Mechanisms of malignant transformation of human urothelial cells by monomethylarsonous acid
AuthorWnek, Shawn Michael
AdvisorGandolfi, A. Jay
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractSources of arsenic exposure include air, water, and food from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic is categorized as a human carcinogen, and is associated with pleiotropic toxicities including cancers of the skin, lung, and bladder. Despite arsenic's long recognition as a human carcinogen, the exact mechanisms of arsenical-induced carcinogenesis are unknown. Arsenic exposure has been shown to cause DNA damage. However, because arsenic does not directly react with DNA, genotoxicity is generally considered to result from indirect mechanisms. The generation of arsenical-induced reactive oxygen species and the inhibition of critical DNA repair systems are believed to contribute to arsenical-induced carcinogenicity. The DNA damaging effects of arsenical exposure and alterations in DNA repair processes were examined within the human bladder urothelial cell line, UROtsa, following continuous exposure to the arsenic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)]. Chronic, low-level MMA(III) exposure results in the induction of DNA damage that remains elevated following the removal of MMA(III). Furthermore, data presented herein, defines the critical period in which continuous low-level MMA(III) exposure causes the malignant transformation of the UROtsa cell line. Results indicate that malignant transformation of UROtsa cells is irreversible following 12 wk of low-level MMA(III) exposure. Assessment of the MMA(III)-induced biological alterations leading to the malignant transformation of UROtsa cells following 12 wk of exposure suggest two potential interdependent mechanisms in which MMA(III) may increase the susceptibility of UROtsa cells to genotoxic insult and/or malignant transformation. These mechanisms include MMA(III)-induced DNA damage via the production of reactive oxygen species and the MMA(III)-induced inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 as a result of the direct MMA(III)-mediated displacement of zinc.
Degree ProgramGraduate College
Pharmacology & Toxicology