Arizona Russian Wheat Aphid Survey and Beneficial Release Report, 1990
KeywordsAgriculture -- Arizona
Grain -- Arizona
Forage plants -- Arizona
Barley -- Arizona
Durum -- Arizona
Wheat -- Arizona
Barley -- Russian wheat aphid
Durum -- Russian wheat aphid
Wheat -- Russian wheat aphid
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AbstractDuring 1990 the emphasis on surveying was placed in the southeastern corner of the state, where damage was found to be most severe in previous years. Estimates of the incidence of and damage caused by the Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) were made for the entire state. These estimates indicate that small grain producers in the state lost $212,000 due to this pest in 1990.
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Russian Wheat Aphid Survey in Southeastern Arizona, 1990Clark, Lee J.; Ottman, Michael (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1991-09)Fifteen small grain fields, including eight wheat fields, two barley fields and five oat fields, throughout the grain growing areas of Graham, Greenlee and Cochise counties were surveyed weekly from the third week in March through the second week in June, to document the presence of Russian wheat aphid (RWA), other aphid, parasites and predators. RWA were found in all three counties and in all three grains. Presence of RWA caused chemical pest control applications in approximately 19%, 33% and 90% of the small grain fields in Graham, Greenlee and Cochise counties, respectively. Thirty three percent of the fields had beneficial parasites and predators were found 93% of the fields. Presence of parasites reduced the RWA populations in 80% of the cases and presence of predators had a dramatic effect on other aphids and was felt to be beneficial in controlling RWA.
Late Season Water and Nitrogen Effects on Durum Quality, 1995 (Final)Ottman, M. J.; Doerge, T. A.; Martin, E. C.; Ottman, Michael (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-10)Durum grain quality is affected by many factors, but water and nitrogen are factors that the grower can control. The purpose of this research was to determine 1) the nitrogen application rate required at pollen shed to maintain adequate grain protein levels if irrigation is excessive or deficient during grain fill and 2) if nitrogen applications during grain fill can elevate grain protein. Field research was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center using the durum varieties Duraking, Minos, and Turbo. The field was treated uniformly until pollen shed when nitrogen was applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 lbs/acre. During grain fill, the plots were irrigated based on 30, 50, or 70% moisture depletion. In a separate experiment, nitrogen fertilizer was applied at a rate of 30 lbs N/acre at pollen shed only, pollen shed and the first irrigation after pollen shed, and pollen shed and the first and second irrigation after pollen shed. Irrigation had no effect on grain protein level, although increasing nitrogen rates at pollen shed from 0 to 30 and 30 to 60 lbs N/acre increased protein by 1 percentage point. Nitrogen fertilizer application at the first irrigation after pollen shed increased grain protein content from 10.4 to 11.4% and application at the first and second irrigation after pollen shed increased grain protein content further to 11.9% averaged over varieties. Irrigation management during grain fill may not play as large a role in controlling grain protein content as was originally thought except perhaps on heavy soils, and nitrogen fertilizer application during grain fill may not be too late to increase grain protein content.