Arizona's Multi-agency Resistance Management Program for Bt Cotton: Sustaining the Susceptibility of Pink Bollworm
AuthorSims, Maria A.
Dennehy, Timothy J.
AffiliationDepartment of Entomology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Arizona Cotton Research and Protection Council, Phoenix, AZ
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AbstractBt cotton has been used in Arizona since 1996 with exceptionally positive results in terms of economic returns to growers and reductions in insecticide use in cotton. Yet, the isolation of pink bollworm highly resistant to Bt cotton from collections made in Arizona in 1997 demonstrated the seriousness of the threat that resistance poses to transgenic Bt technology. For this reason unparalleled measures have been taken to detect and manage resistance of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in Arizona. This paper presents results of statewide monitoring of pink bollworm susceptibility to the Bt toxin, Cry1Ac, conducted from 1997 to 1999. Mean susceptibility of Arizona pink bollworm to Cry1Ac increased from 1997 to 1999. Mean corrected mortality in 1μg/ml Cry1Ac assays was 52.3% in 1997, 90.6% in 1998, and 97.9% in 1999. Mean corrected mortality in bioassays of 10 μg/ml was 94.5% in 1997, 99.8% in 1998, and 100% in 1999. Selection with Cry1Ac in the laboratory has produced from 1997 field collections a strain possessing 200 to 900-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. This resistant strain is capable of surviving on Bt cotton. We provide an overview of other components of the multi-agency collaboration to sustain efficacy of Bt cotton in Arizona. These include: 1) evaluation of the field performance of Bt cotton; 2) mapping and analysis of use of Bt and non-Bt cotton and compliance with refuge requirements; 3) effectiveness of internal versus external refuges and movement of pink bollworm moths from refuges; and 4) activities of the Arizona Bt Cotton Working Group to formulate and implement effective resistance management strategies.