• Aphid Control in Broccoli

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Murrieta, J.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      In a small plot field test, imidacloprid (Provado®), oxydemeton- methyl (Metasystox-R®), RH -7988 (Aphisttar®, Rohm and Haas), pirimicarb (Pirimor®), methamidaphos (Monitor®), and endosulfan were effective in significantly reducing the number of aphids in broccoli within 4 days of treatment (DAT). At 14 DAT, Provado, Metasystox-R, and Monitor continued to exhibit a significant reduction of aphids relative to the untreated check Pymetrozine (CGA- 215944, Novartis) at 0.022 lb AI/A did not effectively reduce aphids in this test.
    • Aphid Control in Spinach

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Murrieta, J.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      Several newly introduced insecticides that have potential for use in vegetable crops for aphid control were evaluated and demonstrated very good efficacy against green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Field testing in spinach showed that CGA-293343 (Novartis) at the two rates tested significantly reduced the number of aphids relative to the untreated check. CGA-215944 (pymetrozine -Novartis) effectively reduced the number of aphids after two applications. Aphistar (RH- 7988 - Rohm and Haas) demonstrated the greatest reduction in the number of aphids per plant after each application. Provado (imidacloprid) and Thiodan (endosulfan) were applied as commercially available standard treatments and effectively reduced the number of aphids relative to the untreated check. Pirimor (pirimicarb) numerically reduced the number of aphids but was not significantly different relative to the untreated check.
    • Cantaloupe Herbicide Weed Control Study

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Strickland, B.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      Clomazone (Command®), bensulide (Prefar®), sulfentrazone, and halosulfuron treatments applied preemergence (PREE) provided very good control of prostrate pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides), lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) at better than 90% at 5 weeks after treatment (WAT). Halosulfuron was effective in controlling all weeds better than 90% at 7 WAT Carfentrazone was not effective against most of the weeds present in the test but appeared to be safe on cantaloupe. Postemergence (POST) treatments alone did not provide acceptable control of pigweeds but controlled lambsquarters and common purslane at 2 WAT. Halosulfuron and bentazon (Basagran®) applied POST following PREE treatments controlled most of the weeds better than 90% through 7 WAT. Cantaloupe yields were highest with good weed control provided by PREE treatments followed by POST herbicide applications. Basagran at 0.50 lb /A injured cantaloupe after applications but yields were not affected compared to the untreated check. Command, sulfentrazone, and halosulfuron caused cantaloupe injury after PREE applications. Basagran caused substantial crop injury after POST applications.
    • Diamondback Moth Control in Spring Cabbage

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Murrieta, J.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      In a small plot field study, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella, DBM) in cabbage were not significantly reduced by various insecticide treatments when applied one time during the season. ABG -6406 (Abbott Laboratories), Success® (spinosad, DowElanco), and Kryocide® generally maintained larger -sized DBM larval numbers below or similar to the untreated check at most rating dates. Cabbage treated by Xentari®, Alert® (clorfenapyr, Cyanamid), Confirm® (tebufenozide, Rohm and Haas) and Proclaim® (emamectin benzoate, Novartis) exhibited numbers of larger -sized larvae that exceeded the untreated check at certain rating dates. DBM populations were not consistent during the testing period to allow assessment of treatment differences.
    • Evaluation of Preemergence Herbicides for Onion Weed Control

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Strickland, B.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      At three test sites, ethofumesate (Nortron®) at 1.0 and 2.0 lb AI /A was safe on onions. Nortron appeared to provide marginal control of light to moderate weed infestations of London rocket (Sisymbrium irio) at two sites. Pendimethalin (Prowl®) at 0.50 and 0.75 lb Al/A was safe on onions at two sites with furrow irrigation. At three sites with sprinkler irrigation, Prowl treatments caused as high as 62 to 88% stand reduction when sprinklers were used to incorporate the herbicide. Bensulide (Prefar0) injured onions at early rating dates and height measurements indicated that the plants were shortened relative to the untreated check. End of the season visual observations showed that onions had grown out of the initial injury and the crop did not appear to be damaged. Prefar combined with Prowl or Nortron was more injurious to onions with sprinkler irrigation than with furrow irrigated incorporation. Prefar gave marginal weed control in the tests under conditions with low weed infestations. Lactofen (Cobra®) was injurious to onions at all five test sites and caused significant crop stand reduction. Combination treatments of Prowl with DCPA (Dacthal®) or Prefar were damaging to onions under sprinklers but injury was minimal with furrow irrigations. Metolachlor (Dual®) and dimethenamid (Frontier®) caused minimal injury and no stand reduction of onions under sprinklers but with furrow irrigation, the stand was reduced and height reduction was substantial. The series of field tests demonstrated that herbicide performance was significantly influenced by irrigation practices. Prowl herbicide was extremely injurious and caused substantial crop stand reduction with sprinkler irrigation. Dual and Frontier exhibited less injury on onions under sprinklers than with furrow irrigation. Cobra at 0.25 lb AI /A was damaging to onions regardless of irrigation practice.
    • Insecticides for Whitefly Control in Cantaloupe

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Strickland, B.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      In small plot field testing, the new IGR's, buprofezine, pyriproxyfen, and fenoxycarb plus CGA-215944 , offered very good reduction of the WF adults and immature stages for several weeks. Combinations of the new insecticides and alternating weekly applications were effective in minimizing WF season-long. Pyrethroids, bifenthrin and esfenvalerate plus endosulfan treatments, were effective after early applications and nymph counts were elevated after the third application. Oxydemeton-methyl and imidacloprid treatments applied weekly compared favorably with the new chemistries to reduce adults and immatures. Pyridaben applied weekly reduced adult counts relative to the untreated check but immatures increased after the third application.
    • Leafminer Control in Cantaloupe

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Strickland, B.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      In a small plot field test on cantaloupes, abamectin (Agri-mek®), cyromazine (Trigard®), spinosad (Success®), and pyriproxyfen (Knack®) demonstrated efficacy to reduce the number of mined leaves caused by leafminers (Liriomvza sativae and L. trifolii). Multiple applications of Agri-mek and Trigard resulted in melons having the fewest number of mined leaves. Success and Knack were effective in reducing the number of mined leaves relative to the untreated check. All of the treatments provided effective control of leafminers for 14 to 21 days after treatment. Success exhibited a rate response with the highest rate showing the fewest number of mined leaves compared to the lower rate.
    • Noncrop Herbicide Weed Control

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      Paraquat and diquat were effective against weeds immediately at 3 DAT. Glyphosate, sulfosate, and glufosinate exhibited activity against the weeds at 7 to 10 DAT. Paraquat provided the most complete weed control of most weeds at 10 to 16 DAT. Most of the diquat treated weed recovered and exhibited regrowth after 22 DAT. Glufosinate did not provide adequate control of most weeds at 22 DAT similar to diquat. Glyphosate and sulfosate were nearly equivalent at 0.50 and 2.0 lb AI/A against most weeds at most of the rating dates.
    • Postemergence Herbicide Weed Control in Cole Crops Study

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Murrieta, J.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      Weed control ratings at 3 weeks after treatment (WAT) showed that knotweed (Polvgonum argyrocoleon) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis) were not controlled by oxyfluorfen (Goal®), pyridate (Lentagran®), clopyralid (Stinger®), sulfentrazone (FMC), or carfentrazone (FMC). Carfentrazone at 0.50 lb AI/A gave good control ( >89 %) of London rocket (Sisvmbrium irio) and sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus). A lower rate at 0.125 lb AI/A provided acceptable control (85 %). Carfentrazone at 0.50 lb AUA caused severe broccoli and cabbage injury and crop stand reduction. Sulfentrazone at 0.50 lb AI/A gave nearly acceptable control of knotweed, London rocket, and sowthistle. Cabbage was severely injured and broccoli appeared to be more tolerant and injury was marginally acceptable (15 %). Stinger and Goal gave nearly acceptable control of sowthistle. Goal at 0.094 lb AI/A gave 80% control of London rocket. Goal caused marginally acceptable injury (12 to 17 %) and Stinger caused minimal crop injury. Goal appears to be ineffective against weeds at less than 0.094 lb AI/A and crop safety is very marginal. Lentagran was relatively safe on broccoli and cabbage but did not control the existing weed spectrum.
    • Postemergence Weed Control in Cantaloupe Study

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      The postemergence (POST) herbicide treatments did not cause any crop stand reduction following applications. Bentazon (Basagran®) at 0.50 lb AI /A caused marginally acceptable injury on the cantaloupe leaves. At 2 weeks after treatment (WAT), the amount of injury decreased and cantaloupe treated with Basagran at 1.0 lb AI/A showed marginally acceptable injury symptoms. Halosulfuron (Monsanto) at 0.05 to 0.10 lb AI/A caused slightly more injury (10 to 17 %) with increasing rates. Basagran at 1.0 lb Al/A gave good control ( >90 %) of morningglory and was marginal in controlling morningglory at 0.75 lb AI/A Halosulfuron at 1 WAT was marginal in controlling morningglory but improved to give acceptable control at 2 WAT. Fewer and smaller plants were removed by hand-hoeing from Basagran and halosulfuron treated plots compared to the untreated check.
    • Preemergence Herbicide Combinations for Onion Weed Control Study

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Strickland, B.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      DCPA (Dacthal®) at 9.0 lb AI /A, the commercial standard herbicide, slightly reduced the number of plants and shortened the plant height compared to the untreated check. Preemergence (PREE) herbicide treatments that caused injury as height reduction similar to Dacthal included pendimethalin (Prowl®), propachlor (Ramrod®), metolachlor (Dual®), dimethenamid (Frontier®), ethofumesate (Nortron®), and benefin (Balan®). Visual observations did not indicate significant stand reduction or crop injury compared to plant counts. Treatments that caused minimal visible crop injury (<10 %) were Ramrod, Balan and lower rates of Frontier and Nortron. Moderate to acceptable injury (15 %) was observed on onions treated by Prowl, Dual, Frontier, and Nortron. Treatments that significantly reduced crop stand were Prefar at 6.0 lb AI /A, lactofen (Cobra®), thiazopyr (Visor®), and some combinations of the three herbicides. Combination treatments that caused marginally acceptable injury included Prowl plus Dual, Nortron plus Prowl, Prefar plus Nortron, Nortron plus Frontier, Ramrod plus Frontier, Ramrod plus Nortron, and Ramrod plus Balan. Early weed control ratings showed that Prowl at 0.5 and 0.75 lb Al/A, Nortron, Cobra, Visor applied alone gave acceptable control (>85 %) of London rocket (Sisvmbrium irio), sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus), and sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis). Prowl at 0.75 lb AI/A and Cobra gave season -long control of all weeds. Early weed control ratings of combination herbicide treatments demonstrated that Prowl or Nortron combined with other herbicides gave acceptable weed control. Prowl at 0.50 lb AI /A plus Ramrod, Nortron, or Dual at the lower rates slightly improved weed control compared to each of the herbicides applied alone.
    • Watermelon Herbicide Weed Control Study

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Strickland, B.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-02)
      Bensulide (Prefar®), clomazone (Command®), sulfentrazone (FMC), and halosulfuron (FMC) treatments applied preemergence (PREE) gave very good weed control of prostrate pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides), lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), and common purslane (Potulaca oleracea) at 5 weeks after treatment (WAT). Bentazon (Basagran ® and halosulfuron applied postemergence (POST) alone were marginally effective at less than 85% against the pigweed species at 2 WAT and controlled lambsquarters and common purslane. POST treatments following PREE treatments were highly effective to control most weeds. Watermelon injury was acceptable for Command and halosulfuron treatments. Basagran caused slight injury when applied POST on the watermelons. Carfentrazone was not effective against the weeds present in this test site and was safe on the crop. The greatest number of marketable watermelons were harvested from plots having treatments that provided effective weed control. Command plus Prefar PREE followed by Basagran POST and Prefar PREE followed by halosulfuron POST treated watermelons yielded high numbers of marketable fruit.