• Application and Timing of Insecticides for Aphid Management in Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Mullis, Clayton Jr.; Reyez, Francisco; Amaya, Andreas; Ledesma, Luis; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      The timing and application methods of new insecticide chemistries for aphid control were compared to imidacloprid in several studies in 1998 and 1999. Foliar applications of Fulllfill, Aphistar, Actara and Acetamiprid appear to provide an alternative method of controlling aphids on lettuce comparable to prophylactic applications of Admire. Timing applications as aphids began to colonize was critical for preventing head contamination at harvest. In addition, at planting and side dress soil applications of Platinum provided aphid control comparable to Admire. Residual activity of the new foliar alternatives appeared to differ depending on spray timing relative to aphid density and plant stage. These studies suggest that more than one application of the foliar products will be necessary to adequately suppress aphid contamination in heads. Evaluations of thiamethoxam suggest that it is more mobile in the soil than Admire and may be a candidate for side dress applications for aphid management.
    • Cross Commodity Management of Whiteflies and Chemical Efficacy in Arizona

      Palumbo, John; Ellsworth, Peter; Umeda, Kai; Dennehy, Tim; Arbogast, Mike; Evans, Lin; Hannan, Todd; Minch, Ed; Nichols, Bob; Byrne, David N.; et al. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      The Western Growers Association and Arizona Cotton Growers Association worked cooperatively with a group of University of Arizona scientists, Arizona Department of Agriculture officials and regional pest control advisors to develop general guidelines for managing whiteflies and specific recommendations for Applaud and Admire use. This was achieved by identifying differences in crop production, insecticide use, and whitefly population dynamics on key host crops within three distinct growing regions in Arizona. Data was compiled that when graphically illustrated identified important, multidimensional interactions within cropping systems. Based on the patterns resulting from our analysis, initial recommendations have been formulated to harmonize chemical use across commodities by restricting Applaud use to only once per crop season in use windows, with additional guidelines for reducing the possibility of exposing successive whitefly generations to the same mode of action. The diversification and limitation of Admire and other active ingredients, and the employment of cultural practices are also be considered. Should this model of cooperation be successful, valuable and scarce modes of action may also be shared in the future within diverse, integrated use systems.
    • Diamondback Moth Control in Spring Cabbage Study

      Umeda, K.; Strickland, B.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Spinosad (Success7), chlorfenapyr (Alert7), DPX-MP062 (DuPont), thiodicarb (Larvin7), and cryolite (Kryocide7) progressively reduced the total number of Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) following each of three applications. Success treated cabbage had the fewest number of small-sized DBM larvae after the first application and maintained very low numbers following subsequent applications. Relative performance of the insecticides based on efficacy indicated by a seasonal average of total DBM larvae showed that Success was highly effective followed by methomyl (Lannate) and Larvin. Emamectin-benzoate (Proclaim7), Alert, and DPX-MP062 performed comparably and tebufenozide (Confirm7) and Kryocide were less effective.
    • Efficacy of Insecticides to Diamondback Moth in Cabbage in Yuma County

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Commercial and experimental insecticides were evaluated for their ability to control diamondback moth (DBM) on green cabbage in Yuma, AZ. At early to mid-heading, all the insecticides evaluated appeared to offer similar control. However, on large, full sized cabbage, Asana, Alert, Lannate, Success and S-1812 offered the best DBM control, while Lorsban, Proclaim and Intrepid appeared weak. Unlike other areas of the U.S., DBM in Yuma still appears to be highly sensitive to a wide range of insecticide chemistries.
    • Evaluation of Foliar Insecticides for Whiteflies in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      A single application of buprofezin (Applaud7) at 0.38 lb AI/A had the fewest number of adult whiteflies (WF) on rating dates at 13, 21, and 27 days after treatment (DAT). The number of immature WF at 21 DAT of a single Applaud application ranged from 0.8 to 5.2 nymphs/leaf, significantly less than the untreated. Applaud treatments were effective in minimizing the immatures for 21 DAT of a single application and then numbers began to increase before 27 DAT. Applaud plus two subsequent weekly applications of bifenthrin (Capture7) plus endosulfan (Thiodan7, Phaser7) was almost similar to single applications of Applaud alone and adult numbers were also low. Weekly applications of the pyrethroids plus endosulfan reduced the adult WF relative to the untreated at 1 week after treatment (WAT). At 2 WAT of the third application, fenpropathrin (Danitol7) and Capture continued to show reduced numbers of adults and esfenvalerate (Asana7) was similar to the untreated. Danitol treatments had numerically fewer adults than Capture which was lower than Asana. The lowest adult and immature WF populations were observed season-long in the CGA-293343 (Novartis) treated cantaloupes. Both rates, 0.067 and 0.09 lb AI/A performed similarly and numerically slightly fewer nymphs were observed for the higher rate. CGA-293343 plus CGA-215944 (pymetrozine, Fulfill7) performed similar to the two rates of CGA-293343 alone.
    • Evaluation of Knack for Aphid Control in Green Leaf Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Knack was evaluated for its potential for regulating aphid populations in green leaf lettuce. However, Knack did not appear to be a viable control option, and probably did not work due to an inability to deliver the material where the aphids were on the underside of the lower leaves. A soil injection treatment of Admire at planting, and a foliar standard of Warrior + Endosulfan applied at the initiation of aphid colonization and again 14 later, were highly effective treatments.
    • Evaluation of New Insecticides for Aphid Control in Green Leaf Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      New soil injected and foliar insecticides were evaluated for their efficacy towards potato aphids in green leaf lettuce. The soil injected insecticides, Platinum and V10066, both appear to be viable alternatives to Admire, providing effective aphid control through harvest or ca. 90 days post-planting. Two foliar applications of Acetamiprid or Aphistar timed ca. 14 days apart beginning at the onset of aphid colonization provided superior aphid control over Provado or Fullfill, and control similar to that of the soil injected insecticides.
    • Field Performance of Admire Against Silverleaf Whitefly on Commercial Iceberg Lettuce, 1993-1998

      Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Whitefly populations in the Yuma area have been reduced to levels that growers can cost-effectively manage. Data from our studies suggest that these declines in pest populations are largely attributed to the use of Admire 2F (imidacloprid) soil treatments. Relative to the outbreaks in 1993-1994, whitefly populations during the past four growing seasons have remained at sub-economic levels on lettuce crops throughout the growing areas in Yuma This chemical has provided excellent control of whiteflies on fall lettuce, and aphids on spring lettuce. After 6 years of evaluation in commercial fields, the product appears to remain highly efficacious, maintaining good residual activity. Studies in 1998 on fall broccoli and melons crops further support this conclusion. Factors responsible for this sustained efficacy of Admire are discussed.
    • Leafminer Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Cantaloupe leaf damage from leafminer activity was minimal to non-existent when evaluated at 6 days after treatment (DAT) following each of the first four weekly application dates. At 13 DAT-4, the number of mined leaves increased tremendously over the previous observation date. The untreated cantaloupes showed an increase from 30.8 to 81.8 mined leaves compared to the previous week. Agri-mek and the alternation treatment of Trigard, Success7, and Agri-mek applied on cantaloupes showed the fewest number of mined leaves at about 22 mined leaves. Trigard and Success treated cantaloupes had increased number of mined leaves ranging from 44 to 56.8. Agri-mek and the alternation treatment consistently had the fewest number of mined leaves during the course of the test period. Trigard and Success treatments performed similarly and reduced the number of mined leaves relative to the untreated cantaloupes. Success at the higher rate appeared to be slightly more active by showing numerically fewer mined leaves than the lower rate of application. Success treated melons yielded nearly twice as much compared to the other treatments and the untreated. Success treated melons also offered a higher number of marketable fruit at better than 80% compared to about 60% for the other treatments. Less stickiness was observed on the Success treated cantaloupes. There appeared to be an effect from Success applications on whitefly to reduce the honeydew stickiness.
    • New Insecticides and Tank Mix Combinations for Worm Control in Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Proclaim and a normal use rate of 5 oz/ac of Success were highly effective against cabbage looper, Heliothis and beet armyworm. A low rate of 1.5 oz/ac of Success provided sufficient control of Heliothis and beet armyworm, but was weak against cabbage looper. While a low rate of 2.56 oz/ac of Warrior was not especially active against any of the target species. However, when this rate of Warrior was mixed with the low rate of Success, control across all the species was good, and was statistically similar to the higher rate of Success. Although Intrepid appeared slightly more active than its sister compound Confirm, it appears that it too will benefit from the addition of a pyrethroid for control of Heliothis and cabbage loopers on large lettuce plants.
    • A Practical Approach for Managing Lepidopterous Larvae with in Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      During the past 5 years, the efficacy and field performance of several new insecticides for control of Lepidopterous insects on desert lettuce crops has been investigated in small plot trials at the Yuma Agricultural Center and in produce fields with commercial cooperators. The objective has been to determine how these new chemistries will fit into pest management programs in Arizona. Thus, research programs have been focused on studies to define use patterns for these insecticides chemicals that can be integrated into our local management programs in the most cost-effective way possible. This report was created to provide an overview of the new chemistries being developed, their field activity and characteristics, and guidelines for use in head lettuce. In addition, an approach for sustaining the long-term efficacy of these products is discussed.
    • Preliminary Examination of the Population Dynamics and Control of the Lettuce Aphid on Romaine

      Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Several small plot studies were conducted during the spring of 1999 to examine the population growth, distribution and control of the lettuce aphid on romaine. The lettuce aphid population developed to greater numbers more quickly and spread among plants more rapidly when compared with other aphids species under late spring growing conditions. Most of the lettuce aphids sampled were found on the hearts of the plants rather than the frame and wrapper leaves. Our preliminary efficacy studies suggest that foliar sprays, when timed properly and with proper coverage, can provide adequate control of the lettuce aphid for up to 14 days. Furthermore, significant suppression of apterous lettuce aphid populations was observed in plots where pyrethoid treatment were sprayed for thrips control. The implications of these results for future research and management of lettuce aphids in desert lettuce is discussed.
    • Residual Efficacy of New Insecticide Chemistries Against Cabbage Looper in Head Lettuce

      Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Several new insecticide chemistries were evaluated and compared with standard chemistries for residual efficacy against cabbage looper in lettuce. Four field trials were conducted at thinning, and heading stages of lettuce. These replicated trials clearly demonstrate that the new insecticides provide a solid 7 day residual efficacy (>90% control) following spray applications. Overall, Success at rates ranging from 4.5-6.0 oz/acre appeared to provide the most consistent residual activity on larvae present on plants at time of application. Confirm, appeared to have less consistent residual, but control was generally similar to Success. The newer compounds Proclaim and Avaunt, showed good residual efficacy for up to 7 days, and will be a welcome additions to the growers insecticide arsenal. Finally, the fact that all of these compounds are effective against large larvae, in part explains their consistent residual activity on lettuce.
    • S-1812 Lepidopterous Insect Pest Control in Broccoli Study

      Umeda, K.; Strickland, B.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      A single application of S-1812 (Valent) at 0.15 and 0.20 lb AI/A effectively reduced Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) in broccoli compared to the untreated check. S-1812 at 0.15 lb AI/A performed similar to thiodicarb (Larvin) at 1.0 lb AI/A. S-1812 significantly reduced the DBM at 5 days after treatment (DAT) and control was effective for up to 14 DAT. S-1812 was less effective against Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper, CL) compared to DBM control efficacy or Larvin. S-1812 reduced the development of small CL to larger sized larvae.
    • Soil-Applied Insecticides for Whitefly Control in Fall Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      CGA-293343 and Admire applied to the soil at planting time provided good control of WF at rating dates 34, 45, and 52 DAP. Cantaloupes treated with CGA-293343 at 0.09 lb AI/A showed a greater increase in number of immatures after 45 DAP compared to the CGA-293343 at 0.18 lb AI/A applied on melons. At 59 DAP, the higher rate of CGA-293343 continued to reduce the number of immatures compared to the lower rate and untreated check. Admire treated melons with or without a subsequent foliar insecticide treatments showed reduced WF nymphs at 45 and 52 DAP or 10 and 17 days after treatment (DAT) of foliar applications. Foliar applications of Applaud or Asana plus endosulfan did not significantly reduce WF immatures compared to a single at-planting time application of Admire. The application of either foliar treatment did not extend the length of control beyond that offered by the Admire treatment.
    • Studies of Resistance of Beet Armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) to Spinosad in Field Populations from the Southern USA and Southeast Asia

      Moulton, J. K.; Pepper, D. A.; Dennehy, T. J.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; Extension Arthropod Resistance Management Laboratory, Department of Entomology (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Susceptibility to spinosad (Success®/Tracer®) of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) from the southern U.S.A. and Southeast Asia was determined through exposure of third instar larvae to dipped cotton leaves. LC₅₀ values of field populations ranged from 0.6 to 14 μg spinosad/ml. Field populations were 3.0 to 70-fold less susceptible to spinosad than was a susceptible reference population. The least susceptible population was collected from Thailand. We hypothesized that this population was resistant to spinosad because: (1) it was significantly less susceptible to spinosad than all other populations evaluated and than any other reports in the literature; (2) it regained susceptibility while in culture; (3) it was collected from a region of very intensive insecticide use and severe insect resistance problems; and (4) it exhibited significant survivorship on field-treated cabbage leaves. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM), and S,S,S tributyl-phosphorothiolate (DEF) failed to synergize spinosad in this resistant Thailand population, and PBO failed to do so in the least susceptible domestic population evaluated, the Parker, AZ, field strain. However, the synergist and field residue studies were conducted using a Thailand population that had levels of resistance that declined while in laboratory culture.