The Diet Study in Lactating Women: A Mediterranean-Style Diet Intervention and its Effects on Postpartum Weight Loss, Body Composition and Select Biomarkers of Inflammation
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractObesity-related diseases account for the majority of morbidity and mortality in U.S. adults. An estimated 4 million women in the United States deliver an infant annually, of which approximately 34% are overweight/obese prior to pregnancy. More than 30% of these women gain weight that exceeds the IOM’s recommendations; increasing their risk of postpartum weight retention and possibly increasing their risk of greater weight gain and retention over time. This research sought to test the efficacy of a traditional MED diet for 4-months on weight loss/control and biomarkers of inflammation in breastfeeding women compared to women randomized to the USDA’s MyPyramid diet for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding (control diet). At baseline, the women (N=129) were 29.7±4.6 years, overweight (BMI: 27.2±4.9 kg/m2), and primarily non-Hispanic white (75.2%). The majority of women were exclusively breastfeeding (73.6%) and a mean 17.5 weeks postpartum. Adherence to the MED diet was evaluated via calculation of the MED diet score from validated FFQs administered pre- and post- the diet intervention. Anthropometric measurements (body weight, body fat, and waist and hip circumference) and biosamples (blood, urine, and breast milk) were collected at baseline and 4-months (diet completion). Biomarkers of inflammation (IL-6 and TNF-α) were assessed via standard ELISA kits. The MED diet score was increased by 0.68±2.74 and 0.27±1.57 for the MED and control group, respectively. Increases in fish and dairy intake and a decrease in meat/poultry intake were significantly different between diet groups (P<0.05). Participants in both diet groups demonstrated significant (P=0.002) reductions in all anthropometric measurements; no significant between group differences were shown. A significant decrease in TNF-α, but not IL-6, was demonstrated in both diet groups. There were no significant between group differences. Both the MED diet and the USDA’s MyPyramid diet were effective in reducing anthropometric measurements and inflammation in postpartum breastfeeding women.
Degree ProgramGraduate College