Cotton Report 1996
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Cotton Report is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona.
This report, along with the Forage and Grain Report, was established by Hank Brubaker, Extension Agronomist, after seeing a similar report published by Texas A&M University in the mid-1970’s.
The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Cotton Reports have been made available in the UA Campus Repository as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Other commodity-based agricultural research reports available in
the UA Campus Repository include:
Citrus Reports | Forage & Grain Reports | Sugarbeet Reports | Turfgrass Reports | Vegetable Reports
Contact CALS Publications at email@example.com, or visit the CALS Publications website.
Contents for Cotton Report 1996
- 1995 Weather Conditions
- Research Note on Effects of Diurnal Temperature Extremes on Cotton Yields at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center
- The 1996 Arizona Cotton Advisory Program
- Row Spacing Studies, Safford Agricultural Center, 1994 and 1995
- Evaluation of Irrigation Termination Management on Yield of Upland Cotton, 1995
- Defoliation Tests with Ginstar at the Maricopa Agricultural Center in 1995
- Effects of Combinations of Accelerate and Other Defoliants on Defoliation of Upland Cotton
- Cotton Defoliation Evaluations, 1995
- Defoliation of Pima and Upland Cotton at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1995
- Development of a Yield Projection Technique for Arizona Cotton
- Cotton Growth and Development Patterns
- Comparison of Early Season and Mid-Season Applied Plant Growth Regulators on DPL 5415 Cotton
- Pix - Dry Flowable vs. Liquid Formulation Performance Evaluation
- Comparison of Various Plant Growth Regulators on Pima S-7 Cotton Yields
- Plant Growth Regulator/Foliar Nutrient Studies at the Safford Agricultural Center, 1995
- Arizona Upland Cotton Variety Testing Program
- Upland Regional Cotton Variety Test at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1995
- Short Staple Regional Cotton Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1995
- Short Staple Variety Demonstrations, Graham County, 1995
- Short Staple Variety Trials in Cochise County, 1995
- Short Staple Variety Trial, Greenlee County, 1995
- Short Staple Cotton Advanced Strains Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1995
- Upland Advance Strains Cotton Variety Test at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1995
- Low Desert Upland Cotton Advanced Strains Testing Program, 1995
- Pima Regional Variety Test at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1995
- Pima Cotton Regional Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1995
- Pima Variety Test, Marana, 1995
- Upland Cotton Water Stress Sensitivity By Maturity Class
- Irrigation Efficiencies and Lint Yields of Upland Cotton Grown at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1995
- Cotton Irrigation Scheduling Trial on Pima and Upland Cotton Using AZSCHED, Safford Agricultural Center, 1995
- Assessing the Impact of Irrigation Management Strategies on Yield and Nitrate Leaching in Upland Cotton Production
- Differential Tolerance of Cotton Cultivars to Prometryn
- Weed Control in Roundup Ready® Cotton: Preliminary Experiments
- Effect of Norflurazon (Zorial Rapid 80®) Mixed with Pendimethalin (Prowl®) and Prometryn (Caparol®) on Cotton Stand Establishment and Yield
- How to Mechanically Remove Weeds from the Row
- Response of Cotton to Precision-Guided Cultivation and DSMA in a Dense Stand of Purple Nutsedge
- How the Quick Hitch Guidance Systems Work and Their Practical Applications
- Monitoring and Management of Whitefly Resistance to Insecticides in Arizona
- Susceptibility of Lygus Bug Populations in Arizona to Acephate (Orthene®) and Bifenthrin (Capture®), with Related Contrasts of Other Insecticides
- Contrasts of Three Insecticides Resistance Monitoring Methods for Whitefly
- Cultural Control and Pink Bollworm Populations
- Seasonal Infestation by Pink Bollworm of Transgenic Cotton, NuCOTN 33, and Parental Cultivar DPL-5415 in Commerical Fields
- Fenoxycarb, Pymetrozine (C G A-215944), and Fenpropathrin/Acephate: Rotations for Silverleaf Whitefly Control in Upland Cotton in Central America
- Chemical Control Studies of Silverleaf Whitefly Control
- Effects of Silverleaf Whiteflies on Sticky Cotton and Cotton Yields in Arizona
- Nitrogen Management Experiments for Upland and Pima Cotton, 1995
- Evaluation of a Feedback Approach to Nitrogen and Pix Application
- Potassium Fertilization of Pima and Upland Cotton at Three Arizona Locations
- Evaluation of Soil Conditioners and Water Treatments for Cotton Production Systems
- Reduced Tillage Systems for Airzona Cotton Growers
- Tillage Energy Savings from Zone Burial of Shredded and Whole Cotton Stalks
- 1995 Seed Treatment Evaluations
- Telone II® and Temik® Efficacy on Root-knot Nematodes in Cotton
- Magnitude and Strain Composition of Aspergillus flavus Soil Surface Populations in Yuma County Commerical Fields
- Distribution and Genetic Variability of Whitefly-Transmitted Geminiviruses of Cotton
Irrigation Efficiencies and Lint Yields of Upland Cotton Grown at the Maricopa Agricultural Center, 1995A field trial was conducted at the Maricopa Agricultural Center to observe the effects of four irrigation efficiencies (65%, 75%, 85%, and 95%) on the lint yield produced from two upland cotton varieties (DP 5409 and SG 125). Nitrogen requirements for the crop were determined using pre-season soil samples and in-season petiole samples in conjuction with crop monitoring data collected at weekly intervals. AZSCHED was used as a guide to the irrigation timing and amount of water applied during the season. The actual irrigation efficiencies obtained were less than what was targeted. The end season results were 59, 62, 62, and 68 %, respectively. This is due in part to the inherent inefficiency of irrigations in the early season. This year there was a lint yield response to the different irrigation efficiencies, but no difference in yield between the two varieties. Lint yields were significantly lower in the 95 % irrigation efficiency plots. Lint Yields ranged from 1058 and 1109 # lint/acre (DP5409 and SG125 at 95 %) to 1358 and 1353 # lint/acre (SG 125 and DP5409 at the 85 % irrigation efficiency).
Distribution and Genetic Variability of Whitefly-Transmitted Geminiviruses of CottonWhitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (subgroup III, Geminiviridae) are emerging viral pathogens of cotton, worldwide. Virtually nothing is known about the genetic variability, biological characteristics, or the molecular epidemiology of these new virus pathogens of cotton. The core region (550bp) of the geminiviral coat protein gene was examined as a potentially informative molecular marker by which to identify and track the global distribution of WFT geminiviruses of cotton. This is an essential step toward assessing the risks that emerging viruses pose to cotton production efforts. Preliminary analyses of geminivirus isolates from North America, Central America and the Caribbean Basin, and Sudan indicate that the core region of the coat protein gene permits predictions about relationships between virus isolates from cotton, based on subgeographical and major geographical origins, and has potential for distinguishing between geminiviral quasi-species and virus strains, thereof Through these efforts, a database of geminivirus coat protein gene sequences has been established to permit identification of additional isolates from cotton, and to facilitate the tracking of WFT geminiviruses for molecular epidemiological and subsequent risk assessment objectives. Using the latter information, it will become possible to identify the most important geminiviruses against which disease resistance efforts should be directed. Further, the availability of a broad suite of cotton geminivirus isolates from both Eastern and Western Hemispheres will permit assessment of cotton germplasm and/or genetically engineered lines for virus-specific and/or broad spectrum disease resistance for the first time.
Magnitude and Strain Composition of Aspergillus flavus Soil Surface Populations in Yuma County Commerical FieldsAflatoxin contamination of cottonseed occurs when cotton bolls are infected by certain strains of the fungus Aspergillus flavus. The risk of aflatoxin contamination in a field is partially dependent on both the quantity of A. flavus and the toxigenicity of A. flavus strains in that field. A. flavus can be easily divided into two major subdivisions known as strain S and strain L. Strain S isolates consistently produce large amounts of aflatoxin and, therefore, the percentage of strain S isolates in the population (percent S) is one indication of the aflatoxin producing potential of the population. Strain S isolates were found in every commercial field sampled at every sampling date in Yuma County, but percent S varied greatly among fields from 4% to 93 %. Significant differences among fields located near each other suggest that locally important, but not yet identified, variables such as crop rotation histories or soil type are affecting A. flavus population magnitude and composition.
Telone II® and Temik® Efficacy on Root-knot Nematodes in CottonA field plot in western Maricopa county was established in 1995 to determine the ability of Temik® brand aldicarb pesticide to suppress root-knot nematode when Temik 15G was applied as a seedling side-dress and moved into the root zone by irrigation. Telone II® was used for comparative purposes and Gaucho-treated seed, following a preplant application of Telone, was included to determine if additional benefits could be realized by systemic control of insects during early stages of plant growth. Plans to include foliar applications of Orthene® were abandon when early season thrips populations failed to develop. Temik 15G, applied as a side-dress at 10 lbs. did not suppress nematodes or increase lint yield Telone, alone and in combination with Gaucho -treated seed, reduced nematode populations and increased lint yield, but differences between the two Telone treatments were not significant. Insect pressure was not a contributing factor. Greenhouse studies showed that both timing of the application and its placement in the row will be of critical importance when Temik is applied for nematode control in furrow irrigated cotton.
1995 Seed Treatment EvaluationsCottonseed was treated with several fungicide treatments in an effort to protect the seed and seedling from disease. Seed germination and vigor was evaluated in two Arizona locations; Maricopa and Marana. Stand counts were taken on two separate dates after emergence at both Maricopa and Marana and percent emergence was calculated. Significant differences in percent emergence due to treatment were observed in both sample dates at Marana. Results at Maricopa were not statistically significant but similar trends to those at Marana were observed with treatment number 6 (no treatment) having the lowest percent emergence and treatment number 2 (combination of Nu-Flow ND and Apron TL) having the highest emergence.
Tillage Energy Savings from Zone Burial of Shredded and Whole Cotton StalksTwo prototypes of a stalk burial implement were tested for energy requirements at the University of California, Shaffer Research Station. Both versions of the implement are designed to bury the cotton stalks in a concentrated zone and reform the bed in the same location. To plow under shredded stalks, both versions of the implement required less energy than a conventional tillage systems typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Both stalk burial implements were also used to plow under whole cotton stalks. This offers additional energy savings by eliminating the stalk shredding operation.
Reduced Tillage Systems for Airzona Cotton GrowersFour alternative tillage systems were compared to a conventional system at The University of Arizona Agricultural Centers in Marana and Yuma. The alternative tillage systems offer significant savings in energy, time, and cost. None of the reduced tillage systems were associated with a reduction in cotton yield.
Evaluation of Soil Conditioners and Water Treatments for Cotton Production SystemsAdvanced technologies to produce synthetic polymers such as polyacrylamide (PAM, and polymaleic anhydride (PMA) have produced products which may be economically feasible alternatives to traditional treatments such as gypsum in the desert Southwest. In 1995 a single field study was conducted at Paloma Ranch, west of Gila Bend in Maricopa County Arizona Upland Nucoton 35, DPL' was dry planted and watered -up on 10 and 11 April. Treatments consisted of various rates and times of applications of Sper Sal™, which included a check (no Sper Sal), 1 and 2 qts. /acre with the water-up irrigation; 1 and 2 qts./acre with a mid - season irrigation; and 1 qt. /acre mid-season following 1 or 2 qts./acre with the water -up irrigation. No differences among treatments were detected among any treatments in terms of plant growth and development or final lint yields. There were no early-season differences in soil crusting among the various soil amendment treatments in 1995, as opposed to 1994 when a severe rain occurred immediately following planting.
Potassium Fertilization of Pima and Upland Cotton at Three Arizona LocationsThree field trials were conducted in Arizona in 1995 at three locations (Safford, Maricopa and Buckeye) to evaluate yield benefits associated with potassium (K) fertilization. The 1995 and previous years studies were aimed at assessing the agronomic necessity of K fertilization in Arizona cotton (Gossvpium spp.) production. At the Safford Agriculture center (Pima clay loam), both Upland (G hirsutum L., var. DPL 90) and Pima (G. barbadense L., var. S-7) cotton included treatments of both soil and foliar K applications. The trial at Maricopa Agricultural Center (Casa Grande sandy loam) included four foliar K applications over the growing season on Pima (G barbadense L., var. S-7) cotton. The third trial was at the Buckeye location (Superstition silty loam) where a single foliar application over split plots preceded by soil application on Pima (G. barbadense L, var. S-7) cotton was undertaken. The results of the experiments at the Safford and Maricopa locations indicated no lint yield responses to K fertilization by either Upland or Pima cotton; however, at the Buckeye location, the result indicated a significant difference between the means of the soil-only and the soil-plus-foliar treatments. There were however no significant differences among soil-only treatments as well as the soil-plus-foliar treated plots when compared to their respective controls.
Evaluation of a Feedback Approach to Nitrogen and Pix ApplicationA single field experiment was conducted in 1995 at Maricopa, AZ to compare a scheduled approach (based on stage of growth) versus a feedback approach (based on vegetative status) to both nitrogen (N) and mepiquat chloride (PIX™) applications on Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). PIX feedback treatments were based upon fruit retention (FR) levels and height to node ratios (HNRs) according to established baselines. Scheduled and feedback PIX applications were made for a total of 1.0 pt./acre over two applications, with the scheduled treatments-taking place earlier in the fruiting cycle (early and peak bloom). Feedback PIX treatments began with a single 0.5 pt. /acre application near peak bloom (approx. 2200 heat units after planting (HUAP), 86/55 °F threshold) and followed with a second 0.5 pt. /acre application in late bloom. Scheduled applications of fertilizer N totaled 200 lbs. N/acre from three applications and feedback N treatments received a total of 100 lbs. N/acre from two applications. Treatments consisted of all combinations of scheduled or feedback applications of both N and FIX. The highest lint yields were from a treatment receiving feedback N and FIX, but all treatment yields were not significantly different (P ≥ 0.05) from one another. From a practical (economic) standpoint, however, these treatments were different in terms of the differences of fertilizer N and the timing of the PIX applications required to produce comparable yields. Results from 1995 are consistent with 1993 and 1994 results from the same study.
Nitrogen Management Experiments for Upland and Pima Cotton, 1995Three field experiments were conducted in Arizona in 1995 at three locations (Maricopa, Marana, and Safford). The Maricopa and Safford experiments have been conducted for seven consecutive seasons, the Marana site was initiated in 1994. The purposes of the experiments were to validate and refine nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for both Upland and Pima cotton. The experiments each utilized N management tools such as pre -season soil tests for NO₃⁻-N, in- season plant tissue testing (petioles) for N fertility status, and crop monitoring to ascertain crop fruiting patterns and crop N needs. At each location, treatments varied from a conservative to a more aggressive approach of N management. Results at each location revealed a strong relationship between the crop fruit retention levels and N needs for the crop. This pattern was further reflected in final yield analysis as a response to the N fertilization regimes used. The higher, more aggressive, N application regimes did not benefit yields at any location. The effects of N fertility levels have also been consistently evident in crop maturity and its relationship to lint yields.
Effects of Silverleaf Whiteflies on Sticky Cotton and Cotton Yields in ArizonaSilverleaf whitey, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring, adults and nymphs were significantly reduced season -long in cotton plots treated with fenpropathrin plus acephate on 3 occasions (15 July, 2 August and 29 August). Thermodetector sticky cotton ratings were significantly reduced in insecticide-treated plots compared with untreated plots. Heavy rains reduced cotton stickiness in all plots.
Chemical Control Studies of Silverleaf Whitefly ControlChemical control studies for silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring, control on cotton showed that fenpropathrin-acephate, fenpropathrin-endosulfan, and endosulfan-bifenthrin mixtures gave adequate control and increased cotton yields were obtained as compared within untreated cottons. Pyriproxyfen, applied biweekly or alternated with fenpropathrin-acephate, Nicotiana, and a fenpropathrin-mycotrol mixture also gave effective control.
Fenoxycarb, Pymetrozine (C G A-215944), and Fenpropathrin/Acephate: Rotations for Silverleaf Whitefly Control in Upland Cotton in Central AmericaTrials (0.01 ac plots) with fenoxycarb ( Fenoxycarb 40 W P, 0.0621b. ai /ac), pymetrozine (CGA 215944, Fulfill™ 50 W P, 0.094 lb. ai/ac), pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, (SterlingTM ), and fenpropathrin (DanitolTM 2.4 E C, 0.20 lb. or 0.10 lb. ai/ac) /acephate (OrtheneTM 90 S, 0.5 or 0.25 lb. ai /ac) were made against silverleaf whitefly, Bemisiq grgentifolii Bellows and Perring, at UA, Maricopa Agric. Ctr. Six applications (plus adjuvant Kinetic) were applied on 9 treatments. Ten treatments (embedded control included) were in a double tier complete random block design and there was I adjacent, 1.5 ac control block (treatment 11). Eggs and large nymphs were sampled weekly post application to determine efficacy; reported as % reduction from block control. Rotation schemes were: 1) 3 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, then 3 fenpropathrin/acephate applications, 2) 3 pymetrozine 2 /3rate /fenoxycarb full rate, then 3 fenpropathrin /acephate applications, 3) fenoxycarb 6 applications, 4) pymetrozine 6 applications, 5) 3 fenpropathrin /acephate, then 3 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb applications, 6) 3 fenpropathrin /acephate, then 3 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, 7) fenpropathrin /acephate at full, l/2, full, then 3-1/2 rate applications, 8) 2 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, 2 fenpropathrin /acephate, 1 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, and 1 last fenpropathrin /acephate application, 9) 2 fenpropathrin /acephate, 2 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, 1fenpropathrin/acephate, and 1 last pymetrozine /fenoxycarb application, 10) embedded control, and 11) block control. Egg % reductions for season means ranged from 93-99% for combinations and rotations of them. Last % season analyses showed reductions from 95-99 %. Pymetrozine had a 98% reduction andfenpropathrin /acephate had 98 % egg reduction. Nymphal reduction for season means ranged from 80-95% for combinations and rotations of them. Last % season analyses, showed % reductions from 91-98 %. Pymetrozine had 92% reduction and fenpropathrin /acephate had 92% reduction of nymphs (season). These studies showed that pymetrozine, pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, fenpropathrin/acephate combinations and rotations provided excellent control of silverleaf whitefly immatures.
Seasonal Infestation by Pink Bollworm of Transgenic Cotton, NuCOTN 33, and Parental Cultivar DPL-5415 in Commerical FieldsBolls from transgenic cotton, NuCOTN 33 (Delta and Pine Land Co.) containing the Bollgard TM gene (Monsanto Co.) and from the parental cultivar DPL-5415 were examined for mature larvae of the pink bollworm (78,240 total bolls). Bolls from five paired fields were collected in one study (Queen Creek, Buckeye, and Gila Bend areas) and a composite of 10 fields of each cultivar were collected in a second study (Paloma Ranch area). Bolls were incubated for 2 weeks (dissected late season) or dissected to find mature larvae, respectively. Collections of 100 or 80 bolls per field were made weekly or biweekly from July through November, 1995. Numbers of pink bollworm larvae were very low in all fields through August and thereafter increased steadily in the control fields. Numbers of larvae found in transgenic cotton were extremely low or non -existent throughout the season, even in fields which were adjacent to heavily infested control fields. These results show that NuCOTN 33 retained a high degree of efficacy for preventing development of mature pink bollworm larvae (diapause larvae) during the late season. Most important, these data provide baseline information against which efficacy in subsequent years can be compared.
Cultural Control and Pink Bollworm PopulationsA cotton management program in the Imperial Valley, CA was designed to reduce pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), populations. The program established I March as the earliest planting date, 1 September for defoliant or plant growth regulator application and 1 November for cotton stalk destruction and plowdown. In-season gossyplure-baited pink bollworm male moth activity monitoring and immature green cotton boll inspections for larval infestation were encouraged as decision making aids to determine the need for additional control action. Male pink bollworm moth catches in gossyplure-baited Lingren and delta sticky traps were significantly reduced each year from 1990 to 1994 following the initiation of the management program in 1989. Fewer larvae per cotton boll occurred in the years from 1990 to 1992. Fiber quality of commercial cotton sampled was also improved from 1989 to 1994, as compared to the 1984 to 1988 average. Cotton production, in general, was reduced during 1989 to 1994 in areas surrounding Imperial Valley and may have contributed partially to reduced populations in Imperial Valley.
Contrasts of Three Insecticides Resistance Monitoring Methods for WhiteflyThree resistance monitoring methods were tested to evaluate their relative reliability, discriminating ability, convenience, and practicality for monitoring insecticide resistance in Arizona whiteflies. Adult whiteflies were collected from the field and tested in the laboratory with three methods: leaf disk, sticky trap, and vial. Each method was evaluated against two populations divergent in susceptibility using a mixture of Danitol® + Orthene® and two single chemicals, Thiodan® and Danitol®. The Yuma population was relatively susceptible and the Gila River Basin population highly resistant. Correlations of field efficacy and leaf disk bioassays were conducted with the Yuma population and a comparatively resistant Maricopa population. At each location egg, immature, and adult whitefly densities were monitored before and after Danitol® + Orthene® treatments and resistance estimates were also monitored in the populations using leaf disk bioassays. Our results illustrated that the leaf disk method had the greatest discriminating ability between susceptible and resistant populations. The results also indicated that the vial method was the most practical, and that the sticky trap method was good at discriminating between populations that have large differences in susceptibility. The field efficacy trials indicated results from leaf disk assays reflected what had occurred in the field.
Susceptibility of Lygus Bug Populations in Arizona to Acephate (Orthene®) and Bifenthrin (Capture®), with Related Contrasts of Other InsecticidesAdult lygus bugs, Lygus hesperus (Knight), were collected from alfalfa fields in 11 different cotton producing areas of Arizona. A standardized glass vial method was used to estimate susceptibility of the collected populations to the organophosphate insecticide, acephate (Orthene®), and the pyrethroid bifenthrin (Capture®). Overall, lygus from throughout the state were significantly less susceptible to acephate and bifenthrin in 1995, than in 1994. Resistance of lygus to acephate continues to be widespread and intense, but not uniform in Arizona. In 1995, all populations possessed individuals capable of surviving exposure to vial treatments of 10,000 μg/ml acephate. Lygus bugs from Safford and Maricopa represented the most and least susceptible populations, respectively, to both acephate and bifenthrin. These two populations were tested for susceptibility to nine other insecticides: aldiaarb (Temik®), dimethoate (Gowan Dimethoate E267®), endosulfan (Gowan Endosulfan 3EC®), imidacloprid (Admire 2F®), malathion (Gowan Malathion 8®), methamidophos (Monitor 4®®), methomyl (Lannate LV®), oxamyl (Vydate 3.77L®), apt oxydemeton- methyl (Metasystox-R SC®). The Maricopa population was significantly less susceptible to six of these insecticides. Our findings support the hypothesis that the intensive use of pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides for whitefly control in cotton has selected for resistance in lygus. This result portends increased problems with lygus control in the future, points to the need for developing new tools for controlling lygus bugs in Arizona cotton, and underscores the urgent need to find alternatives to the current heavy reliance on insecticides for managing whiteflies in cotton.
Monitoring and Management of Whitefly Resistance to Insecticides in ArizonaMonitoring of whitefly resistance in the major cotton producing areas of Arizona confirmed the presence of an over 100 fold resistance to the mixture of Danitol® + Orthenem (fepropathrin + acephate). Strong evidence was found of cross-resistance affecting the other principle pyrethroid insecticides used to control whiteflies (Asana®, Capture® Karate®). Susceptibility to Ovasyn® varied widely in leaf -disk bioassays; lesser variation was observed in whitefly susceptibility to endosulfan. A provisional resistance management strategy (IRM) for Arizona whiteflies was formulated and evaluated in a 200 acre field trial in 1995. A key element of the strategy was diversifying as much as possible the insecticides used against whiteflies. Contrasts of this (rotation) strategy with a more conventional (less diverse) regime showed that rotation slowed but did not prevent resistance from developing. By seasons end both the IRM and conventional plots had very high and comparable levels of resistance to Danitol® + Ortliene®. This large field trial illustrated clearly the seriousness of the whitefly resistance problems faced in Arizona. It showed that whitefly populations cannot be managed effectively solely with the products currently registered for this purpose in Arizona. The large shift to lower susceptibility took place with as few as 3 insecticide treatments. In concert, our field art laboratory results indicated unequivocally that Arizona growers will be forced by resistance to greatly reduce reliance on pyrethroid insecticides in the future. This underscores the urgency for obtaining approval of novel new insecticides for whitefly control and for deploying new products within the framework of a resistance management strategy that limits their use.
How the Quick Hitch Guidance Systems Work and Their Practical ApplicationsThis article explains the operation of the two types of quick hitch guidance systems on the market. Techniques for farming with precision guidance are offered.