Management of Pyrethoid-Resistant Whiteflies in Arizona Cotton: Selection, Cross-Resistance, and Dynamics
AffiliationExtension Arthropod Resistance Management Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Department of Entomology, Tucson, AZ
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AbstractIn 1995, silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring, resistance to the widely -used mixture of Danitol® (fenpropathrin) + Orthene® (acephate) was shown to be severe and widespread in Central Arizona cotton. Thereafter, laboratory experiments were undertaken to identify the other major insecticides that were affected by this resistance. Whiteflies were collected in November of 1995 from Maricopa (highly resistant) and Yuma (relatively susceptible) County locations in Arizona. A composite colony was established by combining Yuma and Maricopa whiteflies in a 4:1 ratio. After six generations of adult selection of this population with Danitol + Orthene, appreciable shifts in the concentration responses for pyrethroid, organophosphate, and carbamate insecticides were observed, indicating heritable variation for resistance in the source populations. From this we obtained definitive proof that resistance to Danitol + Orthene confers cross-resistance to Asana® (esfenvalerate), Capture® (bifenthrin), Danitol, Decis® (deltamethrin), Decis + Orthene, and Karate® (lambda-cyhalothrin). Additionally, selection with Danitol + Orthene resulted in statistically significant reductions in susceptibility to Curacron® (profenofos), Lannate® (methomyl), Monitor® (methamidaphos), and Ovasyn® (amitraz). Studies were performed to assess tolerance of Maricopa (pyrethroid- resistant) and Yuma (pyrethroid-susceptible) populations to a diversity of conventional insecticides currently registered for use in Arizona cotton, with the intention of finding compounds that showed promise for overcoming pyrethroid resistance. Of the materials evaluated, Curacron, Lannate, Lorsban® (chlorpyrifos), Ovasyn, Supracide® (methidathion), and Vydate® (oxamyl) were most promising. To determine to what degree pyrethroid resistance in cotton influenced resistance in winter vegetables and melons, and vice versa, whitefly populations were collected from a succession of these crops in Western and Central Arizona regions. In most instances, the whiteflies in Western Arizona were significantly more susceptible to Danitol + Orthene than those in Central Arizona. Significant decreases were found in susceptibility to Danitol + Orthene during the 1996 season at three of the four locations in which multiple crops were monitored. This emphasizes that pyrethroid resistance levels can be increased in whitefly populations from any of the cotton, melons, or other winter vegetable crops evaluated. Therefore, management of pyrethroid resistance in Arizona cotton will require harmonizing resistance management efforts and specifically limiting pyrethroid use in the entire crop complex.