• Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Uptake by Upland and Pima Cotton

      Unruh, B. L.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Steger, A. J.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Several investigations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) uptake by Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have been conduced, however no investigations of this type have included American Pima cotton (G. barbadense L.). We conducted a study to describe the total N, P, and K uptake and the partitioning of each nutrient into various plant parts for both Upland and Pima cotton. During the growing seasons of 1990, 1991, and 1992 at two south-central Arizona locations, both Upland (var. DPL 90) and Pima (var. S-6) cotton were grown. Beginning 14 to 20 d after emergence, whole cotton plants were removed and cotton plants were separated into stems, leaves (including petioles), burs (carpel walls), lint, and seeds. The bur fraction, also included squares, flowers, immature bolls, and burs from mature bolls. The appropriate analyses for total N, P, and K were determined on each fraction (except lint). Regression analyses was used to model nutrient uptake as a function of both days after planting (DAP) and heat units after planting (HUAP). Regression analyses indicated that HUAP was equally good, and in most cases superior to using DAP to model total nutrient uptake and partitioning within both Upland and Pima cotton. In every case there was close agreement between the predicted and actual total nutrient uptake. For Upland cotton the actual total N, P, and K uptake was 199, 29, and 250 kg ha⁻¹ and the predicted total N, P, and K uptake was 199, 29, and 255 kg ha⁻¹, respectively. For Pima cotton the actual total N, P, and K uptake was 196, 29, and 215 kg ha⁻¹ and the predicted was 210, 29, and 229 kg ha⁻¹, respectively. The pattern of nutrient partitioning in Upland cotton were similar to the findings of others and Pima showed the same general patterns of partitioning as Upland cotton. Seeds were a major sink of nutrients. Nutrient uptake in seeds resulted in decreasing uptake in leaves and stems. Presumably, due to mobilization of nutrients from those parts to the seeds during seed development. The nutrient requirements to produce 100 kg lint ha' for Upland cotton was 15, 2.2, and 19 kg ha⁻¹ for N, P, and K, respectively and was 20, 3.0, and 22 kg ha⁻¹, respectively for Pima cotton.
    • Preliminary Field Evaluation of an Insect Growth Regulator, Buprofezin, for Control of the Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia Tabaci

      Ellsworth, P. C.; Meade, D. L.; Odom, Phillip; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Two rates of buprofezin and a combination, buprofezin + endosulfan, were compared against Ovasyn® and the standard pyrethroid combination Danitol® + Orthene®. Targeted pests were all stages of the sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF). Danitol + Orthene was the most effective treatment against all SPWF stages. All buprofezin treatments, including the buprofezin + endosulfan combination, were moderately effective against all SPWF stages relative to the untreated check, while Ovasyn had control levels similar to the untreated check. Danitol + Orthene had the highest yield at 4030.2 lbs seed cotton/A, and buprofezin + endosulfan had the second highest yield, 2172 lbs/A. All other treatments yielded amounts similar to the untreated check, 863.0 lbs/A. Effects of these control practices on beneficial and other non- target arthropods have not yet been analyzed. Lygus populations were extreme in this test and favored the Danitol + Orthene treatment over the SPWF -specific buprofezin treatments.
    • Seasonal Distribution of Cotton Leafperforator: Pheromone Dispenser Persistence and Effect of Trap Height on Moth Catches in Pheromone Baited Traps

      Leggett, J. E.; Henneberry, T. J.; White, R. D.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      The cotton leafperforator (CLP) Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck. is a sporadic pest in cotton fields of southwest desert area. The cotton leafperforator sex pheromone was identified and synthesized by Hall et al. (1992), thus providing a sensitive method for detecting CLP moths. Tests were conducted in 1992 and 1993 to determine the effective life of CLP polyethylene pheromone dispensers, correlate CLP male moth catches to cotton field infestations, determine the seasonal distribution, and effect of trap height on moth catches. The polyethylene pheromone dispensers were effective for about 4 weeks. The best correlation coefficients for 1993 data, were obtained by comparing CLP moth catches per night to main stem leaf damage at 6 node position from top of plants at field edges. Horseshoe stage CLP per leaf and trap catches had the highest correlation coefficient, r= 0.78. There was more than twice as much CLP damage to leaves at field edges when compared to leaves 10 m into the field. The first CLP moth capture occurred in early to late July and increased rapidly each year in August to 100 to 200 per trap night, but was variable in September, with a high of 300 and a low of 9 per trap night. CLP- baited delta traps placed 0.3 m above ground caught more moths than traps placed at greater heights from 11 to 21 August.
    • Varietal and Nitrogent-level Effects on Sweepotato Whitefly Populations in Cotton

      Watson, T. F.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Tellez, A.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Four cotton varieties, each differing in leaf pubescence, and three nitrogen (N) levels were investigated for effects upon development of SPWF populations. The N treatments appeared to have no effect upon population development. However, there was a direct correlation of increased SPWF numbers with increased hairiness. Both DPL 5415 and SALCOTIO had significantly lower seasonal means of all stages than did the more hairy varieties of CB1135 and STV453.
    • Irrigation Efficiencies and Lint Yields of Upland Cotton Grown at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1993

      Sheedy, Mike; Watson, Jack; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      The computer program AZSCHED, with weather data obtained from AZMET, was used to schedule irrigations for a yield trial of early season Upland Cotton (DPL 20) at the Maricopa Agricultural Center. Cotton lint yields were compared between plots from five treatments involving five irrigation efficiencies (50 %, 65 %, 75 %, 90% and 110 %). As in previous years, a potassium bromide tracer was applied to select areas in each plot to monitor the movement of water and nitrates down the soil profile. The total amount of fertilizer as nitrogen applied in two split applications and sidedressed was 100 #/a. The total amount of water applied to the plots ranged from 42.7" for 50% to 26.6" for 110% (deficit) irrigation efficiency. The plots were harvested on October 5, 1993. There was a significant difference in lint yield between the irrigation efficiency treatments. The 50% irrigation efficiency treatment produced 1190 # lint /acre while the 110% efficiency produced 883 # lint /acre.
    • Do Prowl and Treflan Cause Cotton Injury?

      Moffett, Jody; McCloskey, William B.; Husman, Stephen H.; Dixon, Gary L.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Two dinitroaniline herbicides, Prowl and Treflan, were tested in field experiments with cotton to determine their differences, if any, in terms of weed control and crop injury potential. Plots treated with the lowest rate of Treflan (0.125 lb a.i./A at one location and 0.25 lb a.i./A at a second location) exhibited reduced weed control in comparison to the other herbicide treatments. Although root inhibition was slight, lateral root growth of cotton was inhibited more by the higher rates of Treflan (0.75 and 1.0 lb a.i./A) than by the higher rates of Prowl (1.0 and 1.25 lb a.i./A). However, differences in weed control and crop injury were not reflected in differences in cotton stand counts, height measurements and yield as there were no significant differences in these parameters between treatments.
    • Use of Leaf Water Potentials to Determine Timing of Initial Post-Plant Irrigation

      Steger, A. J.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Brown, P. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Presumably, from a physiological standpoint, early season water stress should be avoided to ensure early fruit initiation, good fruit retention, and optimum yield potential of cotton (Gossypium spp.). This study was conducted to determine the optimum timing of the initial post plant irrigation and the long term effect of postponement on subsequent plant growth patterns, fruit retention, and yield. A short - season Upland variety, (G. hirsutum L.), DPL 20, was planted on 19 April in Marana, AZ, elevation 1970 ft. , on a Pima clay loam (Typic Torrifluvent) soil. Plots (experimental units) consisted of eight 40 in. rows and extended the full length of the irrigation run (600 ft.). Experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. Initial post - plant irrigations, designated T1 , 72, and T3, were applied when the midday leaf water potential (ψ) of the uppermost, fully- developed leaf reached -15, -19, and -23 bars, respectively. All treatments received the same irrigation regime following the initial post plant irrigation. Basic plant measurements were taken weekly from each experimental unit. These included plant height, number of mainstem nodes, location of first fruiting branch, fruit retention, number of nodes above the uppermost white bloom, bloom count within a 166 ft² area, and percent canopy cover. Soil -water data at seven 25 cm depth increments was collected from a total of 36 access tubes located within the field study, with three tubes per plot. Lint yields (lb. lint /acre) were 1112, 1095, and 977 for T1 , 72, and T3, respectively. Yields were significantly lower when the initial post plant irrigation was applied after ψ, dropped below -19 bars, confirming the results of a previous study conducted in 1992. Throughout the growing season, height - node ratios (HNR) of T1 and 72 plants were at or above the upper threshold established for DPL 20, while T3 HNR remained close to the expected baseline. Fruit retention was low for all three treatments due to season -long insect pressure from lygus bug. The low fruit retention data reflects the effects of high HNR. Future work will include efforts to separate changes in ψ due to day-to-day climatic variations from those caused by soil -water depletion. A second objective will be to incorporate the data obtained from the neutron moisture meter probe into the study results in an effort to better describe the complete soil-plant-atmosphere continuum as affected by the various treatment regimes employed in this study.
    • Pima Cotton Genetics

      Percy, R. G.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      A feasibility study of short season management in Pima cotton, using short season genotypes, was initiated in 1993. Four short season genotypes, a full season check, and a short season check were evaluated in replicated tests under short season and full season regimes. In this first preliminary year of data, no significant yield loss could be attributed to management regime or to earliness of genotypes. Three of the putative early maturing genotypes exceeded the full season Pima S-7 check in yield. Results were contrary to expectations. The short season test is planned for repeat in 1994. An investigation of a virescent mutant discovered in 1990 (CM-1-90) was conducted in 1991, 1992, and 1993. Crosses of the mutant to Pima S-6 to determine inheritance, and to various virescent mutants to determine allelism produced results which were anamolous to normal, nuclear inheritance. Reciprocal crosses to PS-6 and to various virescent mutants confirmed that the new mutant was cytoplasmicaly inherited.
    • Sweetpotato Whitefly (Bemisia Tabaci Gennadius) Population Relationships to Cotton Yield and Quality

      Chu, C. C.; Henneberry, T. J.; Akey, D. H.; Prabhaker, N.; Perkins, H. H.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF) Bemisia tabaci Gennadius strain B has been a devastating pest of cotton in Arizona and California in recent years. Management systems involving cultural procedures, SPWF population monitoring crop sanitation, crop sequencing chemical control and other technology are developing slowly. SPWF population information in relation to cotton yield and quality losses are urgently needed Preliminary studies with cotton insecticide treatments initiated each week from shortly after cotton seedling emergence to late in the cotton season were conducted at the Irrigated Desert Research Station, Brawley, CA in 1993. The results suggest significant correlations for numbers of SPWF per leaf disc from cotton leaves vs. cotton yield and lint stickiness. Cotton lint yield was negatively correlated to all stages of SPWF populations (-0.783 or higher). Lint stickiness was high positively correlated to SPWF populations (0.707 or higher) and cotton defoliation was positively correlated to SPWF populations (0.876 or higher).
    • Numerical and Binomial Sequential Sampling Plans for Adult Bemisia Tabaci in Cotton

      Naranjo, S. E.; Flint, H. M.; Henneberry, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Fixed-precision numerical and binomial sequential sampling plans are reported for adults of Bemisia tabaci (Strain B) on cotton. Both plans are based on whole leaf sample units from the fifth mainstem node (counted from the terminal). Numerical sampling plans allow for the efficient estimation of adult population density. Numerical sampling stop lines are presented relating the cumulative number of adults counted to the number of leaves examined for two levels of statistical precision. Binomial plans were developed to allow classification of adult population density for pest management decision -making application. These plans were devised for three action threshold levels; 5, 10 or 15 adults per leaf Binomial sampling stop lines are presented relating the cumulative number of infested leaves to the number of leaves examined as an aid for determining the need for population suppression.
    • Validity of the Pinhead Square Treatment Program for Pink Bollworm Suppression and Impact of Several Insecticides on Arthropod Fauna in Cotton

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Meade, Donna L.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      A limited chemical control tactic known as pinhead square treatment has gained recent Favor as a component of pink bollworm population management. The strategy has economic and ecologic goals of using reduced insecticides early in the season (to include lower rates, half the acreage, and less potent chemistry) in order to reduce later season risk of pink bollworm infestations. This strategy also depends in part on the cultural tactic which results in "suicidal emergence" of overwintering pink bollworms through optimal planting date management. The combination of these tactics has been used in the past to overcome boll weevil populations area-wide. This study is focused on the evaluation of this system as a basis for pink bollworm suppression. Though only preliminary is presented here, it is clear that there are numerous insects impacted by this practice which interact in complex ways to influence pest populations of all kinds. Furthermore, the fate of such a practice in any production system is also influenced by the specific chemical agent used. This experiment details the use of four different classes of insecticide chemistry as well as one bioinsecticide. The experiment has been duplicated in 1993; however, only 1992 data are shown here.
    • A Community-wide Approach to Whitefly Management

      Diehl, J. W.; Ellsworth, P. C.; Husman, S. H.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      An extension supported, grower controlled, community pest management group was initiated in the Laveen and Tolleson communities of Arizona with the management of sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF) as its initial focus. The three functions of this group were awareness, communication, and cooperation. Increased awareness and communication of pest management problems and solutions were achieved through regular meetings and newsletters. Community cooperation took the form of a community-based overwintering survey and a sticky trap network. These two cooperative activities served both an educational and a research function. From the overwintering survey and the sticky trap network, growers learned about the overwintering habits and movement dynamics of whiteflies in their area, the limits of sticky traps for SPWF detection, the need for the reduction of SPWF populations before they move onto cotton. and the need for careful infield sampling of SPWF populations.
    • Potassium Fertilization of Upland and Pima Cotton

      Unruh, B. L.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Galadima, A.; Clark, L. J.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      In a continuing effort to assess the agronomic necessity of potassium (K) fertilization in Arizona cotton (Gossypium spp.) production, one new and two on-going (Maricopa and Safford Ag. Centers), K fertility studies were conducted in 1993. They included locations ranging from western (Yuma) to eastern (Safford) Arizona, with both Upland (G. hirsutum L.) and American Pima (G. barbadense L.) cotton, using soil and foliar applications of K. The results indicated that there was no response to the added K at any of the locations by either Upland or Pima cotton.
    • A Comparison of Three Cotton Tillage Systems: Six Year Summary

      Coates, Wayne E.; Thacker, Gary W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Two reduced cotton tillage systems, both of which utilize controlled traffic farming techniques, were compared to a conventional tillage system in terms of energy requirements, field work time requirements, crop yield, and operating costs. Six seasons of testing show the Sundance system to have the lowest energy requirement of 31.95 Hp- Hr /Ac, the Uprooter -Shredder-Mulcher the second lowest at 47.16 Hp- Hr /Ac, and conventional tillage the highest at 66.89 Hp- Hr /Ac. Field work times of the two reduced tillage systems were about 58% that of conventional tillage. Costs of the two reduced tillage systems are lower than for conventional tillage. We have never measured a significantly lower lint yield with either of the two reduced tillage systems, relative to conventional tillage.
    • The Pegasus Rapid Plowdown System: A New Concept in Cotton Tillage

      Thacker, Gary W.; Coates, Wayne E.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      This new concept in tillage is to open a deep, temporary slot next to the cotton row and to insert the stalks and/or roots into the slot before the soil falls back in. The Pegasus Rapid Plow Down System is a relatively simple implement which offers good residue burial and reliability. Our limited field test data indicate that this invention requires less energy and field work time than conventional tillage systems.
    • Novel Pyrethroid Combinations for Control of Sweetpotato Whitefly and Their Impact on Lygus

      Ellsworth, P. C.; Meade, D. L.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Combinations of two insecticides, often a pyrethroid with an organophosphate, have been used more successfully in sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF) control programs rather than single insecticides when SPWF populations are chronically high. Ten combinations of various insecticides were compared for their effectiveness against all SPWF stages. Applications were by ground, broadcast over -the -top of plots 12 rows x 40 ft on five application dates. Three sampling methods were used: leaf turns and sweeps for adult counts, and microscopic leaf counts for immature stages. Danitol® +Orthene® emerged as the most consistently effective combination on all SPWF stages when compared to the untreated plots. Over all dates and SPWF life stages, the combinations were ranked according to the following order of descending efficacy: Danitol + Orthene 5 Danitol + Lorsban® Karate® + Penncap -M® = Scout Xtra® + Orthene = Asana® + Curacron® = Asana + Orthene < Asana + Phaser® = Scout + Phaser = Asana + Lorsban = Asana + Vydate® < untreated check. Yields were also affected by the combinations, but attributed to SPWF and Lygus suppression. Orthene treatment combinations yielded consistently greater than other entries and was likely due to superior Lygus control and at least average SPWF control. The Asana + Vydate was ranked among the best in Lygus control but low in SPWF control, while Karate + Penncap, Danitol + Lorsban, and Asana + Curacron were ranked high in SPWF control but low in Lygus control. The remaining treatments were more or less intermediate in SPWF and Lygus control. Rankings of these combinations for Lygus control were in the following order of descending efficacy: Asana + Vydate = Scout + Orthene = Asana + Orthene = Danitol + Orthene < Scout + Phaser = Danitol + Lorsban = Karate + Penncap < Asana + Curacron < Asana + Phaser = Asana + Lorsban < untreated check.
    • Whole Season Rotational Pesticide System for Integrated Pest Management for Control of Sweetpotato Whitefly in Cotton

      Akey, D. H.; Henneberry, T. J.; Wuertz, D. A.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA, ARS, Western Cotton Res. Lab., Phoenix, 85040; Sundance Farms, Coolidge, AZ 85228 (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      A season long pesticide rotational system for cotton management of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (SPWF) was put in place. The system tried to minimize pesticide impact on midseason build -up of beneficials against SPWF. SPWF thresholds were used to begin use of "potent, efficient" insecticides to stop exponential increase of SPWF in late season. Insecticide class rotation was a key element of the system to prevent insecticide resistance. Comparisons between test blocks and best agricultural practices for rest of field showed that SPWF eggs and large immature of September populations, yields (2.68 bales /Ac), and beneficials were about the same among the blocks. The cotton was free of stickiness in the entire field.
    • The 1994 Arizona Cotton Advisory Program

      Brown, P.; Russell, B.; Silvertooth, J.; Ellsworth, P.; Stedman, S.; Thacker, G.; Hood, L.; Husman, S.; Cluff, R.; Howell, D.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Arizona Cooperative Extension generates and distributes weather -based Planting Date and Cotton Development Advisories for 11 cotton production areas (Marana, Laveen, Paloma, Litchfield Pk., Pinal Co., Parker, Mohave Valley, Queen Creek, Safford, Yuma Valley, and Aguila). Planting Date Advisories are distributed from mid -February through the end of April and stress 1) planting cotton varieties according to heat unit accumulations rather than calendar date and 2) the importance of soil temperature to good germination. Cotton Development Advisories are distributed from early May through mid -September and provide updates on crop development, insects, weather and agronomy. The Cotton Advisory Program will continue in 1994 and growers may obtain the advisories by mail (fax only in Yuma County only) from the local county extension office or by computer from the AZMET computer bulletin board.
    • Cultural and Management Practices for Pima Cotton Production

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      The good use of cultural or agronomic practices is fundamental to the production of high yields and quality of American Pima cotton. In order for Pima farmers to maintain viable production operations, a continual review and improvement upon the existing set of cultural practices are in order. Basic aspects of crop production such as planting date management, soil fertility and plant nutrition, plant growth regulator use, crop termination, and defoliation are reviewed in this paper in relation to American Pima cotton production. Specific attention is also given to potassium (K) fertility management and Alternaria leaf spot regarding new aspects of potential management needs.
    • Dry Matter Accumulation by Upland and Pima Cotton

      Unrah, B. L.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Steger, A. J.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1994-03)
      Several investigations of dry matter accumulation by Upland cotton (Gossvpium hirsutum L.) have been conduced, however no investigations of this type have included American Pima cotton (G. barbadense L.). We conducted a study to describe the total dry matter accumulation and partitioning of that dry matter into various plant parts for both Upland and Pima cotton. During the growing seasons of 1990, 1991, and 1992 at two south-central Arizona locations, both Upland (var. DPL 90) and Pima (var. S-6) cotton were grown. Beginning 14 to 20 d after emergence, whole cotton plants were removed and cotton plants were separated into stems, leaves (including petioles), burs (carpel walls), lint, and seeds. The bur fraction, also included squares, flowers, immature bolls, and burs from mature bolls, Regression analyses was used to model nutrient uptake as a function of both days after planting (DAP) and heat units after planting (HUAP). Regression analyses indicated that HUAP was equally good, and in most cases superior to using DAP to model dry matter accumulation and partitioning within both Upland and Pima cotton. The general patterns of dry matter partitioning for Upland and Pima cotton are similar. However, Upland and Pima differ in the relative amount of dry matter incorporated into reproductive (bur, seed, and lint) and vegetative (leaf and stem) structures. Upland cotton produced 3527 lb /acre more total dry matter than Pima cotton. At the end of this study the vegetative /reproductive ratio for Upland was 83% compared to 70% for Pima. Upland was also more efficient at partitioning lint dry matter within the total dry matter of the reproductive structures. Dry matter incorporated into reproductive structures was 23% lint for Upland, compared to only 14% lint in Pima cotton. In summary, Upland placed more total dry matter into reproductive structures, and of the amount placed into reproductive structures, a greater proportion was incorporated into lint, when compared to Pima cotton.