its initial focus. The three functions of this group were awareness, communication, and cooperation. Increased awareness and communication of pest management problems and solutions were achieved through regular meetings and newsletters. Community cooperation took the form of a community-based overwintering survey and a sticky trap network. These two cooperative activities served both an educational and a research function. From the overwintering survey and the sticky trap network, growers learned about the overwintering habits and movement dynamics of whiteflies in their area, the limits of sticky traps for SPWF detection, the need for the reduction of SPWF populations before they move onto cotton. and the need for careful infield sampling of SPWF populations.
Control of Sweepotato (Silverleaf) Whitefly, Bemisia Tabaci, on Cotton in Paloma, ArizonaA large scale for the control of sweetpotato (silverleaf) whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, (SPW) was carried out in Paloma and Painted Rock near Gila Bend, Arizona, on approximately 6,156 ha of cotton during the 1993 season. Within the program area 40 fields were randomly selected for comparison with 15 fields in each of 2 locations outside the program. They were identified as check east (approximately 11 k northeast of the program) and check west (approximately 3 k west of the program). Whitefly populations in both check areas were controlled according to individual grower protocol. On a weekly basis, adult counts were taken from all 4 edges and the centers of each field using the oil pan technique. Insecticides were applied aerially in the program area on the full field or edges based on population density recorded from pan samples. Insecticide combinations were rotated weekly in an attempt to reduce the potential for the development of pesticide resistance. During the 16 -week evaluation period SPW adults were significantly higher in check east and check west than the program area by 2- and 6-fold respectively; eggs were higher by 3- and 39 fold, respectively; and nymphs were also significantly higher in check east and check west by 3- and 60-fold respectively. Ginning records for 1993 indicate approximately a 20% increase in yield in the program area a 5% increase in check east and a 40% decrease in check west as compared to 1992. These results demonstrate that an area -wide approach, utilizing edge treatment where possible, based on extensive field sampling regimens represent an important integrated strategy in a successful whitefly control program.
Potential for Pink Bollworm Control with Entomopathogenic NematodesThe susceptibility of late instar pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gosspiella (Saunders), larvae to two species of Steinemema was evaluated in small scale field tests in spring and summer of 1993. In the spring PBW mortality at 15 infective juveniles /cm² for S. carpocapsae and S. riobravis was 87 and 89 %, respectively. In midsummer, mortalities with S. riobravis were significantly greater than with S. carpocapsae at the four concentrations tested. A simple method was developed for small scale field testing and efficacy monitoring for PBW and other soil associated insects.
Influence of Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora Gossypiella, (Saunders) (Lepidoptera : Gelechiidae), Female Age on Oviposition Capacity and Egg HatchabilityOviposition capability and e 4: hatchability of three laboratory reared strains of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossvpiella, (Saunders) were evaluated to determine the effect of age on the female reproductive capacity. From comparisons of various female ages in terms of the amount of eggs deposited and the level of ex hatchability, it was concluded that young females (3-6 days old) had the highest potential for oviposition and that their eggs had the highest percentages of hatchability.
Validity of the Pinhead Square Treatment Program for Pink Bollworm Suppression and Impact of Several Insecticides on Arthropod Fauna in CottonA limited chemical control tactic known as pinhead square treatment has gained recent Favor as a component of pink bollworm population management. The strategy has economic and ecologic goals of using reduced insecticides early in the season (to include lower rates, half the acreage, and less potent chemistry) in order to reduce later season risk of pink bollworm infestations. This strategy also depends in part on the cultural tactic which results in "suicidal emergence" of overwintering pink bollworms through optimal planting date management. The combination of these tactics has been used in the past to overcome boll weevil populations area-wide. This study is focused on the evaluation of this system as a basis for pink bollworm suppression. Though only preliminary is presented here, it is clear that there are numerous insects impacted by this practice which interact in complex ways to influence pest populations of all kinds. Furthermore, the fate of such a practice in any production system is also influenced by the specific chemical agent used. This experiment details the use of four different classes of insecticide chemistry as well as one bioinsecticide. The experiment has been duplicated in 1993; however, only 1992 data are shown here.