• Influence of Ironite and Phosphorus on Long and Short Cotton on the Safford Agricultural Center, 2000

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Ironite and phosphorus were applied as a combined treatment and also individually to plots planted to long and short staple cotton to find their effect on crop development and lint yield. A statistically significant increase in lint yield was seen with 14 pounds of Ironite and 200 pounds of 16-20-0 per acre compared with the untreated check in the short staple plots. An increase in long staple yield was observed as the Ironite treatment increased from 7 to 28 pounds per acre when coupled with 200 pounds of 16-20-0. Few differences were seen between treatments in any of the plant mapping variables measured or with HVI values. More research and an economic analyses are needed to determine if this would be a recommended procedure in the Safford valley.
    • Evaluation of Potassium and Phosphorus Fertility in Arizona Soils

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Galadima, A.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Two field experiments were conducted during the 2000 growing season to address fertility recommendations for fertilizer phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A K fertility study was conducted near Tonopah, AZ consisting of two treatments, an untreated control and a treatment receiving a total of 20 gallons of K-Sul/acre. No significant differences were observed in leaf blade K concentrations between treatments. Plant growth and development estimates revealed that fruit retention (FR) levels remained consistently higher in the untreated control versus the treated plots. A second study involved treatments consisting of both P and K fertilizers was conducted near Cibola, AZ. Four treatments in this experiment included an untreated control plus treatments of 11-52-0, 0-0-60, and 4-17-40 at 100, 200, and 300 lbs. fertilizer/acre respectively. Plant growth and development estimates were similar among treatments during the season. At the end of the season the untreated control had a slightly higher FR level than the other treatments, which also produced a significantly higher yield. No other differences in yield among the fertilized treatments were observed.
    • N Volatilization from Arizona Irrigated Waters

      Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      A laboratory study was initiated to investigate the potential loss of fertilizer nitrogen (N) through volatilization at four different temperatures (25, 30, 35, and 40°C) out of irrigation waters collected from a number of Arizona locations. Complete water analysis was conducted on each of the water samples. A 300 ml volume of each water was placed in 450 ml beakers open to the atmosphere in a constant temperature water bath with 10 mg of analytical grade (NH₄)₂SO₄ added to each sample. Small aliquots were drawn at specific time intervals over a 24 hour period and then analyzed for NH₄⁺-N concentrations. Results showed potential losses from volatilization to be highly temperature dependent. Total losses (after 24 hours) ranged from 30-48% at 25°C to over 90% at 40°C. In this study where (NH₄)₂SO₄ was used as the N source, the initial concentration of SO₄⁻-S in the solution had a repressive effect on volatilization due to the decreased availability of free NH₄⁺ in waters with high initial SO₄⁻-S concentrations due to the formation of complex ion pairs (NH₄SO₄⁻). It was also observed that at lower temperatures complexation and ion pair formation affected volatilization of NH₃ by reducing the NH₄⁺ activity in solution and thereby reducing NH₃ volatilization. Potential volatilization loss of fertilizer N from these irrigation waters was found to be significant and should be considered when making decisions regarding fertilizer N applications for crop production in Arizona.
    • Sustaining Arizona's Fragile Success in Whitefly Resistance Management

      Li, Andrew Y.-S.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Li, Sarah X.-H.; Wigert, Monika E.; Zaborac, Marci; Nichols, R. L.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Cotton Incorporated, Cary, North Carolina (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Arizona cotton experienced a severe crisis in 1995 stemming from resistance of whiteflies to synergized pyrethroid insecticides. The insect growth regulators (IGRs), Knack® (pyriproxyfen) and Applaud® (buprofezin), served a pivotal role in resolving this problem. Similarly, Admire® (imidacloprid), the first neonicotinoid insecticide to obtain registration in Arizona, has been the foundation of whitefly control in vegetables and melons. In this paper we provide an update regarding the susceptibility to key insecticides of whiteflies from Arizona cotton, melons, and greenhouses. Overall, whitefly control in Arizona cotton remained excellent in the 2000 season and there were no reported field failures. However, there was a significant decrease in susceptibility to Applaud of whiteflies collected from cotton. One collection from Eloy, Arizona, in 2000 had susceptibility to Applaud that was reduced 129-fold relative to a reference strain. Whiteflies resistant to Knack, detected for the first time in Arizona in 1999, were again detected in 2000 but at lower frequencies than in 1999. Though whiteflies resistant to Admire/Provado® continued to be found at specific locations, overall susceptibility to Admire/Provado in 2000 remained high in whitefly collections from cotton. The new neonicotinoid insecticides, thiamethoxam and acetamiprid, were similar in toxicity to Arizona whiteflies in laboratory bioassays and we confirmed the significant but relatively low-order cross-resistance we previously reported between these neonicotinoids and Admire/Provado. Arizona whiteflies continued to be relatively susceptible to mixtures of Danitol® (fenpropathrin) and Orthene® (acephate). Factors that could undermine the current success of whitefly resistance management in Arizona are discussed. These include: 1) more severe resistance to IGRs in whiteflies from cotton, stemming from increased IGR use within and outside of cotton; 2) resistance of vegetable, melon and greenhouse whiteflies to the various formulations of imidacloprid (Admire, Provado, Merit®, Marathon®); 3) the imminent registration of new neonicotinoid active ingredients in cotton, greenhouses and other Arizona crops.
    • Honeydew Production by Sweetpotato Whitefly Adults and Nymphs

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, L.; de la Torre, T.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA, ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory Phoenix, AZ 85040-8803 (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      We determined honeydew production by male and female sweetpotato whiteflies and the effects of temperature on honeydew production of each sex. We also determined honeydew production by each nymphal instar. Overall, adult SPW produced more honeydew than nymphs. Adult females produced more honeydew than males. The relative differences between honeydew production for males and females and between amounts adults produced compared with nymphs were consistent. However, honeydew production by adult and nymph individuals was subject to large degrees of variation.
    • Soil and Plant Recovery of Labeled Fertilizer Nitrogen in Irrigated Cotton

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Navarro, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Galadima, A.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Proper timing of fertilizer N applications in relation to crop uptake can serve to improve fertilizer efficiency in irrigated cotton. Earlier research has identified an optimum application window extending from the formation of first pinhead squares to peak bloom, which corresponds well with maximum crop uptake and utilization. Field experiments were conducted at the University of Arizona Marana Agricultural Center (Grabe clay loam soil) utilizing sidedress applications of ammonium sulfate with 5-atom % 15-N at pinhead square, early bloom, and peak bloom at a rate of 56 kg N/ha. The objective was to compare relative efficiencies in terms of fertilizer N uptake and recovery among these three times of application. Results indicate that all treatments averaged approximately 80% total fertilizer N recovery. Of the fertilizer N that was recovered, approximately 40 % was taken up by the plants and 60 % recovered in the soil, primarily in the top 60 cm of the soil profile.
    • Arizona's Multi-agency Resistance Management Program for Bt Cotton: Sustaining the Susceptibility of Pink Bollworm

      Sims, Maria A.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Patin, Amanda; Carrière, Yves; Liu, Yong-Biao; Tabashnik, Bruce; Antilla, Larry; Whitlow, Mike; Silvertooth, Jeff; Department of Entomology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Arizona Cotton Research and Protection Council, Phoenix, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Bt cotton has been used in Arizona since 1996 with exceptionally positive results in terms of economic returns to growers and reductions in insecticide use in cotton. Yet, the isolation of pink bollworm highly resistant to Bt cotton from collections made in Arizona in 1997 demonstrated the seriousness of the threat that resistance poses to transgenic Bt technology. For this reason unparalleled measures have been taken to detect and manage resistance of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in Arizona. This paper presents results of statewide monitoring of pink bollworm susceptibility to the Bt toxin, Cry1Ac, conducted from 1997 to 1999. Mean susceptibility of Arizona pink bollworm to Cry1Ac increased from 1997 to 1999. Mean corrected mortality in 1μg/ml Cry1Ac assays was 52.3% in 1997, 90.6% in 1998, and 97.9% in 1999. Mean corrected mortality in bioassays of 10 μg/ml was 94.5% in 1997, 99.8% in 1998, and 100% in 1999. Selection with Cry1Ac in the laboratory has produced from 1997 field collections a strain possessing 200 to 900-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. This resistant strain is capable of surviving on Bt cotton. We provide an overview of other components of the multi-agency collaboration to sustain efficacy of Bt cotton in Arizona. These include: 1) evaluation of the field performance of Bt cotton; 2) mapping and analysis of use of Bt and non-Bt cotton and compliance with refuge requirements; 3) effectiveness of internal versus external refuges and movement of pink bollworm moths from refuges; and 4) activities of the Arizona Bt Cotton Working Group to formulate and implement effective resistance management strategies.
    • Arizona Upland Cotton Variety Testing Program, 2000

      Moser, H.; Hart, G.; Clark, L.; Husman, S.; Clay, P.; Zerkoune, M.; Guerena, M.; Silvertooth, J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Each year the University of Arizona conducts variety trials across the state to evaluate the performance of upland cotton varieties. These tests provide unbiased data on the performance of varieties when tested side-by-side under typical production practices. In 2000, we planted a total of ten trials, one in the southwestern region (Yuma county), six in the central region (MoHave, La Paz, Maricopa, and Pinal counties), one in the southern region (Pima county), and two in the eastern region (Graham and Cochise counties). We tested six to ten commercially available varieties in each test. The purpose of this report is to present the results of our 2000 tests conducted in southwestern, central and southern Arizona. Lee Clark presents results from eastern Arizona in two companion reports in this publication. The results show that many varieties performed well at several locations, indicating good adaptation to Arizona conditions. The highest yielding varieties did not always produce the most value per acre, clearly demonstrating the importance of both yield and fiber quality in determining the value of the crop. Growers should carefully weigh the costs and benefits of yield, quality, and transgenic technology when selecting varieties.
    • Short Staple Variety Trials, Graham County, 2000

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      One replicated on-farm short staple variety trial was planted in Graham County in 2000. Ten varieties were evaluated on the Larson farm in Thatcher. Several new varieties were planted in these studies, including 5 transgenic varieties, 3 varieties from Buttonwillow Research in California, and the newest acala from New Mexico. The Australian variety, FiberMax 989, produced the highest yield with 895 pounds of lint per acre. Paymaster 1560 BRR and DPL 655BRR followed close behind and were not separable statistically from the leader. Yield and other agronomic data are reported by variety along with HVI values from the lint.
    • Relative Susceptibility of Whiteflies to Danital® + Orthone® Over a 5-year Period

      Castle, S. J.; Ellsworth, P. C.; Prabhaker, N.; Toscano, N. C.; Henneberry, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA-ARS Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix; The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology & Maricopa Agricultural Center; University of California, Riverside, Department of Entomology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      As part of a program to assess differences in susceptibility to insecticides among regional populations of Bemisia tabaci, insecticide resistance monitoring was carried out at the Maricopa Agricultural Center from fall, 1995 through 1999. Monitoring efforts were concentrated on Danitol®+Orthene® following reports of control problems and documentation of resistance to this mixture in 1995. We were interested in the longer-term dynamics of resistance in light of radically altered treatment regimens beginning with the use of IGRs in 1996. Although the frequency of susceptible individuals to Danitol+Orthene tended to increase in the later years, highly resistant individuals were still present 5 years after the resistance episode of 1995. Whitefly adults collected from various insecticide treatment plots other than Danitol+Orthene were generally uniform in their responses from the time of initial whitefly infestation until defoliation. However, a dramatic shift in susceptibility occurred following a single application of Danitol+Orthene in 1997 and 1999. The increased frequency of resistant individuals following treatment suggests that any large scale return to the use of Danitol+Orthene could rapidly select for proportionally higher numbers of resistant whiteflies and perhaps reduced control in cotton fields.
    • Nematodes and Their Control in Upland Cotton

      Husman, S.; Wegener, R.; McClure, M.; Schmitt, M.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Cotton fields from 133 townships in 7 Arizona counties were surveyed for nematodes. Plant parasitic species were found in all fields sampled. Lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) were found in 33% of the samples and Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) were found in 35% of the samples. Field trials in Pinal Coiunty were conducted in 1998, 1999, and 2000 to determine the impact of nematode control on the yield of Upland cotton. Telone II® increased lint production in 20 of 24 trials.
    • Continuing Investigations in Ultra-narrow Row Cotton, Safford Agricultural Center, 2000

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      The continuing investigation in ultra-narrow row cotton production has not produced a definitive answer to whether this practice would be economically feasible in this area. Results of this season showed that planting two seed rows on a bed can produce yields in excess of those yields produced with a single seed row, where the plant populations are comparable. This configuration can be harvested with a conventional spindle picker. Plant mapping data and HVI data are shown for all treatments in this study.
    • Summary of Nitrogen Management Experiments in Irrigated Cotton

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. J.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      A series of nitrogen management experiments have been conducted over the past 11 years around the state to develop and refine fertilizer nitrogen (N) recommendations for irrigated desert cotton production. Stability analysis was used to summarize the data and to determine which of the four treatment regimes is most stable over a range of environments. Results indicate that the feedback treatment (treatment 3) was the most stable treatment for both Upland and Pima cottons and provided the best probability for a higher yield under high yielding environments. The untreated control treatment (treatment 1) was the least stable over a wide range of environments. These results further validate the ‘feedback’ approach to management of fertilizer N.
    • Cost-Effective Lygus Managment in Arizona Cotton

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Barkley, Virginia; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona, Maricopa, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Timing sprays for maximum return on investment requires sampling and counting both Lygus adults and nymphs in a minimum of 100 sweeps. Once at least 15 total Lygus and 4 nymphs per 100 sweeps are detected, sprays for Lygus should be made. This '15/4' regime should protect yields, moderate spray frequency and costs, and maximize profit. Economic thresholds are impacted by the prevailing economic conditions such as lint value and costs of control; however in this case, the relationship that maximizes returns was not changed when varying these parameters well beyond market standards. A key finding of these studies is that aside from profits, yields plateau prior to the more aggressive treatment regimes. This phenomenon, where more protective approaches result in yield reductions, occurred in all three years of study (1997, 1999, 2000). This signals the importance of optimizing inputs so that sprays are made only when indicated by sampling and once the 15/4 level is reached, but no sooner. More aggressive approaches by definition cost more money to maintain, but also have some probability of lowering yields while risking secondary pest outbreaks. The specific mechanism for this yield decline is unknown at this time. At the other end of the spectrum, delaying action beyond the 15/8 action threshold risks economic yield loss and reductions in quality, especially color grade and micronaire. While this work definitively establishes the relative importance of Lygus nymphs to yield loss and to the need for action, the conditions under which these tests were carried out are limited to in-season infestations of Lygus. Further work is necessary to better quantify change in the action levels according to plant phenology and other plant-based factors (e.g., plant population, fruit retention, plantwater status, etc.). Early season infestations may respond differently to the action levels proposed, and it is expected that later season populations of Lygus pose far less damage potential when square populations and retention are very low.
    • Cotton Aphid Biology and Honydew Production

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, L.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, fecundity, nymph development and honeydew production were studied in the laboratory. Apterous adult females produced an average of 1.7 nymphs per day and the nymphs (four instars) developed to adults in an average of 4.1 days at 26.7° C in the laboratory. Average longevity of adults was 16.1 days. More honeydew drops were produced by one-day old nymphs than three- or four-day old nymphs. Numbers of honeydew drops produced on a day to day basis were highly variable and did not show a distinct pattern of production. More honeydew drops, sugars and progeny were produced by adults at 26.7° C compared with 15.6 or 32.2° C. Increasing times of exposure of clean cotton lint to aphids and the resulting increasing amounts of honeydew sugars under laboratory and field conditions were significantly related to increasing cotton lint stickiness as measured with a thermodetector.
    • Soil Amendment Study on Long and Short Staple Cotton, Safford Agriculture Center, 2000

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Two soil amendments, Agriblend Plus and Superfloc A-836, were applied to cotton beds prior to planting at rates of 5, 10, 15 and 20 pounds per acre, incorporated and planted to short staple (DP 655BR) or long staple (HTO) cotton. The experimental plots were fertilized, irrigated and managed in a manner to produce optimal cotton yields. No statistically significant yield increases were seen from any of the treatments, even though a few interesting trends were observed. The report contains observations on plant mapping and lint quality data, in addition to yield data.
    • Effects of High Frequency Irrigation on Irrigation Uniformity III

      Martin, E. C.; Laine, G.; Sheedy, M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Data was collected for a third season to determine the effects of high frequency irrigation on irrigation uniformity in cotton production. The past two seasons indicated that high frequency irrigation worked better on sandier soils than soils containing high clay contents. Although no significant differences were found, higher yields were obtained on a site with a relatively high sand content. A field located at the Maricopa Agricultural Center was split into two treatments. Treatment 1 was irrigated at approximately 35% depletion of available water in the plant rootzone. Treatment 2 was irrigated at approximately 50% depletion in the crop rootzone. Although the yield data from Treatment 1 was higher on the average, statistically, there was no difference between the two treatments.
    • Insecticide Evaluation Studies, Safford Agricultural Center, 1999-2000

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Three studies were conducted over the two year period to explore the effectiveness of using pyrethroid insecticides only vs. rotating insecticide chemistries between the pyrethroids and organophosphates on both long and short staple cotton varieties. These same treatments were also evaluated over Bt and non-Bt varieties. In the worst case scenario, where weather conditions prevented timely application of insecticides and effectiveness of insecticides applied, long staple cotton yielded around 1/3 bale per acre after six insecticide applications. Within 200 feet of this experiment, during the same cropping season, with the same insecticides applied, DP 90B (a Bt variety) produced 3 bales per acre. Details of these studies are contained in this report.
    • Nitrogen Management Experiments For Upland and Pima Cotton, 2000

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Galadima, A.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Two field experiments were conducted in Arizona in 2000 at two locations (Maricopa and Marana). The Maricopa experiment has been conducted for nine consecutive seasons; the Marana site was initiated in 1994. The purposes of the experiments were to validate and refine nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for Upland cotton. The experiments each utilized N management tools such as pre-season soil tests for NO₃⁻-N, in-season plant tissue testing (petioles) for N fertility status, and crop monitoring to ascertain crop fruiting patterns and crop N needs. At each location, treatments varied from a conservative to a more aggressive approach of N management. Results at each location revealed a strong relationship between the crop fruit retention levels and N needs for the crop. This pattern was further reflected in final yield analysis as a response to the N fertilization regimes used. The higher, more aggressive, N application regimes did not benefit yields at any location. In 2000, fruit retention levels were good and crop vigor was not excessive. The more conservative, feedback approach to N management provided optimum yields at both locations.
    • Evaluation of a Calcium-Based Soil Conditioner in Irrigated Cotton

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      A two site evaluation of a calcium (Ca²⁺)-based soil conditioner was conducted during the 1999 cotton season. The two locations included one at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC) in Maricopa, AZ and the other was on a grower-cooperator field in Tacna, AZ. Both studies involved the use of CN-9, a Ca-nitrate solution with 9% nitrogen and 11% Ca. At MAC theCN-9 solution was sprayed over the seedbed post planting but prior to the first water-up irrigation. At the Tacna site CN-9 was applied in a sidedress application at planting. Routine plant measurements were taken throughout the duration of both studies and lint yield estimates were made at each location at the end of the season. No significant differences due to the application of CN-9 were detected in any data collected.