• Early Postemergence Herbicide Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Onions treated with bromoxynil (Buctril7) or oxyfluorfen (Goal7) at the time when the first true leaf was emerging were not injured. No significant onion crop stand reduction occurred from any of the postemergence (POST) treatments. Onion height was not affected by any of the POST treatments through the season. A single application of Goal or Buctril offered up to 7 WAT of very good weed control with excellent crop safety. Onions treated at the typical 2-leaf stage of growth with Buctril or Goal exhibited no significant crop injury. Delayed and reduced control of knotweed (Polygonum aviculare) could have contributed to the decreased onion yield in the herbicide treated onions compared to the handweeded check. Onions in the untreated check were significantly reduced compared to Goal treated onions or the handweeded check.
    • The Effect of Irrigation Practices on the Performance of Lettuce Herbicides

      Tickes, Barry; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti; University of Arizona Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      The herbicides used in lettuce have changed little in more than 30 years. Poast was registered for grass control in the 1980's although preemergent applications of Kerb, Balan and Prefar have been the principal herbicides used in lettuce production since the mid 1960's. Balan was changed from a 1.5 lb./gal. Emulsifiable concentrate to a 60% dry flowable formulation in the mid 80's, Kerb has always been a 50% wettable powder and Prefar is still a 4 lb./gal. emulsifiable concentrate. Growers are constantly changing cultural practices to improve production or to become more efficient. The change in one cultural practice can, and often does, effect other cultural practices. The use of sprinklers to establish lettuce has become increasingly widespread in the Yuma area over the past 20 years. Kerb and Prefar can be mechanically incorporated into shaped beds although both are commonly incorporated with irrigation water. The change in irrigation practices during stand establishment from furrow irrigation to sprinklers has effected the performance of both Kerb and Prefar. Balan is normally disced into the soil prior to bed formation and is not as effected by irrigation practices during stand establishment. Four tests are presented in this paper that help explain the effect of irrigation practices on the performance of Kerb and Prefar.
    • Effect of Onion Bed Shape on Accumulation of Soluble Salts and Sodium

      Knowles, Tim C.; Poole, Charles; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      An experiment was conducted to examine the effectiveness of knifing a vshaped notch into the center of raised onion beds for reducing soluble salt accumulation in the seed rows. Sodium salts accumulated within an 18 inch wide band in the top six inches of the knifed raised bed profile. Sodium salts accumulated primarily within a narrow six inch wide band, and to a somewhat lesser extent, within an 18 inch wide band in the top six inches of the conventional raised bed profile. Total soluble salts accumulated primarily within a six inch wide band in the top six inches of the knifed and conventional onion raised bed profiles.
    • Efficacy of Insecticides to Diamondback Moth in Cabbage in Yuma County

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Commercial and experimental insecticides were evaluated for their ability to control diamondback moth (DBM) on green cabbage in Yuma, AZ. At early to mid-heading, all the insecticides evaluated appeared to offer similar control. However, on large, full sized cabbage, Asana, Alert, Lannate, Success and S-1812 offered the best DBM control, while Lorsban, Proclaim and Intrepid appeared weak. Unlike other areas of the U.S., DBM in Yuma still appears to be highly sensitive to a wide range of insecticide chemistries.
    • Evaluation of Foliar Insecticides for Whiteflies in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      A single application of buprofezin (Applaud7) at 0.38 lb AI/A had the fewest number of adult whiteflies (WF) on rating dates at 13, 21, and 27 days after treatment (DAT). The number of immature WF at 21 DAT of a single Applaud application ranged from 0.8 to 5.2 nymphs/leaf, significantly less than the untreated. Applaud treatments were effective in minimizing the immatures for 21 DAT of a single application and then numbers began to increase before 27 DAT. Applaud plus two subsequent weekly applications of bifenthrin (Capture7) plus endosulfan (Thiodan7, Phaser7) was almost similar to single applications of Applaud alone and adult numbers were also low. Weekly applications of the pyrethroids plus endosulfan reduced the adult WF relative to the untreated at 1 week after treatment (WAT). At 2 WAT of the third application, fenpropathrin (Danitol7) and Capture continued to show reduced numbers of adults and esfenvalerate (Asana7) was similar to the untreated. Danitol treatments had numerically fewer adults than Capture which was lower than Asana. The lowest adult and immature WF populations were observed season-long in the CGA-293343 (Novartis) treated cantaloupes. Both rates, 0.067 and 0.09 lb AI/A performed similarly and numerically slightly fewer nymphs were observed for the higher rate. CGA-293343 plus CGA-215944 (pymetrozine, Fulfill7) performed similar to the two rates of CGA-293343 alone.
    • Evaluation of Herbicides for Cantaloupe Weed Control

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      At 4 weeks after treatment (WAT), all preemergence (PREE) treatments were completely safe on cantaloupes. At 1 WAT of postemergence (POST) applications, marginally acceptable melon injury (11 to 19%) was observed. At 6 WAT, crop injury increased significantly for both halosulfuron and bentazon. Halosulfuron (POST) following bensulide (PREE) caused minimal crop injury. The pigweeds were marginally controlled when POST treatments followed PREE herbicides. Tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus) was more difficult to control than prostrate pigweed (A. blitoides). Halosulfuron gave good control of nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) at 6 WAT.
    • Evaluation of Knack for Aphid Control in Green Leaf Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Knack was evaluated for its potential for regulating aphid populations in green leaf lettuce. However, Knack did not appear to be a viable control option, and probably did not work due to an inability to deliver the material where the aphids were on the underside of the lower leaves. A soil injection treatment of Admire at planting, and a foliar standard of Warrior + Endosulfan applied at the initiation of aphid colonization and again 14 later, were highly effective treatments.
    • Evaluation of New Fungicides for Management of Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce in 1999

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      In Arizona, Sclerotinia leaf drop of lettuce is caused by two different species of fungi, Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Relatively cool and moist environmental conditions favor this disease. Some new fungicides in development were evaluated for control of leaf drop on lettuce during the winter vegetable growing season of 1998-99. Sclerotia of each pathogen were applied to plots after thinning and just before the first of two applications of test compounds. The final severity of leaf drop in these trials was moderately high. Significant reduction in the final count of dead lettuce plants compared to nontreated plots was usually achieved by application of the standard compounds Ronilan and Rovral as well as an appropriate rate of the experimental compounds Elevate, Medallion or Serenade. Medallion and Elevate provided equivalent disease control to that of the current standard materials with 0.178 and 0.5 lb active ingredient (a.i.) per acre, respectively, compared to the current 1.0 lb a.i. per acre required with the standard compounds. Continued demonstration of efficacy by Serenade may provide the opportunity to utilize a biological control product to reduce the incidence of Sclerotinia leaf drop of lettuce.
    • Evaluation of New Insecticides for Aphid Control in Green Leaf Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      New soil injected and foliar insecticides were evaluated for their efficacy towards potato aphids in green leaf lettuce. The soil injected insecticides, Platinum and V10066, both appear to be viable alternatives to Admire, providing effective aphid control through harvest or ca. 90 days post-planting. Two foliar applications of Acetamiprid or Aphistar timed ca. 14 days apart beginning at the onset of aphid colonization provided superior aphid control over Provado or Fullfill, and control similar to that of the soil injected insecticides.
    • Evaluation of Preemergence Herbicides for Early Season Onion Weed Control

      Knowles, Tim C.; Poole, Charles; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Two experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of soil applied broadcast preemergent herbicides including Nortron, Prowl, Prefar, and Prefar + Prowl combinations applied at planting to fall seeded dry bulb onions. Crop stand reductions ranging from 10 to 33 percent resulted from Prowl 3.3EC use rates of 1.2 and 2.4 pt/acre. Prowl 3.3EC applied at 0.6 pt/acre, Prefar 4E applied at 4 and 6 qt/acre, Nortron 4SC applied at 2 pt/acre, and the combination of 0.6 pt Prowl 3.3 EC plus Prefar 4E were safe on fall seeded onions. Prefar plus Prowl combinations also provided winter weed control equal to or better than the standard 14 lb/acre Dacthal 75WP.
    • Fertigation Frequency Effects on Yield and Quality of Subsurface Drip-Irrigated Broccoli

      Thompson, Thomas L.; White, Scott A.; Walworth, James; Sower, Greg; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Subsurface drip irrigated broccoli received experimental combinations of N rate (176 and 268 lb N/ac, and fertigation frequency (daily, weekly, bi-weekly, monthly) at the Maricopa Agricultural Center during winter 1998-99. Marketable broccoli yields were increased slightly with N applications of 268 lb/acre compared to 176 lb/acre. However, neither marketable yield, head diameter, nor petiole nitrate concentrations were significantly affected by fertigation frequency. Nitrogen fertigation frequency does not seem to be a critical management variable for subsurface drip irrigated broccoli grown on medium-textured soils in Arizona.
    • Field Performance of Admire Against Silverleaf Whitefly on Commercial Iceberg Lettuce, 1993-1998

      Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Whitefly populations in the Yuma area have been reduced to levels that growers can cost-effectively manage. Data from our studies suggest that these declines in pest populations are largely attributed to the use of Admire 2F (imidacloprid) soil treatments. Relative to the outbreaks in 1993-1994, whitefly populations during the past four growing seasons have remained at sub-economic levels on lettuce crops throughout the growing areas in Yuma This chemical has provided excellent control of whiteflies on fall lettuce, and aphids on spring lettuce. After 6 years of evaluation in commercial fields, the product appears to remain highly efficacious, maintaining good residual activity. Studies in 1998 on fall broccoli and melons crops further support this conclusion. Factors responsible for this sustained efficacy of Admire are discussed.
    • Garbanzo Bean Weed Control Study

      Umeda, K.; MacNeil, D.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Pendimethalin (Prowl7) and oxyfluorfen (Goal7) applied preemergence (PREE) caused minimal injury and gave very good weed control (>90%). Goal and sulfentrazone alone applied postemergence (POST) gave very good weed control at 6 WAT. The combination of Prowl followed by Goal or sulfentrazone gave complete control of all weeds. Goal and sulfentrazone applied POST following PREE treatments gave nearly complete weed control with good crop safety. Clomazone (Command7) caused significant crop injury and stand reduction when applied PREE. Metribuzin (Sencor7) applied POST completely reduced the crop stand and gave complete control of all weeds. Metolachlor (Dual7), dimethenamid (Frontier7), Sencor, flumetsulam, and imazamox generally did not provide acceptable control of Chenopodium desiccatum (narrowleaf lambsquarters) and Sonchus oleraceus (sowthistle). Bentazon (Basagran7), acifluorfen (Blazer7), and fomesafen (Reflex7) were not effective against narrowleaf lambsquarters but gave adequate control of the other weeds.
    • Green Bean Variety Trial, Safford Agricultural Center, 1998

      Clark, L. J.; Walser, R.; Carpenter, E. W.; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Twelve green bean varieties were grown in a replicated small plot trial on the Safford Agricultural Center in 1998. Varieties were picked regularly during the growing season. Yields are shown in tabular form and also graphically to indicate how each variety performed throughout the season. Rapids produced the highest yield with a total over 1.3 tons per acre. Two other varieties, Shade and HMX 6999, also performed well with yields over 1.0 tons per acre.
    • Implementation of a Pest Monitoring Network for Vegetable Growers in Yuma County

      Palumbo, John; Kerns, David; Mullis, Clay; Reyes, Francisco; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      An insect pest monitoring network spanning the major growing areas in Yuma was implemented in 1998-1999. This project was designed to measure the relative activity and movement of adult populations during the growing season and provide important information to growers and PCA’s. A series of pheromonebaited and yellow sticky traps were placed in 11 locations among the growing areas in the Yuma, Gila and Dome Valleys in Yuma county. Numbers of adults / trap /night were recorded weekly from September-April. Seasonal differences in insect species activity and abundance among locations were observed, but difficult to precisely explain because of the lack of historical trap data. Information gathered from the trapping network will provide historical baseline data for pest activity on an area wide basis from which relationships between insect trap captures and seasonal factors that influence their activity and abundance may be explained. The results of the monitoring network during the 1998-1999 growing season for is provided in this report.
    • Influence of Cultivar and Planting Date on Strawberry Growth and Development in the Low Desert

      Maurer, Michael A.; Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      A field study was designed to determine the effects of cultivar and planting date on growth and yield of strawberries (Fragaria x annanasa D.) in the low desert. The study was conducted at the University of Arizona, Citrus Agricultural Center near Waddell, AZ. Treatments included two strawberry cultivars 'Camarosa' and 'Chandler' and three planting dates of 29 Aug., 7 Oct. and 24 Oct. 1997. There were no significant differences in fruit weight between cultivars . However, fruit number was significantly greater for 'Chandler' strawberries compared to 'Camarosa' and, therefore, fruit size was significantly smaller for 'Chandler' compared to 'Camarosa' berries. Fruit weight and number were significantly greater for both cultivars planted 29 Aug. with nearly 4 times greater production compared to the 7 Oct. and 24 Oct. plantings. Initial results of this study suggest summer planting (late Aug.) of strawberries in the low desert is necessary to produce economically viable yields.
    • Leafminer Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, Kai; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Cantaloupe leaf damage from leafminer activity was minimal to non-existent when evaluated at 6 days after treatment (DAT) following each of the first four weekly application dates. At 13 DAT-4, the number of mined leaves increased tremendously over the previous observation date. The untreated cantaloupes showed an increase from 30.8 to 81.8 mined leaves compared to the previous week. Agri-mek and the alternation treatment of Trigard, Success7, and Agri-mek applied on cantaloupes showed the fewest number of mined leaves at about 22 mined leaves. Trigard and Success treated cantaloupes had increased number of mined leaves ranging from 44 to 56.8. Agri-mek and the alternation treatment consistently had the fewest number of mined leaves during the course of the test period. Trigard and Success treatments performed similarly and reduced the number of mined leaves relative to the untreated cantaloupes. Success at the higher rate appeared to be slightly more active by showing numerically fewer mined leaves than the lower rate of application. Success treated melons yielded nearly twice as much compared to the other treatments and the untreated. Success treated melons also offered a higher number of marketable fruit at better than 80% compared to about 60% for the other treatments. Less stickiness was observed on the Success treated cantaloupes. There appeared to be an effect from Success applications on whitefly to reduce the honeydew stickiness.
    • New Fungicides Evaluated for Control of Powdery Mildew of Cantaloupe in 1998

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Powdery mildew of cucurbits, which include cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon, cucumber and squash, occurs every year in Arizona. Moderate temperatures and relative humidity, succulent plant growth and reduced light intensity brought about by a dense plant canopy are factors that promote development of powdery mildew, which is caused by the pathogenic fungus Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Potential new fungicides were evaluated and compared to existing chemicals for control of powdery mildew of cantaloupe in a field trial conducted during the spring of 1998 at the Yuma Agricultural Center. A high level of disease had developed by crop maturity (June 23). On the upper leaf surface where spray coverage was good and disease severity on nontreated leaves was moderate (24% of upper leaf surface infected), all treatments significantly reduced the severity of powdery mildew. These treatments included Sovran, Flint, Procure, Topsin M, Quadris, Benlate, quinoxyfen, Rally, Trilogy, Actigard, Bravo, JMS stylet oil, Kaligreen and Bayleton. In contrast, on the lower leaf surface where spray coverage was not as good and disease severity on nontreated leaves was very high (94% of lower leaf surface infected), the best disease control was achieved with chemistries that have systemic properties. Treatments that held the infected lower leaf surface to 20% or less included Sovran, Flint, Procure, Topsin + Microthiol, and Quadris. The potential availability of new chemistries for management of powdery mildew of cantaloupe and other cucurbits could help improve overall control of powdery mildew as well as the implementation of fungicide resistance management strategies, which strive to minimize the risk of resistance development by the pathogen to these compounds.
    • New Insecticides and Tank Mix Combinations for Worm Control in Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Tellez, Tony; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Proclaim and a normal use rate of 5 oz/ac of Success were highly effective against cabbage looper, Heliothis and beet armyworm. A low rate of 1.5 oz/ac of Success provided sufficient control of Heliothis and beet armyworm, but was weak against cabbage looper. While a low rate of 2.56 oz/ac of Warrior was not especially active against any of the target species. However, when this rate of Warrior was mixed with the low rate of Success, control across all the species was good, and was statistically similar to the higher rate of Success. Although Intrepid appeared slightly more active than its sister compound Confirm, it appears that it too will benefit from the addition of a pyrethroid for control of Heliothis and cabbage loopers on large lettuce plants.
    • Nitrogen Transfer in an Integrated System of Tilapia and Summer Bibb Lettuce

      Azevedo, Celicina; Olsen, Mary W.; Maughan, O. Eugene; Byrne, David N.; Baciewicz, Patti (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1999-10)
      Nitrogen transfer from aquaculture to agriculture in integrated systems has been difficult to quantify, and the contribution of fish effluent to nitrogen utilization by crop plants is poorly documented. Therefore, labeled nitrogen, ¹⁵N, was used in a small scale integrated system in a controlled environment greenhouse to determine nitrogen transfer from the fish system and its utilization by plants. Tilapia fish were grown in m³ tanks and fed a complete diet that was amended with ¹⁵N ammonium sulfate. Fish effluent amended with ingredients of a basic nutrient solution and 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% of the recommended mineral nitrogen was used to irrigate Summer Bibb lettuce in 5 gal lysimeters in two trials. In trial 1, percent ¹⁵N recovered by lettuce was significantly higher in effluent amended with 50% mineral nitrogen as opposed to 0% or 100%. Dry weight of lettuce was significantly lower only when irrigated with effluent only (no mineral nitrogen added). In trial 2, percent ¹⁵N recovered by lettuce was significantly higher in effluent amended with 25% mineral nitrogen as opposed to 0% or 50%. In treatments with the same amount of mineral nitrogen added, addition of effluent did not affect dry weight. Although ¹⁵N recovery demonstrated efficient nitrogen transfer from the fish feed to the plants, results indicate that effluent alone does not supply sufficient nitrogen for lettuce production.