• Field Evaluation of Head Lettuce Cultivars for Susceptibility to Sclerotinia Leaf Drop in 1997

      Wilcox, Mark; Matheron, Michael; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Leaf drop of lettuce is caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor disease development. Sixteen diffirent cultivars of head lettuce were evaluated in the field for susceptibility to Sclerotinia leaf drop in plots inoculated with sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor or S. sclerotiorum. Significant differences were detected among the tested cultivars in the amount of lettuce plants killed by Sclerotinia minor. On the other hand, there were no significant differences among tested cultivars in the number of plants destroyed by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
    • Downy and Powdery Mildew of Lettuce: Comparison of Chemical Management Tools in 1997

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Downy and powdery mildew are caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Bremia lactucae and Erysiphe cichoracearum, respectively. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor development of downy mildew, while warmer and dry weather is conducive for development of powdery mildew. Potential new fungicides were evaluated for management of these diseases in 1997. A very low level of downy mildew occurred during this trial; however, all treatments significantly reduced the number of leaf lesions compared to nontreated lettuce plants. Powdery mildew was quite intense at crop maturity and was significantly lower, compared to nontreated lettuce, on plants treated with Microthiol Special, BAS 490 + Bravo Weather Stik, Quadris, and two additional treatments not usually found to reduce this disease.
    • Field Emergence and Seedling Growth of Lettuce as Affected by Pre-Plant/Pre-Emergent Herbicides

      Sill, David W.; Tickes, Barry; Carey, Lisa A.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Pre plant and pre- emergence herbicides are commonly used in lettuce production. We investigated possible effects the herbicides benefin (Balan), pronamide (Kerb) and bensulfide (Prefar) had on emergence and seedling growth of several iceberg lettuce varieties that had been primed and pelleted by seed enhancement companies The herbicide Prefar and a mixture of Balan + Prefar had the greatest impact on dry weight regardless of variety, while seedlings grown on Kerby plots were not significantly different than seedlings from untreated plots. Dry weight accumulation and field emergence were influenced significantly by pellet types and priming methods.
    • Evaluation of Soil Amendments for Lettuce Production in the Desert

      Sanchez, C. A.; Silvertooth, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Two field studies were conducted during the 1993-1994 season to evaluate the response of lettuce to soil applied amendments. Treatments included gypsum, polymaleic acid (Spersal), and two acid products (N-phuric and Phos-phuric). Gypsum rates (0, 2240, and 4480 kg /ha) were the main plots and other soil amendments were subplot randomized within the mainplots. Overall, gypsum reduced early growth and vigor of lettuce. Gypsum had no effects on marketable yield and quality parameters in experiment 1, but the highest gypsum rate (4448 kg /ha) decreased marketable yield in experiment 2. There were no differences in plant stands due to subplot treatments. However, there were differences in earlygrowth and vigor. In experiment 1, both "N-phuric" and "Phos-phuric" increased early lettuce growth compared to the control. In experiment 2, Phos-phuric was superior to N-phuric. In experiment 1, the benefits of early growth and vigor to the "N-phuric" and "Phos-phuric" carried to harvest where marketable yield and quality were significantly increased. Spersal did not significantly effect yield and quality of lettuce in either experiment.
    • Response of Desert Lettuce to N Rate and N Management Practice

      Sanchez, Charles A.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Lettuce produced in the desert typically shows large yield responses to N fertilization. However, concern about the potential threat of nitrate-N to ground water has prompted additional studies aimed at developing improved N management practices. Field experiments were conducted between 1992 and 1994 to evaluate the response of iceberg lettuce to N rate and N management practice. The use of controlled release N sources (CR19 were compared to a soluble N fertilizer applied preplant (PP), and a soluble N fertilizer applied in split-sidedress applications (SD). Rates of N fertilizer application ranged from 0 to 300 kg ha⁻¹. Lettuce generally showed significant responses to N rate and N management practice. However, response to management practice varied by site-season. When conditions for N losses were high, SD and CRN management strategies were superior. However, in other site seasons SD management sometimes resulted in inferior head quality and marketable yield when compared other management strategies. Data averaged over six -site seasons shows improved yield and quality to CRN management strategies compared to PP and SD strategies. Although the controlled-release fertilizers used in these experiments cost three times more the conventional soluble sources used, preliminary analysis shows the use of CRN strategies would sometimes be economically favorable.
    • Sweet Corn Herbicide Weed Control

      Umeda, Kai; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      The sequence of preemergence (PREE) herbicide metolachlor (Dual II®) followed by postemergence (POST) herbicide mixture of primisulfuron plus prosulfuron (Exceed®) provided season-long near complete weed control in sweet corn. Preplant incorporated (PPI) treatments of dimethenamid (Frontier®), EPTC plus safener (Eradicane®), and herbicide mixture FOE 5043 plus metribuzin (Axiom®, Bayer) provided effective weed control for most of the season. Similar effective weed control was observed for PREE treatments of pendimethalin (Prowl®), Frontier, and Axiom.
    • Evaluation of Postemergence Herbicides for Melon Weed Control

      Umeda, Kai; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Bentazon (Basagran®) at 0.5 to 2.0 lb a. i. /A, halosulfuron (Permit®) at 0.025 to 0.10 lb a.i A, and pyridate (Lentagran®) at 0.25 to 1.5 lb a.i. /A were applied postemergence on cantaloupe and watermelon. Bentazon was marginally safe on cantaloupes and controlled purslane and pigweeds. Morningglory and Wright's groundcherry were not effectively controlled by bentazon. Bentazon appeared to be less injurious to watermelons relative to cantaloupes. Halosulfuron was safe on both cantaloupes and watermelons (<15% injury). Halosulfuron at greater than 0.05 lb /A was effective in controlling only Hyssop spurge and London rocket. In one test, halosulfuron gave acceptable control (85 %) of morningglory. Purslane and groundcherry were not controlled by halosulfuron. Pyridate was not safe on cantaloupes causing severe crop stand reduction. Pyridate was safer on watermelons and caused marginally acceptable injury, however, weed control was not effective against groundcherry, spurge or London rocket. Pyridate appeared to give acceptable control of morningglory in one test.
    • Evaluation of Nortron® Herbicide for Preemergence Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      An exploratory field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Nortron® (ethofumesate) herbicide for potential use in an onion weed control program. A rate range of 1.0 to 2.5 lb AI/A applied preemergence (PREE) demonstrated good safety on onions and no injury or crop stand reduction was observed. Sowthistle was the most numerous weed present and Nortron did not reduce it relative to the untreated check. Dacthal® (DCPA) significantly reduced the number of sowthistle relative to the untreated and to Nortron treatments. Onion height was reduced by Dacthal about 40 %.
    • Evaluation of Postemergence Herbicides for Broccoli Weed Control

      Umeda, K.; Stewart, D.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Second year field studies continued to evaluate and determine efficacy and safety of postemergence herbicides for broccoli weed control. Goal® 2XL. a newly introduced formulation of oxyfluorfen. severely injured broccoli after application. London rocket (Sisvmhrium irio) control was not acceptable at less than 80%. Pvridate (Lentagran®) and clopyralid (Stinger®) were relatively safe on broccoli but did not affect London rocket.
    • Evaluation of Summer Cover Crops for Rotations with Vegetable Crops

      Umeda, K.; Munda, B.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
      Five different crops were evaluated in exploratory and observational field studies for potential use as a summer cover crop in a rotation with commonly grown vegetable and field crops. Sesbania ( Sesbania exaltata), cowpea (ViRna unguiculata), sunnhemp (Crotalaria iuncea var. Tropic Sun), sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense cv. Piper), and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) were drill seeded and grown with 2-3 irrigations during the summer months in two field tests. In one test, fresh weight yields were: 7,794 lb/A for sesbania; 10,551 lb/A for sunnhemp; 5,184 lb/A for cowpea; 19,816 lb/A for sudangrass; and 2,390 lb/A for kenaf General observations indicated that adult whiteflies were attracted to sunnhemp at one test site but not at the other. Broccoli, cabbage, and barley were planted in the fall following the cover crops and general observations indicated that sudangrass significantly reduced all of the crops' stand and measurable responses were not evident where the other cover crops were planted.
    • Yuma Cantaloupe Variety Trial 1997

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)
    • Yuma Vegetable Variety Trials 1996/1997

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-10)