• Chemical Control Studies of Silverleaf Whitefly Control

      Chu, C. C.; Henneberry, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA, ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, Arizona 85040 -8830 (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-03)
      Chemical control studies for silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring, control on cotton showed that fenpropathrin-acephate, fenpropathrin-endosulfan, and endosulfan-bifenthrin mixtures gave adequate control and increased cotton yields were obtained as compared within untreated cottons. Pyriproxyfen, applied biweekly or alternated with fenpropathrin-acephate, Nicotiana, and a fenpropathrin-mycotrol mixture also gave effective control.
    • Contrasts of Three Insecticides Resistance Monitoring Methods for Whitefly

      Simmons, A. L.; Dennehy, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-03)
      Three resistance monitoring methods were tested to evaluate their relative reliability, discriminating ability, convenience, and practicality for monitoring insecticide resistance in Arizona whiteflies. Adult whiteflies were collected from the field and tested in the laboratory with three methods: leaf disk, sticky trap, and vial. Each method was evaluated against two populations divergent in susceptibility using a mixture of Danitol® + Orthene® and two single chemicals, Thiodan® and Danitol®. The Yuma population was relatively susceptible and the Gila River Basin population highly resistant. Correlations of field efficacy and leaf disk bioassays were conducted with the Yuma population and a comparatively resistant Maricopa population. At each location egg, immature, and adult whitefly densities were monitored before and after Danitol® + Orthene® treatments and resistance estimates were also monitored in the populations using leaf disk bioassays. Our results illustrated that the leaf disk method had the greatest discriminating ability between susceptible and resistant populations. The results also indicated that the vial method was the most practical, and that the sticky trap method was good at discriminating between populations that have large differences in susceptibility. The field efficacy trials indicated results from leaf disk assays reflected what had occurred in the field.
    • Cultural Control and Pink Bollworm Populations

      Chu, C. C.; Henneberry, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA, ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, Arizona 85040-8830 (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-03)
      A cotton management program in the Imperial Valley, CA was designed to reduce pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), populations. The program established I March as the earliest planting date, 1 September for defoliant or plant growth regulator application and 1 November for cotton stalk destruction and plowdown. In-season gossyplure-baited pink bollworm male moth activity monitoring and immature green cotton boll inspections for larval infestation were encouraged as decision making aids to determine the need for additional control action. Male pink bollworm moth catches in gossyplure-baited Lingren and delta sticky traps were significantly reduced each year from 1990 to 1994 following the initiation of the management program in 1989. Fewer larvae per cotton boll occurred in the years from 1990 to 1992. Fiber quality of commercial cotton sampled was also improved from 1989 to 1994, as compared to the 1984 to 1988 average. Cotton production, in general, was reduced during 1989 to 1994 in areas surrounding Imperial Valley and may have contributed partially to reduced populations in Imperial Valley.
    • Effects of Silverleaf Whiteflies on Sticky Cotton and Cotton Yields in Arizona

      Henneberry, T. J.; Forlow Jech, Lynn; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA, ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, Arizona 85040 -8830 (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-03)
      Silverleaf whitey, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring, adults and nymphs were significantly reduced season -long in cotton plots treated with fenpropathrin plus acephate on 3 occasions (15 July, 2 August and 29 August). Thermodetector sticky cotton ratings were significantly reduced in insecticide-treated plots compared with untreated plots. Heavy rains reduced cotton stickiness in all plots.
    • Fenoxycarb, Pymetrozine (C G A-215944), and Fenpropathrin/Acephate: Rotations for Silverleaf Whitefly Control in Upland Cotton in Central America

      Akey, D. H.; Henneberry, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; USDA, ARS, Western Cotton Research Laboratory, 4135 East Broadway, Phoenix, Arizona 85040 -8830 (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-03)
      Trials (0.01 ac plots) with fenoxycarb ( Fenoxycarb 40 W P, 0.0621b. ai /ac), pymetrozine (CGA 215944, Fulfill™ 50 W P, 0.094 lb. ai/ac), pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, (SterlingTM ), and fenpropathrin (DanitolTM 2.4 E C, 0.20 lb. or 0.10 lb. ai/ac) /acephate (OrtheneTM 90 S, 0.5 or 0.25 lb. ai /ac) were made against silverleaf whitefly, Bemisiq grgentifolii Bellows and Perring, at UA, Maricopa Agric. Ctr. Six applications (plus adjuvant Kinetic) were applied on 9 treatments. Ten treatments (embedded control included) were in a double tier complete random block design and there was I adjacent, 1.5 ac control block (treatment 11). Eggs and large nymphs were sampled weekly post application to determine efficacy; reported as % reduction from block control. Rotation schemes were: 1) 3 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, then 3 fenpropathrin/acephate applications, 2) 3 pymetrozine 2 /3rate /fenoxycarb full rate, then 3 fenpropathrin /acephate applications, 3) fenoxycarb 6 applications, 4) pymetrozine 6 applications, 5) 3 fenpropathrin /acephate, then 3 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb applications, 6) 3 fenpropathrin /acephate, then 3 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, 7) fenpropathrin /acephate at full, l/2, full, then 3-1/2 rate applications, 8) 2 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, 2 fenpropathrin /acephate, 1 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, and 1 last fenpropathrin /acephate application, 9) 2 fenpropathrin /acephate, 2 pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, 1fenpropathrin/acephate, and 1 last pymetrozine /fenoxycarb application, 10) embedded control, and 11) block control. Egg % reductions for season means ranged from 93-99% for combinations and rotations of them. Last % season analyses showed reductions from 95-99 %. Pymetrozine had a 98% reduction andfenpropathrin /acephate had 98 % egg reduction. Nymphal reduction for season means ranged from 80-95% for combinations and rotations of them. Last % season analyses, showed % reductions from 91-98 %. Pymetrozine had 92% reduction and fenpropathrin /acephate had 92% reduction of nymphs (season). These studies showed that pymetrozine, pymetrozine /fenoxycarb, fenpropathrin/acephate combinations and rotations provided excellent control of silverleaf whitefly immatures.
    • Seasonal Infestation by Pink Bollworm of Transgenic Cotton, NuCOTN 33, and Parental Cultivar DPL-5415 in Commerical Fields

      Flint, H. M.; Antilla, L.; Parks, N. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-03)
      Bolls from transgenic cotton, NuCOTN 33 (Delta and Pine Land Co.) containing the Bollgard TM gene (Monsanto Co.) and from the parental cultivar DPL-5415 were examined for mature larvae of the pink bollworm (78,240 total bolls). Bolls from five paired fields were collected in one study (Queen Creek, Buckeye, and Gila Bend areas) and a composite of 10 fields of each cultivar were collected in a second study (Paloma Ranch area). Bolls were incubated for 2 weeks (dissected late season) or dissected to find mature larvae, respectively. Collections of 100 or 80 bolls per field were made weekly or biweekly from July through November, 1995. Numbers of pink bollworm larvae were very low in all fields through August and thereafter increased steadily in the control fields. Numbers of larvae found in transgenic cotton were extremely low or non -existent throughout the season, even in fields which were adjacent to heavily infested control fields. These results show that NuCOTN 33 retained a high degree of efficacy for preventing development of mature pink bollworm larvae (diapause larvae) during the late season. Most important, these data provide baseline information against which efficacy in subsequent years can be compared.
    • Susceptibility of Lygus Bug Populations in Arizona to Acephate (Orthene®) and Bifenthrin (Capture®), with Related Contrasts of Other Insecticides

      Dennehy, T. J.; Russell, T. J.; Silvertooth, Jeff; Extension Arthropod Resistance Management Laboratory (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1996-03)
      Adult lygus bugs, Lygus hesperus (Knight), were collected from alfalfa fields in 11 different cotton producing areas of Arizona. A standardized glass vial method was used to estimate susceptibility of the collected populations to the organophosphate insecticide, acephate (Orthene®), and the pyrethroid bifenthrin (Capture®). Overall, lygus from throughout the state were significantly less susceptible to acephate and bifenthrin in 1995, than in 1994. Resistance of lygus to acephate continues to be widespread and intense, but not uniform in Arizona. In 1995, all populations possessed individuals capable of surviving exposure to vial treatments of 10,000 μg/ml acephate. Lygus bugs from Safford and Maricopa represented the most and least susceptible populations, respectively, to both acephate and bifenthrin. These two populations were tested for susceptibility to nine other insecticides: aldiaarb (Temik®), dimethoate (Gowan Dimethoate E267®), endosulfan (Gowan Endosulfan 3EC®), imidacloprid (Admire 2F®), malathion (Gowan Malathion 8®), methamidophos (Monitor 4®®), methomyl (Lannate LV®), oxamyl (Vydate 3.77L®), apt oxydemeton- methyl (Metasystox-R SC®). The Maricopa population was significantly less susceptible to six of these insecticides. Our findings support the hypothesis that the intensive use of pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides for whitefly control in cotton has selected for resistance in lygus. This result portends increased problems with lygus control in the future, points to the need for developing new tools for controlling lygus bugs in Arizona cotton, and underscores the urgent need to find alternatives to the current heavy reliance on insecticides for managing whiteflies in cotton.