Control of Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Biocontrol and Biorational Agents
AffiliationWestern Cotton Research Laboratory, Phoenix, AZ
biosys, Inc., Columbia, MD
Texas A & M University, Extension, El Paso, TX
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractAt pre- sowing irrigation (mid-March), cotton fields were treated with two entomopathogenic nematode species; Steinernema riobravis and S. carpocapsae for control of diapausing Pectinophora gossypiella larvae. Pima S-6 cotton fields situated in Fort Hancock, Texas were treated at a rate of one billion nematodes per acre. Caged, diapausing larvae were buried in fields at a depth of one inch, in row tops and furrow bases. Nematodes were applied with a spray rig, fixed winged aircraft, or in furrow irrigation via a constant flow, battery box. Fields were irrigated after ground application, prior to aerial spraying and during furrow application. Caged larvae were recovered 48 hours after nematode application. All application methods resulted in uniform distribution of nematodes over the treated fields. No significant differences ir. larval mortality between nematode species or application method could be determined. However, aerial and furrow application methods gave consistently better parasitism of larvae compared to ground rig delivery. Larval mortality in cassettes buried in furrow bases was significantly higher than in row tops. Larval mortality ranged from 53.26-79.14 %. Both nematode species could be recovered 50 days post application. At pin-head square Frustrate® PBW pheromone bands (biosys, Inc.) were applied at 100 bands per acre placement rate (16 g a. i./acre), giving a target release of 115 mg gossyplure/acre/day. Capillary gas chromatography was used to analyze bands throughout the growing season. A uniform release profile indicated sufficient release of pheromone for 144 days after placement. Pink bollworm mating disruption was monitored in three ways: 1. Delta 2 traps were positioned throughout the farm, forming a continuous trap line. Significantly larger numbers of moths were recovered form untreated zones. 2. Virgin female moths were placed in mating stations at dusk. At sun rise moths were collected and later dissected for spermatophores. Significantly higher mating activity occurred in untreated fields (p= 0.000). 3. Green bolls were collected at random and examined for larvae. Significantly higher infestation levels existed in untreated zones. At harvest (November), seed cotton yields were weighed using trailer scales. Higher yields were recovered from pheromone (1,864 lb/acre), and pheromone + nematode fields (1,712 lb/acre), than control fields (1,450 lb/acre). However, due to large variations between fields, the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.436).