KeywordsAgriculture -- Arizona
Grain -- Arizona
Forage plants -- Arizona
Sorghum -- Arizona
Corn -- Arizona
Sorghum -- Wind barriers
Corn -- Wind barriers
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AbstractHerbaceous wind barriers are tall grasses or other non-woody plants established in narrow strips spaced across the field perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. They are used on cropland to protect soils and crops from damaging effects of wind and wind-borne soil particles. They should also provide food and cover for wildlife. In Arizona, there is a need to identify herbaceous plants, commonly used for crops, which are effective in controlling soil erosion caused by wind on cropland. This trial was conducted at the Tucson Plant Materials Center and is composed of three hybrid grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. bicolor) types (‘SG-677’, ‘DS9300’, and ‘KS-735’), one forage sorghum (‘NK300’), one silage corn (Zea mays L.) type (‘N91-19’), and two grain corn types (‘Mexican June’ & ‘DX-93’). All sorghum types had good height, excellent retention of upright foliage, and excellent second year sprouting. It is apparent that sorghum can be a multi-year herbaceous wind barrier and when established will require minimal amounts of irrigation water to keep it growing and functioning as a multi-year herbaceous wind barrier. The two best performers for the sorghum varieties are ‘KS-735’ and ‘SG-677’. This information can be applied to the conservation practices such as Herbaceous Wind Barrier (603) and Cross-Wind Trap Strips (589C).
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The ethnobotany and phenology of plants in and adjacent to two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona.Asdall, Willard Van; Adams, Karen Rogers.; Mason, Charles T.; Martin, Paul S.; Davis, Owen K.; Turner, Raymond M. (The University of Arizona., 1988)Two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona provide the setting for a study of 127 plants useful to human foragers. A view of plant part availability is based on annual phenological profiles, and on historic and prehistoric records of plant use. Food choice is limited in March and April, but high August through November. Riparian plants also offer numerous non-food resources. Trees and shrubs serve more needs in relation to number of available species than do perennial herbs (including grasses) and annuals. Southwestern ethnographic literature hints that certain native taxa (Panicum, Physalis, Populus, Salix, Typha and Vitis) might receive special care. Inherent qualities of parts, coupled with ethnographic records of preparation and use, provide a basis for speculation on which parts might survive in an ancient record. Most are expected to disintegrate in open sites. Parts sought for different needs can enter a dwelling via diverse routes that produce confusingly similar archaeological debris. Modern experiments to wash pollen from 14 separate harvests permit evaluation of plant fruit and leaves as pollen traps, to help interpret pollen recovered from ancient dwellings. High amounts of Berberis, Rumex and Ribes pollen, sometimes in clumps or as tetrads, travel on harvested fruit. Arctostaphylos, Monarda, Oxalis, Rhus, Rhamnus, Vitis and Juniperus parts carry lower amounts. Quercus and Gramineae pollen grains travel on parts of other taxa, as well as on their own fruit. The phenological profiles offer insight into group life-form activities in response to local temperature and precipitation trends. Rising and maximum temperatures coincide with intense vegetative and reproductive activity for trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Increased levels of precipitation coincide with maximum flowering and fruiting of herbaceous perennials and fall annuals. Limited data on six taxa from Utah generally agrees with observations in this study, suggesting strong genetic control in the phenology of some riparian taxa.
A recursive programming analysis of water conservation in Arizona agriculture : a study of the Phoenix active management areaLierman, Wally Kent.; Wade, James C.; Ayer, Harry W.; Cory, Dennis (The University of Arizona., 1983)Arizona agriculture faces many changes in the near future. One of the most imminent changes will come from the enactment of the 1980 Arizona Groundwater Management Act. The 1980 AGWMA is designed ultimately to curtail the use of groundwater in Arizona. Agriculture will be affected since this sector used approximately 87 percent of all water in the State in 1980. This study reports on the possible effects that a proposed pump tax and water duty policy would have on agriculture within the Phoenix Active Management Area. The PAMA is one of four such areas in the State that have been identified as needing groundwater use management. The results of this study indicate that the proposed water duty is more effective in curbing groundwater use than the proposed pump tax. Investment in more water application efficient irrigation technologies is also important in this study. However, substantial amounts of capital investment funds will be needed to begin this investment.