KeywordsAgriculture -- Arizona
Grain -- Arizona
Forage plants -- Arizona
Barley -- Arizona
Wheat -- Arizona
Barley -- Fertilizer management
Wheat -- Fertilizer management
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AbstractDurum grain quality is affected by many factors, but water and nitrogen are factors that the grower can control. The purpose of this research was to determine 1) the nitrogen application rate required at pollen shed to maintain adequate grain protein levels if irrigation is excessive or deficient during grain fill and 2) if nitrogen applications during grain fill can elevate grain protein. Field research was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center using the durum varieties Duraking, Minos, and Turbo. The field was treated uniformly until pollen shed when nitrogen was applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 lbs /acre. During grain fill, the plots were irrigated based on 30, 50, or 70% moisture depletion. In a separate experiment, nitrogen fertilizer was applied at a rate of 30 lbs N /acre at pollen shed only, pollen shed and the first irrigation after pollen shed, and pollen shed and the first and second irrigation after pollen shed. Increased irrigation frequency during grain fill decreased HVAC from 93 to 81%. Increasing nitrogen rate at pollen shed from 0 to 30 and 30 to 60 lbs N /acre increased protein from 11.6 to 12.5% and 12.5 to 13.3% and increased HVAC from 79 to 89% and 89 to 94 %. Nitrogen fertilizer application at the first irrigation after pollen shed increased grain protein content from 12.9 to 13.6% and application at the first and second irrigation after pollen shed increased grain protein content further to 14.1% averaged over varieties. Nitrogen fertilizer application during grain fill may not be too late to increase grain protein content.
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The ethnobotany and phenology of plants in and adjacent to two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona.Asdall, Willard Van; Adams, Karen Rogers.; Mason, Charles T.; Martin, Paul S.; Davis, Owen K.; Turner, Raymond M. (The University of Arizona., 1988)Two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona provide the setting for a study of 127 plants useful to human foragers. A view of plant part availability is based on annual phenological profiles, and on historic and prehistoric records of plant use. Food choice is limited in March and April, but high August through November. Riparian plants also offer numerous non-food resources. Trees and shrubs serve more needs in relation to number of available species than do perennial herbs (including grasses) and annuals. Southwestern ethnographic literature hints that certain native taxa (Panicum, Physalis, Populus, Salix, Typha and Vitis) might receive special care. Inherent qualities of parts, coupled with ethnographic records of preparation and use, provide a basis for speculation on which parts might survive in an ancient record. Most are expected to disintegrate in open sites. Parts sought for different needs can enter a dwelling via diverse routes that produce confusingly similar archaeological debris. Modern experiments to wash pollen from 14 separate harvests permit evaluation of plant fruit and leaves as pollen traps, to help interpret pollen recovered from ancient dwellings. High amounts of Berberis, Rumex and Ribes pollen, sometimes in clumps or as tetrads, travel on harvested fruit. Arctostaphylos, Monarda, Oxalis, Rhus, Rhamnus, Vitis and Juniperus parts carry lower amounts. Quercus and Gramineae pollen grains travel on parts of other taxa, as well as on their own fruit. The phenological profiles offer insight into group life-form activities in response to local temperature and precipitation trends. Rising and maximum temperatures coincide with intense vegetative and reproductive activity for trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Increased levels of precipitation coincide with maximum flowering and fruiting of herbaceous perennials and fall annuals. Limited data on six taxa from Utah generally agrees with observations in this study, suggesting strong genetic control in the phenology of some riparian taxa.
A recursive programming analysis of water conservation in Arizona agriculture : a study of the Phoenix active management areaLierman, Wally Kent.; Wade, James C.; Ayer, Harry W.; Cory, Dennis (The University of Arizona., 1983)Arizona agriculture faces many changes in the near future. One of the most imminent changes will come from the enactment of the 1980 Arizona Groundwater Management Act. The 1980 AGWMA is designed ultimately to curtail the use of groundwater in Arizona. Agriculture will be affected since this sector used approximately 87 percent of all water in the State in 1980. This study reports on the possible effects that a proposed pump tax and water duty policy would have on agriculture within the Phoenix Active Management Area. The PAMA is one of four such areas in the State that have been identified as needing groundwater use management. The results of this study indicate that the proposed water duty is more effective in curbing groundwater use than the proposed pump tax. Investment in more water application efficient irrigation technologies is also important in this study. However, substantial amounts of capital investment funds will be needed to begin this investment.