Forage & Grain Report 2011
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Forage and Grain Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Cotton Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Forage and Grain Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Forage & Grain Report 2011
- Small Grains Variety Evaluation at Arizona City, Coolidge, Maricopa and Yuma, 2011
- Determination of optimal planting configuration of low input and organic barley and wheat production in Arizona
- Response of Wheat and Barley Varieties to Phosphorus Fertilizer, 2011
- Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirement of Feed and Malting Barley Compared to Wheat, 2011
- Invinsa Application to Reduce Water Stress Effects on Corn Growth and Yield at Maricopa, AZ, 2011
- Silage Corn Variety Trial in Central Arizona
- Effects of Zn fertilizer on cadmium accumulation in durum wheat
- Late N management in durum wheat using crop models and canopy reflectance
Late N management in durum wheat using crop models and canopy reflectanceOptimizing late N applications in durum wheat is highly needed to obtain adequate protein levels without affecting grain yield. A simple and rapid method for estimating crop yield at flowering stage and crop N status is required to make immediate N application decisions for increasing grain protein content. There were significant differences in grain yield and grain protein among N treatments and durum varieties. Using information on soil properties, weather data, crop management, and variety growth, DSSAT crop model predicted durum grain yield accurately. Canopy reflectance index NDVI at flowering time were closely correlated with crop yield and protein content. The results indicate the potential of using crop models and canopy reflectance index in durum wheat yield prediction and N management.
Effects of Zn fertilizer on cadmium accumulation in durum wheatProposed reduction in maximum allowable cadmium (Cd) level in wheat grain from 0.2 to 0.15 ppm by European Union (EU) could affect Arizona wheat growers substantially. The possible breeding programs and management practices needs to be developed to keep the industry competitive for this major market. In this study, we used two durum wheat cultivars (Ocotillo representing higher Cd genotypes and Havasu representing lower Cd genotypes) to study the potential of Zn fertilizer (as ZnSO₄ and ground tire rubber) to reduce Cd uptake in durum wheat at Yuma Ag Center. While cadmium level in the two varieties were different significantly, applying ZnSO₄ or ground rubber did not affect grain cadmium level, grain yield, or protein content significantly.
Silage Corn Variety Trial in Central ArizonaInformation on silage corn yield and quality can help silage growers and users choose varieties that best fit their needs and area. We conducted a silage corn variety trial using seven varieties for use in Central Arizona. Variety 28Z47 produced the higher silage yield with an average of 30.4 ton/acre and the variety 28V71 had the highest crude protein content (8.13%) among the eight. Varieties that produced higher yield, higher crude protein, and lower NDF than the average of the eight varieties were 851VT3 and TMF-2L-872.
Invinsa Application to Reduce Water Stress Effects on Corn Growth and Yield at Maricopa, AZ, 2011Invinsa blocks ethylene perception by plants and can reduce the negative effects of water stress on crop growth. The objective of this study is to measure the effect on corn growth and yield of Invinsa application at incipient water stress. A study was conducted at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center where Invinsa was applied on 15 June and 20 June in blocks with adequate irrigation or deficit irrigation, which received no irrigation water for 10 days past incipient stress beginning on 15 June. Invinsa had inconsistent effects on corn growth and yield. The most notable effect of Invinsa, however, was an increase in total plant yield from 11.09 to13.43 t/a measured on 23 July and from 11.36 to 13.61 t/a measured on 13 Aug in the adequate irrigation block for Invinsa application on 15 June. However, Invinsa had no effect on final grain yield. The lack of a consistent response to Invinsa may be explained by the higher than optimum temperature at time of application or other unknown factors.
Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirement of Feed and Malting Barley Compared to Wheat, 2011Barley is generally thought to require less nitrogen fertilizer than wheat, but how much less has not been clearly documented. The purpose of this study is to compare the nitrogen fertilizer requirements of barley and wheat. A study was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center testing the response of 2 durum wheats (Kronos and Havasu), 2 bread wheats (Yecora Rojo and Joaquin), 2 feed barleys (Baretta and Nebula), and 2 malting barleys (Conrad and Moravian 69) to 7 rates of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 lbs N/acre). The surface soil was relatively high in nitrate at planting (19 ppm NO₃-N) contributing an estimated 76 lbs N/acre. Maximum yield was obtained at 156 (durum), 147 (wheat), 137 (feed barley), and 127 (malting barley) lbs N/acre. However, since the yield of durum and bread wheat was higher than feed and malting barley, the nitrogen fertilizer per 100 pounds of grain yield was similar for these crop types (~2.37 lbs N per 100 lbs of grain). If the 76 lbs N/a of nitrogen estimated to be available from the surface soil were included, then about 3.62 lbs of N would have been required per 100 lbs of grain for both wheat and barley. The N requirement reported in this study does not include the extra N potentially needed for wheat to obtain acceptable protein levels. In conclusion, wheat required more nitrogen fertilizer than barley to obtain maximum yield in our study, but the amount of nitrogen fertilizer required per 100 pounds of grain was similar.
Response of Wheat and Barley Varieties to Phosphorus Fertilizer, 2011Phosphorus fertilizer represents a significant portion of the cost of producing small grains. Some evidence exists that there are differences in the ability of small grain varieties to take phosphorus up from the soil and utilize this nutrient in the grain. The objective of this study is to determine if barley and wheat varieties grown in Arizona differ in their response to phosphorus fertilizer. A study was conducted for the third year at the Maricopa Agricultural Center testing the response of 7 barley and 14 wheat (12 durum wheat and 2 bread wheat) varieties to 2 phosphorus rates (0 and 100 lbs P₂O₅/acre). Averaged over varieties, the grain yield increase due to phosphorus application of 100 lbs P₂O₅/acre was 346 lbs/acre for barley and 516 lbs/acre for wheat, similar to previous years. Despite the wide range of apparent yield response (0 to over 1000 lbs/acre) of the varieties to P fertilizer, these differences were not statistically significant. Furthermore, there was no consistency in the yield response of the varieties between this year and last year. Some of the varieties that responded greatest to P fertilizer last year, responded least this year, and vice versa. Therefore, there appears to be no differences in the response of barley and wheat varieties typically grown in Arizona to phosphorus fertilizer.
Determination of optimal planting configuration of low input and organic barley and wheat production in ArizonaMarkets for organic barley and wheat are expanding. A major problem growing organic barley and wheat is controlling the weeds. Organic barley and wheat were grown in conventional 6-inch drill spacing but also in 30 inch spacing so weeds could be cultivated in a study at the Larry Hart Farm near Maricopa. The weed pressure was moderate and the weed biomass was about 16 to 26% of the crop biomass near maturity. The primary weed was canarygrass and the secondary weed was malva. Grain yields of the wheat (durum) were similar regardless of row spacing, but the barley grain yields were 4327 lbs/acre in the 6 inch spacing and 3330 lbs/acre in the 30 inch spacing.
Small Grains Variety Evaluation at Arizona City, Coolidge, Maricopa and Yuma, 2011Small grain varieties are evaluated each year by University of Arizona personnel. The purpose of these tests is to characterize varieties in terms of yield and other attributes. Variety performance varies greatly from year to year and several site-years are necessary to adequately characterize the yield potential of a variety. A summary of small grain variety trials conducted by the University of Arizona can be found online at http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/crops/az1265.pdf.