• Studies of Resistance of Beet Armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) to Spinosad in Field Populations from the Southern USA and Southeast Asia

      Moulton, J. K.; Pepper, D. A.; Dennehy, T. J.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Extension Arthropod Resistance Management Laboratory, Department of Entomology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Susceptibility to spinosad (Success®/Tracer®) of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) from the southern U.S.A. and Southeast Asia was determined through exposure of third instar larvae to dipped cotton leaves. LC₅₀ values of field populations ranged from 0.6 to 14 μg spinosad/ml. Field populations were 3.0 to 70-fold less susceptible to spinosad than was a susceptible reference population. The least susceptible population was collected from Thailand. We hypothesized that this population was resistant to spinosad because: (1) it was significantly less susceptible to spinosad than all other populations evaluated and than any other reports in the literature; (2) it regained susceptibility while in culture; (3) it was collected from a region of very intensive insecticide use and severe insect resistance problems; and (4) it exhibited significant survivorship on field-treated cabbage leaves. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM), and S,S,S tributyl-phosphorothiolate (DEF) failed to synergize spinosad in this resistant Thailand population, and PBO failed to do so in the least susceptible domestic population evaluated, the Parker, AZ, field strain. However, the synergist and field residue studies were conducted using a Thailand population that had levels of resistance that declined while in laboratory culture.