KeywordsAgriculture -- Arizona
Grain -- Arizona
Forage plants -- Arizona
Barley -- Arizona
Wheat -- Arizona
Barley -- Durum production practices
Wheat -- Durum production practices
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AbstractDurum growers were surveyed in cooperation with the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service to determine production practices and their effects on yield and protein in the 2006 growing season. The survey was conducted in three regions: West (Yuma and La Paz counties), Central (Maricopa, Pinal, and Pima counties), and East (Cochise and Graham counties). Most of the durum in Arizona is grown in these three regions. We obtained responses from 83 out of an estimated 166 durum growers (50%) representing 46,331 out of 79,000 acres (59%). Durum was grown following cotton (41%), vegetables (27%), lettuce (16%), or other crops. The major varieties were Orita (30%), Kronos (25%), Ocotillo (16%), and Sky (11%). Herbicide was applied on 64% of the acreage. Flood irrigation systems accounted for 69% of the acreage, followed by furrow (17%). The crop was irrigated 6-7 times on average. The predominant soil texture was a sandy clay loam (36%), followed by sandy loam (35%) and clay loam (12%). The average planting date (germination irrigation applied) was December 21 in the Central region, January 4 in the West region and February 7 in the East region. The seed was planted at an average rate of 165 lbs/acre. Phosphorus was applied to only a third of the acreage, but when it was applied, the rate averaged 71 lbs P2O5/acre. Nitrogen rate averaged 224 lbs N/acre. Increased yield was associated with amendment application in the West region; certain varieties, amendment application, seeding rate between 120 and 159 lbs/acre, and nitrogen rate over 200 lbs N/acre in the Central region; and a seeding rate between 140 and 159 lbs/acre in the East region. Increased grain protein was associated with a previous crop of lettuce, lack of phosphorus application, and irrigation number in the West region; and a seeding rate of 140 to 159 lbs/acre and lack of phosphorus application in the East region. This survey documents associations, not cause-and-effect relationships, among durum production practices, yield, and protein.
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The ethnobotany and phenology of plants in and adjacent to two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona.Asdall, Willard Van; Adams, Karen Rogers.; Mason, Charles T.; Martin, Paul S.; Davis, Owen K.; Turner, Raymond M. (The University of Arizona., 1988)Two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona provide the setting for a study of 127 plants useful to human foragers. A view of plant part availability is based on annual phenological profiles, and on historic and prehistoric records of plant use. Food choice is limited in March and April, but high August through November. Riparian plants also offer numerous non-food resources. Trees and shrubs serve more needs in relation to number of available species than do perennial herbs (including grasses) and annuals. Southwestern ethnographic literature hints that certain native taxa (Panicum, Physalis, Populus, Salix, Typha and Vitis) might receive special care. Inherent qualities of parts, coupled with ethnographic records of preparation and use, provide a basis for speculation on which parts might survive in an ancient record. Most are expected to disintegrate in open sites. Parts sought for different needs can enter a dwelling via diverse routes that produce confusingly similar archaeological debris. Modern experiments to wash pollen from 14 separate harvests permit evaluation of plant fruit and leaves as pollen traps, to help interpret pollen recovered from ancient dwellings. High amounts of Berberis, Rumex and Ribes pollen, sometimes in clumps or as tetrads, travel on harvested fruit. Arctostaphylos, Monarda, Oxalis, Rhus, Rhamnus, Vitis and Juniperus parts carry lower amounts. Quercus and Gramineae pollen grains travel on parts of other taxa, as well as on their own fruit. The phenological profiles offer insight into group life-form activities in response to local temperature and precipitation trends. Rising and maximum temperatures coincide with intense vegetative and reproductive activity for trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Increased levels of precipitation coincide with maximum flowering and fruiting of herbaceous perennials and fall annuals. Limited data on six taxa from Utah generally agrees with observations in this study, suggesting strong genetic control in the phenology of some riparian taxa.
A recursive programming analysis of water conservation in Arizona agriculture : a study of the Phoenix active management areaLierman, Wally Kent.; Wade, James C.; Ayer, Harry W.; Cory, Dennis (The University of Arizona., 1983)Arizona agriculture faces many changes in the near future. One of the most imminent changes will come from the enactment of the 1980 Arizona Groundwater Management Act. The 1980 AGWMA is designed ultimately to curtail the use of groundwater in Arizona. Agriculture will be affected since this sector used approximately 87 percent of all water in the State in 1980. This study reports on the possible effects that a proposed pump tax and water duty policy would have on agriculture within the Phoenix Active Management Area. The PAMA is one of four such areas in the State that have been identified as needing groundwater use management. The results of this study indicate that the proposed water duty is more effective in curbing groundwater use than the proposed pump tax. Investment in more water application efficient irrigation technologies is also important in this study. However, substantial amounts of capital investment funds will be needed to begin this investment.