• 2000 Low Desert Upland Cotton Advanced Strains Testing Program

      Husman, S.; Moser, H.; Wegener, R.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Upland cotton advanced strains and commercial check comparison varieties were evaluated in replicated field studies at four locations in 2000. The test sites include Yuma, AZ., Buckeye, AZ., Maricopa, AZ., and Safford, AZ.. Nine seed companies submitted a maximum of five advanced strains entries per location. Three commercial check varieties were used at each site for comparison purposes and included DP 5415, SG 125, and STV 474.
    • Acala Cotton Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 2000

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Eighteen Acala cotton varieties were tested in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in Graham county at an elevation of 2950 feet. The highest yielding variety in this study was Hazera 195-208, an interspecific hybrid from Israel, with a yield of 1387 pounds of lint per acre. It was followed closely by two varieties from New Mexico, 1517-99 and B7514. Hazera 195-208 had the highest yield in an interspecific hybrid study and 1517-99 was the highest yielding Acala variety in the Upland cotton regional variety trial in 1999 (1). The next five varieties consisted of two interspecific hybrids from Israel, a variety from Buttonwillow Research and two advanced strains from New Mexico. Yield and other agronomic data as well as fiber quality data are contained in this paper.
    • Agronomic and Economic Evaluation of Ultra Narrow Row Cotton Production in Arizona 1999-2000

      Husman, S. H.; McCloskey, W. B.; Teegerstrom, T.; Clay, P. A.; Wegener, R. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, Tucson, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Ultra Narrow Row (UNR) and conventional (CNV) cotton production systems were compared with respect to agronomic practices, yield, fiber quality, and production costs in experiments conducted in 1999 and 2000 in central Arizona. Cotton rows were 10 and 40 inches apart in the UNR and CNV systems, respectively. In 1999, the average lint yield in the UNR system, 1334 lb/A, was significantly greater than the 1213 lb/A yield of the CNV system. Similar results were obtained in 2000 with yields of 1472 and 1439 lb/A for the UNR and CNV systems, respectively. Fiber grades of both systems were comparable with most bales receiving a grade of 21 in 1999. The average bale grades in 2000 were 11 and 21 in the UNR and CNV systems, respectively. The quality of the fiber produced in both systems was also comparable with staple and strength measurements meeting base standards in both years. However, there was a consistent difference between the UNR and CNV systems in both years with respect to micronaire. Micronaire averaged 4.5 and 4.0 in the UNR system in 1999 and 2000, respectively, and 5.0 and 4.9 in the CNV system in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Variable growing costs were $607 and $446 for the UNR system in 1999 and 2000, respectively, and $660 and $519 for the CNV system in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Harvest and post-harvest variable costs were $234 and $209 in the UNR system in 1999 and 2000, respectively, and $217 and $224 in the CNV system in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The economic data indicated that the UNR system reduced production costs and increased profitability without sacrificing lint yield or quality. However, these experiments also indicated that many production challenges such as planting and obtaining adequate plant populations, managing plant height control, and weed control need further study.
    • Arizona Upland Cotton Variety Testing Program, 2000

      Moser, H.; Hart, G.; Clark, L.; Husman, S.; Clay, P.; Zerkoune, M.; Guerena, M.; Silvertooth, J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Each year the University of Arizona conducts variety trials across the state to evaluate the performance of upland cotton varieties. These tests provide unbiased data on the performance of varieties when tested side-by-side under typical production practices. In 2000, we planted a total of ten trials, one in the southwestern region (Yuma county), six in the central region (MoHave, La Paz, Maricopa, and Pinal counties), one in the southern region (Pima county), and two in the eastern region (Graham and Cochise counties). We tested six to ten commercially available varieties in each test. The purpose of this report is to present the results of our 2000 tests conducted in southwestern, central and southern Arizona. Lee Clark presents results from eastern Arizona in two companion reports in this publication. The results show that many varieties performed well at several locations, indicating good adaptation to Arizona conditions. The highest yielding varieties did not always produce the most value per acre, clearly demonstrating the importance of both yield and fiber quality in determining the value of the crop. Growers should carefully weigh the costs and benefits of yield, quality, and transgenic technology when selecting varieties.
    • Arizona's Multi-agency Resistance Management Program for Bt Cotton: Sustaining the Susceptibility of Pink Bollworm

      Sims, Maria A.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Patin, Amanda; Carrière, Yves; Liu, Yong-Biao; Tabashnik, Bruce; Antilla, Larry; Whitlow, Mike; Silvertooth, Jeff; Department of Entomology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Arizona Cotton Research and Protection Council, Phoenix, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Bt cotton has been used in Arizona since 1996 with exceptionally positive results in terms of economic returns to growers and reductions in insecticide use in cotton. Yet, the isolation of pink bollworm highly resistant to Bt cotton from collections made in Arizona in 1997 demonstrated the seriousness of the threat that resistance poses to transgenic Bt technology. For this reason unparalleled measures have been taken to detect and manage resistance of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in Arizona. This paper presents results of statewide monitoring of pink bollworm susceptibility to the Bt toxin, Cry1Ac, conducted from 1997 to 1999. Mean susceptibility of Arizona pink bollworm to Cry1Ac increased from 1997 to 1999. Mean corrected mortality in 1μg/ml Cry1Ac assays was 52.3% in 1997, 90.6% in 1998, and 97.9% in 1999. Mean corrected mortality in bioassays of 10 μg/ml was 94.5% in 1997, 99.8% in 1998, and 100% in 1999. Selection with Cry1Ac in the laboratory has produced from 1997 field collections a strain possessing 200 to 900-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. This resistant strain is capable of surviving on Bt cotton. We provide an overview of other components of the multi-agency collaboration to sustain efficacy of Bt cotton in Arizona. These include: 1) evaluation of the field performance of Bt cotton; 2) mapping and analysis of use of Bt and non-Bt cotton and compliance with refuge requirements; 3) effectiveness of internal versus external refuges and movement of pink bollworm moths from refuges; and 4) activities of the Arizona Bt Cotton Working Group to formulate and implement effective resistance management strategies.
    • Bollgard® and Bollgard II® Efficacy in Near Isogenic Lines of 'DP50' Upland Cotton in Arizona

      Marchosky, Ruben; Ellsworth, Peter C.; Moser, Hal; Henneberry, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Maricopa, AZ; USDA-ARS, WCRL, Phoenix, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      The Cry1Ac gene (Bollgard®) is available in cotton either alone ('B') or in combination (Bollgard II®) with a second gene, Cry2Ab ('X'). We evaluated these two different transgenes, separately and together, in near isogenic lines of the upland cotton variety ‘DP50’. DP50B was previously transformed with the Cry2Ab gene to give rise to the experimental line 985BX which was then back-crossed to DP50 to produce near isogenic single gene variants, 985B and 985X. The lepidopteran target was pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), which was evaluated in two field studies through a series of samples from artificially and naturally-infested bolls. In one study (NTO), three cotton lines (DP50, DP50B, 985BX) were evaluated under three spray regimes. In the second study (Isoline), five near isogenic lines (DP50, DP50B, 985B, 985X, 985BX) were evaluated under two spray regimes: fully sprayed and lepidopteran unsprayed. In lines containing only one transgene, Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab, bolls had consistently fewer PBWs than the non-Bt variety. Very few PBWs developed into large (3rd instar) larvae in these Bt varieties. The majority (NTO: 83%; Isoline: 94%) of PBWs recovered were dead first instar larvae. Less than 5% of the DP50B bolls in the NTO study were infested with feral large (≥3rd instar) larvae, and large larvae were present in less than 2% of naturally-infested bolls of single-gene lines in the Isoline study. PBW age and mortality distributions confirmed that the single transgenes were effective in stopping PBW development and killing young instars. Cry2Ab displayed a broader spectrum of efficacy as it was significantly more effective against citrus peelminer (Marmara spp.), an incidental lepidopteran present in high densities in the tests. The two-gene (Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab) line showed better (at least 10-fold) efficacy than the single-gene lines against PBW large larvae infestation. The PBW age distributions found in this variety consisted almost entirely (98%) of dead first instar larvae. Less than 0.6% of the bolls of the two-gene variety in the NTO study were infested with large (≥3rd instar) larvae, and there was no infestation by large larvae in any of the naturally-infested bolls in the Isoline study. Yields and other agronomic parameters of the two-gene and single-gene varieties were superior or similar to the null parent. Second pick yields of all Bt varieties were significantly higher than the recurrent parent non-Bt line, suggesting a high degree of efficacy against typically high PBW densities during the late season. Cotton lines with transgenes (Cry1Ac & Cry2Ab) separately and combined demonstrated a high degree of efficacy and agronomic performance for usage in Arizona against PBW. The ramifications of isogenic comparisons of PBW incidence on efficacy and resistance monitoring are discussed.
    • Continuing Investigations in Ultra-narrow Row Cotton, Safford Agricultural Center, 2000

      Clark, L. J.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      The continuing investigation in ultra-narrow row cotton production has not produced a definitive answer to whether this practice would be economically feasible in this area. Results of this season showed that planting two seed rows on a bed can produce yields in excess of those yields produced with a single seed row, where the plant populations are comparable. This configuration can be harvested with a conventional spindle picker. Plant mapping data and HVI data are shown for all treatments in this study.
    • Cost-Effective Lygus Managment in Arizona Cotton

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Barkley, Virginia; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona, Maricopa, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Timing sprays for maximum return on investment requires sampling and counting both Lygus adults and nymphs in a minimum of 100 sweeps. Once at least 15 total Lygus and 4 nymphs per 100 sweeps are detected, sprays for Lygus should be made. This '15/4' regime should protect yields, moderate spray frequency and costs, and maximize profit. Economic thresholds are impacted by the prevailing economic conditions such as lint value and costs of control; however in this case, the relationship that maximizes returns was not changed when varying these parameters well beyond market standards. A key finding of these studies is that aside from profits, yields plateau prior to the more aggressive treatment regimes. This phenomenon, where more protective approaches result in yield reductions, occurred in all three years of study (1997, 1999, 2000). This signals the importance of optimizing inputs so that sprays are made only when indicated by sampling and once the 15/4 level is reached, but no sooner. More aggressive approaches by definition cost more money to maintain, but also have some probability of lowering yields while risking secondary pest outbreaks. The specific mechanism for this yield decline is unknown at this time. At the other end of the spectrum, delaying action beyond the 15/8 action threshold risks economic yield loss and reductions in quality, especially color grade and micronaire. While this work definitively establishes the relative importance of Lygus nymphs to yield loss and to the need for action, the conditions under which these tests were carried out are limited to in-season infestations of Lygus. Further work is necessary to better quantify change in the action levels according to plant phenology and other plant-based factors (e.g., plant population, fruit retention, plantwater status, etc.). Early season infestations may respond differently to the action levels proposed, and it is expected that later season populations of Lygus pose far less damage potential when square populations and retention are very low.
    • Cotton Aphid Biology and Honydew Production

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, L.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA-ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, fecundity, nymph development and honeydew production were studied in the laboratory. Apterous adult females produced an average of 1.7 nymphs per day and the nymphs (four instars) developed to adults in an average of 4.1 days at 26.7° C in the laboratory. Average longevity of adults was 16.1 days. More honeydew drops were produced by one-day old nymphs than three- or four-day old nymphs. Numbers of honeydew drops produced on a day to day basis were highly variable and did not show a distinct pattern of production. More honeydew drops, sugars and progeny were produced by adults at 26.7° C compared with 15.6 or 32.2° C. Increasing times of exposure of clean cotton lint to aphids and the resulting increasing amounts of honeydew sugars under laboratory and field conditions were significantly related to increasing cotton lint stickiness as measured with a thermodetector.
    • Cotton IPM in Arizona: A Decade of Research, Implemention & Education

      Ellsworth, Peter C.; Jones, Jennifer S.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona, Maricopa, AZ (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Cotton production in Arizona has been faced with major challenges in insect control during the past decade. These challenges have been met through IPM programs of research, implementation, and education. The decade began (1990) with an outbreak of our key lepidopteran pest, the pink bollworm. Growers sprayed for all pests more than 11 times at a cost of over $113 / A that year. The following years (1991–1995) saw the introduction of and devastation by a serious, quality-reducing insect, the sweetpotato or silverleaf whitefly. Growers sprayed up to 6.6 times (1995) at a cost of over $145 / A to combat this single insect pest. The cotton IPM program at the University of Arizona along with industry, grower, and USDA partners readied farmers for the introduction (1996) of two strategic sets of pest control technology, ‘Bt’ transgenic cotton and insect growth regulators (IGR). Through an aggressive educational campaign, growers learned about the safe, effective, and sustainable use of these technologies. As a result, cotton growers saw their average spray requirement plummet from 12.5 sprays at $217 / A (1995) to an historic low of 1.91 sprays at $37 / A (1999). Now new threats from an old pest, Lygus bugs, pose serious challenges to these staggering advances in cotton IPM. This paper highlights the key advances made in research, implementation, and education during this volatile decade. Furthermore, we conclude with one example how systematic, large-scale, and long-term research can provide insight into the role that new technology and the knowledge to use it properly have on cotton grower and industry success.
    • Defoliation of Pima and Upland Cotton at the Safford Agricultural Center, 2000

      Clark, L. J.; Coleman, R. D.; Carpenter, E. W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Nine defoliation treatments based on defoliating agents that are in use in the area plus two additives (compounds A, B) were applied to Pima and Upland cotton to compare the treatment effects on percent leaf drop and yields. All of the treatments were beneficial to leaf drop compared to the untreated check with the Ginstar treatments generally performing better than the chlorate. One of the additives enhanced the early defoliation effectiveness of chlorate, the other additive enhanced the effectiveness of Ginstar throughout the defoliation process. More studies will be needed before recommendations can be made.
    • Effects of High Frequency Irrigation on Irrigation Uniformity III

      Martin, E. C.; Laine, G.; Sheedy, M.; Silvertooth, Jeff; University of Arizona, Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Data was collected for a third season to determine the effects of high frequency irrigation on irrigation uniformity in cotton production. The past two seasons indicated that high frequency irrigation worked better on sandier soils than soils containing high clay contents. Although no significant differences were found, higher yields were obtained on a site with a relatively high sand content. A field located at the Maricopa Agricultural Center was split into two treatments. Treatment 1 was irrigated at approximately 35% depletion of available water in the plant rootzone. Treatment 2 was irrigated at approximately 50% depletion in the crop rootzone. Although the yield data from Treatment 1 was higher on the average, statistically, there was no difference between the two treatments.
    • Evaluation of a Calcium-Based Soil Conditioner in Irrigated Cotton

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      A two site evaluation of a calcium (Ca²⁺)-based soil conditioner was conducted during the 1999 cotton season. The two locations included one at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC) in Maricopa, AZ and the other was on a grower-cooperator field in Tacna, AZ. Both studies involved the use of CN-9, a Ca-nitrate solution with 9% nitrogen and 11% Ca. At MAC theCN-9 solution was sprayed over the seedbed post planting but prior to the first water-up irrigation. At the Tacna site CN-9 was applied in a sidedress application at planting. Routine plant measurements were taken throughout the duration of both studies and lint yield estimates were made at each location at the end of the season. No significant differences due to the application of CN-9 were detected in any data collected.
    • Evaluation of a Drip Vs. Furrow Irrigated Cotton Production System

      Norton, E. R.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      A newly installed subsurface drip system was compared to a conventional furrow-irrigated cotton production system in the Marana Valley in 2000. Regular measurements included soil moisture, flower tagging, general plant growth and development measurements, and lint yield. Results indicate that an increase in lint yield of approximately 250 lbs. lint/acre was obtained under the drip irrigation system. Approximately 1/3 less irrigation water was used under the drip irrigation system. Pounds of lint produced per acre-inch of water applied provide the most dramatic results. In the furrow-irrigated system approximately 25 lbs. of lint was produced per inch of water applied while the drip system ranged from 70-80.
    • Evaluation of Crop Management Effects on Fiber Micronaire, 2000

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Galadima, A.; Norton, E. R.; Tronstad, R.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Arizona has experienced a trend toward increasing fiber micronaire values in recent years resulting in substantial discounts on fiber value. There is some evidence to suggest management can impact fiber micronaire. Approximately 250 cases were identified in cotton production areas in Arizona ranging from the lower Colorado River Valley to near 2,000 ft. elevation with grower cooperators in the 2000 season. Field records were developed for each field by use of the University of Arizona Cotton Monitoring System (UA-CMS) for points such as variety, planting date, fertility management, irrigation schedules, irrigation termination, defoliation, etc. Routine plant measurements were conducted to monitor crop growth and development and to identify fruiting patterns and retention through the season. As the crop has approached cutout and the lower bolls began to open, open boll samples have been collected from the lowest four, first position bolls (theoretically the bolls with the highest micronaire potential on the plant) from 10 plants, ginned, and the fiber analyzed for micronaire (low 4). From that point forward, total boll counts per unit area and percent open boll measurements are being made on 14-day intervals until the crop is defoliated. Following defoliation, final plant maps were performed. Relationships among low 4 samples micronaire, irrigation termination (IT), defoliation, and final crop micronaire were analyzed.
    • Evaluation of Irrigation Termination Effects on Fiber Micronaire and Yield of Upland Cotton, 2000

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Galadima, A.; Norton, E. R.; Moser, H.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Arizona has experienced a trend toward increasing fiber micronaire values in recent years resulting in substantial discounts on fiber value. There is some evidence to suggest that irrigation termination management can impact fiber micronaire. A single field study was conducted in 2000 at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (1,175ft. elevation) to evaluate the effects of three dates of irrigation termination on the yield of 13 Upland cotton varieties. Planting date was 6 April (668 HU/Jan 1 86/55° F thresholds). Three dates of irrigation termination (IT1, IT2, and IT3) were imposed based upon crop development into cutout. The earliest irrigation termination date, IT1 (24 July) was made slightly ahead of an optimum date to provide sufficient soil-water such that bolls set at the end of the first fruiting cycle would not be water stressed and could be fully matured. Thus, the IT1 date was imposed to try to reduce overall micronaire. The second termination (IT2) date was 17 August, and provided one additional irrigation over an optimal point for the first cycle fruit set and two irrigations beyond IT1. The final (IT3) date was 15 September, which was staged so that soil moisture would be sufficient for the development of bolls set up through the last week of September thus providing full top-crop potential. Lint yield and micronaire results revealed significant differences among the IT treatments. Micronaire and lint yield values increased with later IT dates.
    • Evaluation of Narrow and Ultra Narrow Cotton in Arizona

      Clay, P. A.; McCloskey, W. B.; Husman, S. H.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      A field experiment was conducted in 2000 to evaluate narrow (30") and ultra narrow (10") row spacing cotton production systems. The study was conducted at a commercial farm located near Buckeye, AZ. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The treatments included 10" row spacings that were harvested with a finger stripper, 30" row spacings harvested with a brush stripper, and 30" row spacings harvested with a spindle picker. Plant growth and development was not affected by row spacing throughout the growing season. No significant difference was observed for lint yield however, gin turnout was slightly lower for stripper harvested treatments. Fiber quality measurements were similar for both row spacing with the exception of fiber micronaire which was lower in stripper harvested treatments. Bark was a major problem with stripper harvested treatments with at least 92% of bales receiving a discount compared with 36% of spindle harvested bales.
    • Evaluation of Potassium and Phosphorus Fertility in Arizona Soils

      Silvertooth, J. C.; Norton, E. R.; Galadima, A.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Two field experiments were conducted during the 2000 growing season to address fertility recommendations for fertilizer phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A K fertility study was conducted near Tonopah, AZ consisting of two treatments, an untreated control and a treatment receiving a total of 20 gallons of K-Sul/acre. No significant differences were observed in leaf blade K concentrations between treatments. Plant growth and development estimates revealed that fruit retention (FR) levels remained consistently higher in the untreated control versus the treated plots. A second study involved treatments consisting of both P and K fertilizers was conducted near Cibola, AZ. Four treatments in this experiment included an untreated control plus treatments of 11-52-0, 0-0-60, and 4-17-40 at 100, 200, and 300 lbs. fertilizer/acre respectively. Plant growth and development estimates were similar among treatments during the season. At the end of the season the untreated control had a slightly higher FR level than the other treatments, which also produced a significantly higher yield. No other differences in yield among the fertilized treatments were observed.
    • Heat Stress and Cotton Yields in Arizona

      Brown, Paul W.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      Yield of upland cotton was related to heat stress in Yuma, LaPaz, Maricopa, and Pinal Counties for the period 1987-1999. Heat stress during the primary fruiting cycle was assessed using heat stress units (HSU) which were derived from mean daily canopy temperatures computed using a canopy temperature model and local AZMET weather data. Mean lint yields were computed for years with low, intermediate and high levels of HSU. Yields in years with low levels of heat stress were always significantly greater than yields in years with high levels of heat stress. Differences in yield between high and low heat stress years ranged from 100 lb/a in Maricopa County to 254 lb/a in Yuma County and averaged 166 lb/a across all counties. Differences in yield between the low and intermediate stress years, and intermediate and high stress years averaged 86 and 80 lb/a, respectively across all counties; however, these differences were not always significant in individual counties.
    • Honeydew Production by Sweetpotato Whitefly Adults and Nymphs

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, L.; de la Torre, T.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA, ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory Phoenix, AZ 85040-8803 (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2001)
      We determined honeydew production by male and female sweetpotato whiteflies and the effects of temperature on honeydew production of each sex. We also determined honeydew production by each nymphal instar. Overall, adult SPW produced more honeydew than nymphs. Adult females produced more honeydew than males. The relative differences between honeydew production for males and females and between amounts adults produced compared with nymphs were consistent. However, honeydew production by adult and nymph individuals was subject to large degrees of variation.