• Effect of Soil and Foliar Applied Potassium on Pima and Upland Cotton at Two Arizona Locations

      Galadima, A.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Unruh, B. L.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-03)
      Due to increasing emphasis and interest being placed on cotton (Gossypium spp.) fiber quality as well as yield benefits associated with potassium (K) fertilization, two studies were conducted in 1994. These studies with those before them were aimed at assessing the agronomic necessity of K fertilization in Arizona cotton production. The locations of the trials included Maricopa Agricultural Center (Casa Grande sandy loam) and Safford Agricultural Center (Pima clay loam). At the Safford location, both Upland (G. hirsutum L., var. DPL 90) and Pima (G. barbadense L., var. S-7) cotton were planted with treatments that included both soil and foliar K applications. The trials at Maricopa Agricultural Center included four foliar K applications over the growing season on Pima (G barbadense L., var. S-7) cotton. The results of the experiments at both locations indicated no lint yield responses to K fertilization by either Upland or Pima cotton.
    • Evaluation of a Feedback Approach to Nitrogen and Pix Application

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Unruh, B. L.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-03)
      A single field experiment was conducted in 1994 at Maricopa, AZ to compare a scheduled approach (based on stage of growth) versus a feedback approach (based on vegetative status) to both nitrogen (N) and mepiquat chloride (PIX™) applications on Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). PIX feedback treatments were based upon fruit retention (FR) levels and height: node ratios (HNRs) according to established baselines. Scheduled PIX applications were made for a total of 1.0 pt./acre over two applications, with feedback PIX treatments receiving a single 0.5 pt./acre application near peak bloom (approx. 2200 heat units after planting (HUAP), 86/55 °F threshold) Scheduled applications of fertilizer N totaled 225 lbs. N/acre from four applications and feedback N treatments received a total of 135 lbs. N/acre from three 45 lb. N/acre applications. Treatments consisted of all combinations of scheduled or feedback applications of both N and PIX. The highest lint yields were from a treatment receiving feedback N and PIX and a treatment receiving scheduled N and PIX, which were not significantly differencent (P ≤ 0.05) from one another. From a practical standpoint, however, these treatments were very different in terms of the magnitude in differences of fertilizer N and PIX required to produce comparable yields.
    • Evaluation of Soil Conditioners and Water Treatments for Cotton Production Systems

      Unruh, B. L.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Sanchez, C. A.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-03)
      Advanced technologies to produce synthetic polymers such as polyacrylamide (PAS, and polymaleic anhydride (PMA) have produced products which may be economically feasible alternatives to traditional treatments such as gypsum in the desert Southwest. In 1994 three field studies were initiated, two identical studies were located in the Yuma Valley and one at Paloma Ranch. At Yuma Valley the experiments included 0, 1, and 2 tons gypsum/acre, over which, various soil-applied treatments were made; including, a check, soluble PMA (Sper Sal™), and PAM (Hydro-Growth™). Upland cotton 'DPL 5461' was grown in both Yuma Valley studies. At Paloma Ranch, Upland 'DPL 5415' planted. Prior to planting, two gypsum applications were made at 0 and 2 tons/acre. Also included as treatments were various methods and rates of Sper Salt™. No differences among treatments were detected in either of these locations relative to crop yield. At Paloma Ranch there were some early-season differences in soil crusting among the various soil amendment treatments, however, these differences dissipated as the season progressed and did not result in lint yield differences.
    • Nitrogen Management BMPs Parker Valley Demonstration

      Watson, J.; Winans, S.; Sheedy, M.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-03)
      A nitrogen management demonstration was conducted in the Parker Valley in 1994. Grower nitrogen application practices were compared with nitrogen application recommendations based upon pre plant soil samples plus petiole nitrates and plant mapping data. The only significant difference in amounts applied occurred in May, with grower applied rates exceeding recommended rates. Grower rationale for the application was logical, however, it being dependent upon the uncertainty of irrigation timing in June.
    • Nitrogen Management Experiments for Upland and Pima Cotton, 1994

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Unruh, B. L.; Navarro, J. A.; Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-03)
      Three field experiments were conducted in Arizona in 1994 at three locations ( Maricopa, Marana, and Safford). The Maricopa and Safford experiments have been conducted for six consecutive seasons, with consistent plot locations; the Marana site was initiated in 1994. The purposes of the experiments were to validate and refine nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for both Upland and Pima cotton. The experiments each utilized N management tools such as pre-season soil tests for NO₃⁻-N, in-season plant tissue testing (petioles) for N fertility status, and crop monitoring to ascertain crop fruiting patterns and crop N needs. Results at each location revealed a strong relationship between the crop fruit retention levels and N needs for the crop. This pattern was further reflected in final yield analysis as a response to the N fertilization regimes used. The effects of N fertility levels have been consistently evident in crop maturity and its relationship to lint yields.