AuthorOttman, M. J.
KeywordsAgriculture -- Arizona
Grain -- Arizona
Forage plants -- Arizona
Barley -- Arizona
Wheat -- Arizona
Barley -- Fertilizer management
Wheat -- Fertilizer management
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AbstractNitrate content of the lower stem tissue of small grains is used as a guideline for nitrogen fertilization. The turnaround time for nitrate analysis in a commercial lab is usually 1 to 3 days. Nitrate quick tests have been suggested as a means of obtaining results on a more timely basis. The quick tests analyze nitrate in the sap or juice squeezed out of the tissue. A nitrate test conducted by a commercial lab is performed on the dried and ground tissue. In this study, I found that the quick tests on plant sap are not as accurate as conventional tests on dried tissue since the moisture content of the fresh plant tissue varies depending on its nitrate content and the growth stage of the plant. We compared the following quick test methods: nitrate test strips, a colorimetric procedure, and a hand held nitrate electrode. Nitrate test strips were not sensitive enough to be useful and were difficult to compare to the color charts. An electronic strip reader could alleviate this difficulty and make the strips a viable option. Colorimetric procedures, or those that rely on nitrate producing a colored solution with certain chemicals added, are not adapted to analyzing plant sap since the green color and organics in the sap interfer with the color produced by the nitrate. The hand held nitrate electrode, or Cardi meter, was the simplest and most accurate method we experimented tested. Quick tests for nitrate in the sap have the following disadvantages: 1) It is not easy to squeeze the sap out of the plant tissue, 2) The sap needs to be diluted to fit into the analytical range of the test, and 3) The moisture content of the tissue needs to be accounted for somehow for the results to be most accurate.
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A recursive programming analysis of water conservation in Arizona agriculture : a study of the Phoenix active management areaLierman, Wally Kent. (The University of Arizona., 1983)Arizona agriculture faces many changes in the near future. One of the most imminent changes will come from the enactment of the 1980 Arizona Groundwater Management Act. The 1980 AGWMA is designed ultimately to curtail the use of groundwater in Arizona. Agriculture will be affected since this sector used approximately 87 percent of all water in the State in 1980. This study reports on the possible effects that a proposed pump tax and water duty policy would have on agriculture within the Phoenix Active Management Area. The PAMA is one of four such areas in the State that have been identified as needing groundwater use management. The results of this study indicate that the proposed water duty is more effective in curbing groundwater use than the proposed pump tax. Investment in more water application efficient irrigation technologies is also important in this study. However, substantial amounts of capital investment funds will be needed to begin this investment.
The ethnobotany and phenology of plants in and adjacent to two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona.Adams, Karen Rogers. (The University of Arizona., 1988)Two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona provide the setting for a study of 127 plants useful to human foragers. A view of plant part availability is based on annual phenological profiles, and on historic and prehistoric records of plant use. Food choice is limited in March and April, but high August through November. Riparian plants also offer numerous non-food resources. Trees and shrubs serve more needs in relation to number of available species than do perennial herbs (including grasses) and annuals. Southwestern ethnographic literature hints that certain native taxa (Panicum, Physalis, Populus, Salix, Typha and Vitis) might receive special care. Inherent qualities of parts, coupled with ethnographic records of preparation and use, provide a basis for speculation on which parts might survive in an ancient record. Most are expected to disintegrate in open sites. Parts sought for different needs can enter a dwelling via diverse routes that produce confusingly similar archaeological debris. Modern experiments to wash pollen from 14 separate harvests permit evaluation of plant fruit and leaves as pollen traps, to help interpret pollen recovered from ancient dwellings. High amounts of Berberis, Rumex and Ribes pollen, sometimes in clumps or as tetrads, travel on harvested fruit. Arctostaphylos, Monarda, Oxalis, Rhus, Rhamnus, Vitis and Juniperus parts carry lower amounts. Quercus and Gramineae pollen grains travel on parts of other taxa, as well as on their own fruit. The phenological profiles offer insight into group life-form activities in response to local temperature and precipitation trends. Rising and maximum temperatures coincide with intense vegetative and reproductive activity for trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Increased levels of precipitation coincide with maximum flowering and fruiting of herbaceous perennials and fall annuals. Limited data on six taxa from Utah generally agrees with observations in this study, suggesting strong genetic control in the phenology of some riparian taxa.