• Influence of Cultivar and Planting Date on Strawberry Growth and Development in the Low Desert

      Maurer, Michael A.; Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      A field study was designed to determine the effects of cultivar and planting date on growth and yield of strawberries (Fragaria x annanasa D.) in the low desert. The study was conducted at the University of Arizona, Citrus Agricultural Center near Waddell, AZ. Treatments included two strawberry cultivars 'Camarosa' and 'Chandler' and three planting dates of 29 Aug., 7 Oct. and 24 Oct. 1997. There were no significant differences in fruit weight between cultivars . However, fruit number was significantly greater for 'Chandler' strawberries compared to 'Camarosa' and, therefore, fruit size was significantly smaller for 'Chandler' compared to 'Camarosa' berries. Fruit weight and number were significantly greater for both cultivars planted 29 Aug. with nearly 4 times greater production compared to the 7 Oct. and 24 Oct. plantings. Initial results of this study suggest summer planting (late Aug.) of strawberries in the low desert is necessary to produce economically viable yields.
    • Fertigation Frequency Effects on Yield and Quality of Subsurface Drip-Irrigated Broccoli

      Thompson, Thomas L.; White, Scott A.; Walworth, James; Sower, Greg; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Subsurface drip irrigated broccoli received experimental combinations of N rate (176 and 268 lb N/ac, and fertigation frequency (daily, weekly, bi-weekly, monthly) at the Maricopa Agricultural Center during winter 1998-99. Marketable broccoli yields were increased slightly with N applications of 268 lb/acre compared to 176 lb/acre. However, neither marketable yield, head diameter, nor petiole nitrate concentrations were significantly affected by fertigation frequency. Nitrogen fertigation frequency does not seem to be a critical management variable for subsurface drip irrigated broccoli grown on medium-textured soils in Arizona.
    • New Fungicides Evaluated for Control of Powdery Mildew of Cantaloupe in 1998

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Powdery mildew of cucurbits, which include cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, cucumber and squash, occurs every year in Arizona. Moderate temperatures and relative humidity, succulent plant growth and reduced light intensity brought about by a dense plant canopy are factors that promote development of powdery mildew, which is caused by the pathogenic fungus Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Potential new fungicides were evaluated and compared to existing chemicals for control of powdery mildew of cantaloupe in a field trial conducted during the spring of 1998 at the Yuma Agricultural Center. A high level of disease had developed by crop maturity (June 23). On the upper leaf surface where spray coverage was good and disease severity on nontreated leaves was moderate (24% of upper leaf surface infected), all treatments significantly reduced the severity of powdery mildew. These treatments included Sovran, Flint, Procure, Topsin M, Quadris, Benlate, quinoxyfen, Rally, Trilogy, Actigard, Bravo, JMS stylet oil, Kaligreen and Bayleton. In contrast, on the lower leaf surface where spray coverage was not as good and disease severity on nontreated leaves was very high (94% of lower leaf surface infected), the best disease control was achieved with chemistries that have systemic properties. Treatments that held the infected lower leaf surface to 20% or less included Sovran, Flint, Procure, Topsin + Microthiol, and Quadris. The potential availability of new chemistries for management of powdery mildew of cantaloupe and other cucurbits could help improve overall control of powdery mildew as well as the implementation of fungicide resistance management strategies, which strive to minimize the risk of resistance development by the pathogen to these compounds.
    • Studies of Resistance of Beet Armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) to Spinosad in Field Populations from the Southern USA and Southeast Asia

      Moulton, J. K.; Pepper, D. A.; Dennehy, T. J.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Extension Arthropod Resistance Management Laboratory, Department of Entomology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Susceptibility to spinosad (Success®/Tracer®) of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) from the southern U.S.A. and Southeast Asia was determined through exposure of third instar larvae to dipped cotton leaves. LC₅₀ values of field populations ranged from 0.6 to 14 μg spinosad/ml. Field populations were 3.0 to 70-fold less susceptible to spinosad than was a susceptible reference population. The least susceptible population was collected from Thailand. We hypothesized that this population was resistant to spinosad because: (1) it was significantly less susceptible to spinosad than all other populations evaluated and than any other reports in the literature; (2) it regained susceptibility while in culture; (3) it was collected from a region of very intensive insecticide use and severe insect resistance problems; and (4) it exhibited significant survivorship on field-treated cabbage leaves. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM), and S,S,S tributyl-phosphorothiolate (DEF) failed to synergize spinosad in this resistant Thailand population, and PBO failed to do so in the least susceptible domestic population evaluated, the Parker, AZ, field strain. However, the synergist and field residue studies were conducted using a Thailand population that had levels of resistance that declined while in laboratory culture.
    • Sweet Corn Herbicide Weed Control Study

      Umeda, K.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      The soil applied herbicides EPTC plus safener (Eradicane7), metolachlor (Dual)7, dimethenamid (Frontier7), pendimethalin (Prowl7), and fluthiamide/metribuzin (Axiom7) applied at planting time all provided very good weed control of pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.), grasses, and puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris). Most of the soil applied followed by POST combination treatments gave very good control (>90%) of lambsquarters (Chenopodium spp.), pigweeds, and groundcherry (Physalis wrightii). POST treatments bentazon (Basagran7), dicamba (Clarity7), and diflufenzopyr plus dicamba (Distinct7) applied alone were not as effective as combinations with soil applied herbicides.
    • Refinement of Release Techniques for Whitefly Parasitoids

      Byrne, David N.; Bellamy, David E.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Department of Entomology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Although they are currently effectively controlled by chemicals, sweet potato whiteflies have the potential to once again be a dominant pest in Arizona vegetables. We need to explore alternatives such as biological control so that we are not reliant solely on pesticides. We have been examining dispersal by the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus sp. in order to find more effective ways to deploy these agents in the field. We have learned in the laboratory that these wasps are efficient flyers since they are capable of moving into strong winds for more than 30 min. We also now know that most flight takes place within a short distance of the release point. We also have a better understanding of differences between male and female flight. This, along with other information we have obtained, will lead to our ability to effectively release these and parasitoids of other insect pests as well.
    • Potential of Particle Film Technology for Insect Management in Crisp Head Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      A new insect management technology known as "particle film" technology (Surround) was evaluated for it potential for control early fall pests of head lettuce in Yuma, AZ. Surround did appear to slightly reduce larval population of cabbage looper, beet armyworm and Heliothis, but not enough to be considered a commercially effective treatment. Additionally, Surround appeared to antagonize Success’s activity towards cabbage loopers. Against whiteflies, Surround did appear to reduce ovipositioning, but resultant impact on the nymph population could not be adequately assessed. Overall, Surround does not appear to have good fit in the pest management system in leafy vegetables in Yuma, AZ.
    • Implementation of a Pest Monitoring Network for Vegetable Growers in Yuma County

      Palumbo, John; Kerns, David; Mullis, Clay; Reyes, Francisco; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      An insect pest monitoring network spanning the major growing areas in Yuma was implemented in 1998-1999. This project was designed to measure the relative activity and movement of adult populations during the growing season and provide important information to growers and PCA’s. A series of pheromonebaited and yellow sticky traps were placed in 11 locations among the growing areas in the Yuma, Gila and Dome Valleys in Yuma county. Numbers of adults / trap /night were recorded weekly from September-April. Seasonal differences in insect species activity and abundance among locations were observed, but difficult to precisely explain because of the lack of historical trap data. Information gathered from the trapping network will provide historical baseline data for pest activity on an area wide basis from which relationships between insect trap captures and seasonal factors that influence their activity and abundance may be explained. The results of the monitoring network during the 1998-1999 growing season for is provided in this report.
    • Canarygrass Control in Wheat

      Tickes, Barry; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
    • Evaluation of Foliar Insecticides for Whiteflies in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      A single application of buprofezin (Applaud7) at 0.38 lb AI/A had the fewest number of adult whiteflies (WF) on rating dates at 13, 21, and 27 days after treatment (DAT). The number of immature WF at 21 DAT of a single Applaud application ranged from 0.8 to 5.2 nymphs/leaf, significantly less than the untreated. Applaud treatments were effective in minimizing the immatures for 21 DAT of a single application and then numbers began to increase before 27 DAT. Applaud plus two subsequent weekly applications of bifenthrin (Capture7) plus endosulfan (Thiodan7, Phaser7) was almost similar to single applications of Applaud alone and adult numbers were also low. Weekly applications of the pyrethroids plus endosulfan reduced the adult WF relative to the untreated at 1 week after treatment (WAT). At 2 WAT of the third application, fenpropathrin (Danitol7) and Capture continued to show reduced numbers of adults and esfenvalerate (Asana7) was similar to the untreated. Danitol treatments had numerically fewer adults than Capture which was lower than Asana. The lowest adult and immature WF populations were observed season-long in the CGA-293343 (Novartis) treated cantaloupes. Both rates, 0.067 and 0.09 lb AI/A performed similarly and numerically slightly fewer nymphs were observed for the higher rate. CGA-293343 plus CGA-215944 (pymetrozine, Fulfill7) performed similar to the two rates of CGA-293343 alone.
    • Residual Efficacy of New Insecticide Chemistries Against Cabbage Looper in Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Several new insecticide chemistries were evaluated and compared with standard chemistries for residual efficacy against cabbage looper in lettuce. Four field trials were conducted at thinning, and heading stages of lettuce. These replicated trials clearly demonstrate that the new insecticides provide a solid 7 day residual efficacy (>90% control) following spray applications. Overall, Success at rates ranging from 4.5-6.0 oz/acre appeared to provide the most consistent residual activity on larvae present on plants at time of application. Confirm, appeared to have less consistent residual, but control was generally similar to Success. The newer compounds Proclaim and Avaunt, showed good residual efficacy for up to 7 days, and will be a welcome additions to the growers insecticide arsenal. Finally, the fact that all of these compounds are effective against large larvae, in part explains their consistent residual activity on lettuce.
    • Tomato Variety Trial Safford Agricultural Center, 1998

      Clark, L. J.; Walser, R.; Carpenter, E. W.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Four slicing and two Roma-type tomato varieties were grown in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in 1998. Varieties were picked regularly during the growing season with total tonnage picked being tabulated and plot weights by variety shown graphically against time during the season. Balboa variety of slicing tomato and Toro variety of Roma-type tomato were the highest yielding varieties with yields of 69 and 76 tons per acre respectively.
    • Soil-Applied Insecticides for Whitefly Control in Fall Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      CGA-293343 and Admire applied to the soil at planting time provided good control of WF at rating dates 34, 45, and 52 DAP. Cantaloupes treated with CGA-293343 at 0.09 lb AI/A showed a greater increase in number of immatures after 45 DAP compared to the CGA-293343 at 0.18 lb AI/A applied on melons. At 59 DAP, the higher rate of CGA-293343 continued to reduce the number of immatures compared to the lower rate and untreated check. Admire treated melons with or without a subsequent foliar insecticide treatments showed reduced WF nymphs at 45 and 52 DAP or 10 and 17 days after treatment (DAT) of foliar applications. Foliar applications of Applaud or Asana plus endosulfan did not significantly reduce WF immatures compared to a single at-planting time application of Admire. The application of either foliar treatment did not extend the length of control beyond that offered by the Admire treatment.
    • Evaluation of Knack for Aphid Control in Green Leaf Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Knack was evaluated for its potential for regulating aphid populations in green leaf lettuce. However, Knack did not appear to be a viable control option, and probably did not work due to an inability to deliver the material where the aphids were on the underside of the lower leaves. A soil injection treatment of Admire at planting, and a foliar standard of Warrior + Endosulfan applied at the initiation of aphid colonization and again 14 later, were highly effective treatments.
    • Cross Commodity Management of Whiteflies and Chemical Efficacy in Arizona

      Palumbo, John; Ellsworth, Peter; Umeda, Kai; Dennehy, Tim; Arbogast, Mike; Evans, Lin; Hannan, Todd; Minch, Ed; Nichols, Bob; Byrne, David N.; et al. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      The Western Growers Association and Arizona Cotton Growers Association worked cooperatively with a group of University of Arizona scientists, Arizona Department of Agriculture officials and regional pest control advisors to develop general guidelines for managing whiteflies and specific recommendations for Applaud and Admire use. This was achieved by identifying differences in crop production, insecticide use, and whitefly population dynamics on key host crops within three distinct growing regions in Arizona. Data was compiled that when graphically illustrated identified important, multidimensional interactions within cropping systems. Based on the patterns resulting from our analysis, initial recommendations have been formulated to harmonize chemical use across commodities by restricting Applaud use to only once per crop season in use windows, with additional guidelines for reducing the possibility of exposing successive whitefly generations to the same mode of action. The diversification and limitation of Admire and other active ingredients, and the employment of cultural practices are also be considered. Should this model of cooperation be successful, valuable and scarce modes of action may also be shared in the future within diverse, integrated use systems.
    • S-1812 Lepidopterous Insect Pest Control in Broccoli Study

      Umeda, K.; Strickland, B.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      A single application of S-1812 (Valent) at 0.15 and 0.20 lb AI/A effectively reduced Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) in broccoli compared to the untreated check. S-1812 at 0.15 lb AI/A performed similar to thiodicarb (Larvin) at 1.0 lb AI/A. S-1812 significantly reduced the DBM at 5 days after treatment (DAT) and control was effective for up to 14 DAT. S-1812 was less effective against Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper, CL) compared to DBM control efficacy or Larvin. S-1812 reduced the development of small CL to larger sized larvae.
    • Postemergence Herbicide Weed Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      The addition of an adjuvant, Agridex, to halosulfuron or Basagran7 (bentazon) did not increase crop injury significantly compared to treatments without Agridex. The addition of Agridex to halosulfuron slightly improved morningglory (Ipomoea hederacea) control compared to without the use of an adjuvant. Bentazon at 1.0 lb/A plus Agridex gave very good morningglory control at 92%. At 2 WAT on 20 Aug, cantaloupe injury decreased for halosulfuron and bentazon treatments. A second application of halosulfuron at 0.05 lb/A did not cause additional crop injury.
    • Preemergence Herbicide Combinations for Onion Weed Control

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Most herbicides applied alone preemergence (PREE) caused minimal crop injury (<10%) when furrow irrigated. Pendimethalin (Prowl) applied at 0.5 lb AI/A plus bensulide (Prefar) at 6.0 lb AI/A under sprinkler irrigation in Tolleson caused crop injury that was highly unacceptable and the crop stand was severely reduced. Onion yields were significantly reduced for the Prowl plus Prefar treatments. Prowl at 0.25 or 0.5 lb AI/A alone provided very good (>90%) weed control of all weeds. Combination treatments of Prowl plus other herbicides provided very good weed control but did not offer enhanced control of weeds already controlled by Prowl alone. The combinations of ethofumesate (Nortron) with metolachlor (Dual) or dimethenamid (Frontier) gave improved weed control compared to when either was applied alone.
    • Evaluation of New Fungicides for Management of Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce in 1999

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      In Arizona, Sclerotinia leaf drop of lettuce is caused by two different species of fungi, Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Relatively cool and moist environmental conditions favor this disease. Some new fungicides in development were evaluated for control of leaf drop on lettuce during the winter vegetable growing season of 1998-99. Sclerotia of each pathogen were applied to plots after thinning and just before the first of two applications of test compounds. The final severity of leaf drop in these trials was moderately high. Significant reduction in the final count of dead lettuce plants compared to nontreated plots was usually achieved by application of the standard compounds Ronilan and Rovral as well as an appropriate rate of the experimental compounds Elevate, Medallion or Serenade. Medallion and Elevate provided equivalent disease control to that of the current standard materials with 0.178 and 0.5 lb active ingredient (a.i.) per acre, respectively, compared to the current 1.0 lb a.i. per acre required with the standard compounds. Continued demonstration of efficacy by Serenade may provide the opportunity to utilize a biological control product to reduce the incidence of Sclerotinia leaf drop of lettuce.
    • Evaluation of Herbicides for Cantaloupe Weed Control

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      At 4 weeks after treatment (WAT), all preemergence (PREE) treatments were completely safe on cantaloupes. At 1 WAT of postemergence (POST) applications, marginally acceptable melon injury (11 to 19%) was observed. At 6 WAT, crop injury increased significantly for both halosulfuron and bentazon. Halosulfuron (POST) following bensulide (PREE) caused minimal crop injury. The pigweeds were marginally controlled when POST treatments followed PREE herbicides. Tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus) was more difficult to control than prostrate pigweed (A. blitoides). Halosulfuron gave good control of nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) at 6 WAT.