• Canarygrass Control in Wheat

      Tickes, Barry; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
    • Early Postemergence Herbicide Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Onions treated with bromoxynil (Buctril7) or oxyfluorfen (Goal7) at the time when the first true leaf was emerging were not injured. No significant onion crop stand reduction occurred from any of the postemergence (POST) treatments. Onion height was not affected by any of the POST treatments through the season. A single application of Goal or Buctril offered up to 7 WAT of very good weed control with excellent crop safety. Onions treated at the typical 2-leaf stage of growth with Buctril or Goal exhibited no significant crop injury. Delayed and reduced control of knotweed (Polygonum aviculare) could have contributed to the decreased onion yield in the herbicide treated onions compared to the handweeded check. Onions in the untreated check were significantly reduced compared to Goal treated onions or the handweeded check.
    • The Effect of Irrigation Practices on the Performance of Lettuce Herbicides

      Tickes, Barry; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      The herbicides used in lettuce have changed little in more than 30 years. Poast was registered for grass control in the 1980's although preemergent applications of Kerb, Balan and Prefar have been the principal herbicides used in lettuce production since the mid 1960's. Balan was changed from a 1.5 lb./gal. Emulsifiable concentrate to a 60% dry flowable formulation in the mid 80's, Kerb has always been a 50% wettable powder and Prefar is still a 4 lb./gal. emulsifiable concentrate. Growers are constantly changing cultural practices to improve production or to become more efficient. The change in one cultural practice can, and often does, effect other cultural practices. The use of sprinklers to establish lettuce has become increasingly widespread in the Yuma area over the past 20 years. Kerb and Prefar can be mechanically incorporated into shaped beds although both are commonly incorporated with irrigation water. The change in irrigation practices during stand establishment from furrow irrigation to sprinklers has effected the performance of both Kerb and Prefar. Balan is normally disced into the soil prior to bed formation and is not as effected by irrigation practices during stand establishment. Four tests are presented in this paper that help explain the effect of irrigation practices on the performance of Kerb and Prefar.
    • Evaluation of Herbicides for Cantaloupe Weed Control

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      At 4 weeks after treatment (WAT), all preemergence (PREE) treatments were completely safe on cantaloupes. At 1 WAT of postemergence (POST) applications, marginally acceptable melon injury (11 to 19%) was observed. At 6 WAT, crop injury increased significantly for both halosulfuron and bentazon. Halosulfuron (POST) following bensulide (PREE) caused minimal crop injury. The pigweeds were marginally controlled when POST treatments followed PREE herbicides. Tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus) was more difficult to control than prostrate pigweed (A. blitoides). Halosulfuron gave good control of nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) at 6 WAT.
    • Evaluation of Preemergence Herbicides for Early Season Onion Weed Control

      Knowles, Tim C.; Poole, Charles; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Two experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of soil applied broadcast preemergent herbicides including Nortron, Prowl, Prefar, and Prefar + Prowl combinations applied at planting to fall seeded dry bulb onions. Crop stand reductions ranging from 10 to 33 percent resulted from Prowl 3.3EC use rates of 1.2 and 2.4 pt/acre. Prowl 3.3EC applied at 0.6 pt/acre, Prefar 4E applied at 4 and 6 qt/acre, Nortron 4SC applied at 2 pt/acre, and the combination of 0.6 pt Prowl 3.3 EC plus Prefar 4E were safe on fall seeded onions. Prefar plus Prowl combinations also provided winter weed control equal to or better than the standard 14 lb/acre Dacthal 75WP.
    • Garbanzo Bean Weed Control Study

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Pendimethalin (Prowl7) and oxyfluorfen (Goal7) applied preemergence (PREE) caused minimal injury and gave very good weed control (>90%). Goal and sulfentrazone alone applied postemergence (POST) gave very good weed control at 6 WAT. The combination of Prowl followed by Goal or sulfentrazone gave complete control of all weeds. Goal and sulfentrazone applied POST following PREE treatments gave nearly complete weed control with good crop safety. Clomazone (Command7) caused significant crop injury and stand reduction when applied PREE. Metribuzin (Sencor7) applied POST completely reduced the crop stand and gave complete control of all weeds. Metolachlor (Dual7), dimethenamid (Frontier7), Sencor, flumetsulam, and imazamox generally did not provide acceptable control of Chenopodium desiccatum (narrowleaf lambsquarters) and Sonchus oleraceus (sowthistle). Bentazon (Basagran7), acifluorfen (Blazer7), and fomesafen (Reflex7) were not effective against narrowleaf lambsquarters but gave adequate control of the other weeds.
    • Postemergence Herbicide Weed Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      The addition of an adjuvant, Agridex, to halosulfuron or Basagran7 (bentazon) did not increase crop injury significantly compared to treatments without Agridex. The addition of Agridex to halosulfuron slightly improved morningglory (Ipomoea hederacea) control compared to without the use of an adjuvant. Bentazon at 1.0 lb/A plus Agridex gave very good morningglory control at 92%. At 2 WAT on 20 Aug, cantaloupe injury decreased for halosulfuron and bentazon treatments. A second application of halosulfuron at 0.05 lb/A did not cause additional crop injury.
    • Preemergence Herbicide Combinations for Onion Weed Control

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Most herbicides applied alone preemergence (PREE) caused minimal crop injury (<10%) when furrow irrigated. Pendimethalin (Prowl) applied at 0.5 lb AI/A plus bensulide (Prefar) at 6.0 lb AI/A under sprinkler irrigation in Tolleson caused crop injury that was highly unacceptable and the crop stand was severely reduced. Onion yields were significantly reduced for the Prowl plus Prefar treatments. Prowl at 0.25 or 0.5 lb AI/A alone provided very good (>90%) weed control of all weeds. Combination treatments of Prowl plus other herbicides provided very good weed control but did not offer enhanced control of weeds already controlled by Prowl alone. The combinations of ethofumesate (Nortron) with metolachlor (Dual) or dimethenamid (Frontier) gave improved weed control compared to when either was applied alone.
    • Prowl and Prefar for Onion Weed Control

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Lund, N.; Robertz, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Pendimethalin (Prowl7) applied preemergence (PREE) at 0.25 to 0.50 lb AI/A caused no observable injury and did not affect yields of onions that were furrow irrigated . Prowl applied PREE at 0.50 lb AI/A caused significant crop stand and yield reduction compared to lower rates or the untreated check under sprinkler irrigation. Prowl applied preplant incorporated (PPI) at rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.75 lb AI/A did not significantly injure onions or cause a significant yield reduction. Combination treatments of Prowl plus bensulide (Prefar7) applied PREE did not cause any measurable crop height or stand reduction compared to the standard treatment or untreated check. Prowl at 0.25 lb AI/A plus Prefar at 4.0 lb AI/A adequately controlled cheeseweed, yellow sweetclover, sowthistle, and London rocket.
    • Sweet Corn Herbicide Weed Control Study

      Umeda, K.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      The soil applied herbicides EPTC plus safener (Eradicane7), metolachlor (Dual)7, dimethenamid (Frontier7), pendimethalin (Prowl7), and fluthiamide/metribuzin (Axiom7) applied at planting time all provided very good weed control of pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.), grasses, and puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris). Most of the soil applied followed by POST combination treatments gave very good control (>90%) of lambsquarters (Chenopodium spp.), pigweeds, and groundcherry (Physalis wrightii). POST treatments bentazon (Basagran7), dicamba (Clarity7), and diflufenzopyr plus dicamba (Distinct7) applied alone were not as effective as combinations with soil applied herbicides.
    • Timing of Postemergence Herbicides for Onion Weed Control

      Umeda, K.; Gal, G.; Strickland, B.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Bromoxynil (Buctril®) at 0.063, 0.094, and 0.125 lb AI/A was completely safe on onions treated at the early first true leaf stage of growth. Onions did not exhibit visual injury at 12 days after treatment (DAT) and height was not different from the untreated at 45 DAT. Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweetclover) was only marginally controlled by both Buctril and oxyfluorfen (Goal®). Goal provided better weed control with an earlier application timing at 0.063 lb AI/A than the later application at 0.25 lb AI/A. All herbicide treated onions yielded higher than the untreated. A rate response was observed for Buctril and Goal where onion yields were higher for the higher rates of application. Results indicate that the POST herbicides at lower than typical use rates were safe when applied to onions at an early timing. Effective weed control of some weeds was observed but yellow sweetclover was not adequately controlled.