• Impact of Sweet Potato Whitefly Infestation on Yield and Quality of Cantaloupe

      Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      A range of population levels of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius was evaluated in three field experiments allowing measurement of the effect of whitefly numbers on melon quality and yield. An increase in total numbers of immature whitefly was associated with significant declines in harvested melon weight, a decline in number of boxes harvested, a decrease in fruit size, a decrease in percent sugars, and an increase in sooty mold. Regression analysis of individual whitefly life stages with yield parameters indicated that adult number was a more precise parameter and higher R2 values were obtained with increased range of whitefly population densities. Adults were sampled at the third leaf node in both locations. Nymph samples were taken at varying nodes from the base of the plant. Estimates of the mean adult whitefly density resulting in 5% and 15 % dollar yield loss were 3 and 10 adults per leaf Estimates of the mean total nymph density resulting in 5% and 15% dollar yield loss 0.5 and 2 (AZ) nymphs per cm² of leaf area, respectively.
    • Insectide Combinations for Whitefly Control in Broccoli

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Two pyrethroid insecticides, fenpropathrin (Danitol®) and bifenthrin (Capture®), were evaluated in several combinations with other insecticides for whitefly control in broccoli and demonstrated good efficacy to reduce eggs and immature stage insects. At one week after the second of three applications, Danitol® or Capture® plus methamidaphos (Monitor®), acephate (Orthene®), or endosulfan (Thiodan®) significantly reduced egg counts relative to the untreated check.
    • Postemergence Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Oxyfluorfen (Goal®) herbicide at 0.125 to 0.25 lb. a.i./A applied postemergence (POST) to onions at the 3-leaf stage of growth effectively controlled London rocket, yellow sweetclover, and prostrate pigweed with marginal injury to onions. Earlier POST applications on 1- and 2-leaf onions caused injury and some stand reduction. Bromoxynil (Buctril®) herbicide at 0.25 lb. a.i./A applied early POST gave generally good weed control but did not adequately control sweetclover. Buctril® applied in clear weather did not injure 1-leaf onions but caused severe injury on 2- and 3-leaf onions when applied during cloudy weather conditions. Buctril® plus pendimethalin (Prowl®) tank-mix combination applied POST provided good control of London rocket, sweetclover, and prostrate pigweed; however, onion injury was severe due to applying Buctril® in cloudy weather. Buctril® and Goal® effectively controlled weeds present in the onions but timing of POST applications was critical with respect to onion size and weather conditions to minimize injury.
    • Early Postemergence Herbicide Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Oxyfluorfen (Goal®) herbicide at 0.25 lb. ai./A and bromoxynil (Buctril®) at 0.38 lb.a.i. /A applied early postemergence (POST) to onions at the 1- to 2-leaf stage of growth gave near complete control ( >98 %) of lambsquarters, knotweed, cheeseweed, London rocket, and good control ( -90 %) of shepherd's purse. Buctril® did not control annual bluegrass and Goal® only slightly reduced some of the heavy population. Both herbicides caused marginally unacceptable onion injury at 17-20 %. Buctril® plus pendimethalin (Prowl®) tank-mix combination applied POST also gave very good broadleaaved weed control but annual bluegrass was reduced only 50 %. Similar onion injury was observed for the combination treatment as Buctril® alone. Buctril® caused onion injury when it was applied during cloudy weather. Buctril® and Goal® were effective for broadspectrum broadleaved weed control but onions were sensitive when treated before reaching the full 2-leaf stage of growth. Cloudy weather during applications also intensified the onion injury by Buctril® treatments.
    • Comparative Efficacy of B.t. Insecticides Against Lepidopterous Pests in Cabbage

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Several commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Al) insecticides were applied on cabbage and lepidopterous pests including Tricoplusia it (cabbage looper, CL), Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm, BAW), and Plutella xvlostella (diamondback moth, DBM) were effectively reduced in population. The ten commercial products did not appear to vary significantly in controlling CL, the dominant species present in the cabbage.
    • Cabbage Variety Trials 1994/1995

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F.; Yuma Valley Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Dry Bulb Onion Variety Trial

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; McGrath, B.; Pettigrew, T.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Forty-five different dry bulb onion varieties were grown and evaluated to provide a comparison of varietal characteristics including firmness, size, shape, and maturity.
    • Imidacloprid Does Not Enhance Growth and Yield of Cantaloupe in the Absence of Whitefly

      Palumbo, J. C.; Sanchez, C. A.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Imidacloprid is a new, chloronicotinyl insecticide currently being used to control sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn, also known as silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring). Large growth and yield increases of cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L.) following the use of imidacloprid have caused some to speculate that this compound may enhance growth and yield above that expected from insect control alone. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to evaluate the growth and yield response of melons to imidacloprid in the presence and absence of whitefly pressure. In greenhouse cage studies, sweetpotato whiteflies developed very high densities of nymphs and eclosed pupal cases on plants not treated with imidacloprid, and significant increases in vegetative plant growth were inversely proportional to whitefly densities. Positive plant growth responses were absent when plants were treated with imidacloprid and insects were excluded. Results from a field study showed similar whitefly control and yield responses to imidacloprid and bifenthrin+ endosulfan applications. Hence, we conclude that growth and yield response to imidacloprid is associated with control of whiteflies and the subsequent prevention of damage, rather than a compensatory physiological promotion of plant growth processes.
    • Relative Susceptibility of Red and Gree Color Morphs of the Green Peach Aphid to Foliar and Systemic Insecticides

      Kerns, David L.; Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Foliar and systemic insecticide bioassay techniques were developed for testing insecticide susceptibility to two color morphs of the green peach aphid. Six foliar and one systemic insecticide were used in our evaluations. These insecticides included three organophosphates, two pyrethroids, one organochlorine, and one chloronicotinyl. One of the green colored populations tested was collected from spinach, and red and green color populations were collected from the within the same cabbage field. The red morph was found to be less susceptiblethan the green morphs to Dimethoate, Karate, and Endosulfan. Their were only slight differences in susceptibility to the foliar insecticide between the green morphs. The greenmorph from spinach was found to be the most susceptible to Admire, while the two morphs collected from cabbage did not differ. Leveling off of aphid mortality at about 85% with high doses of Admire may indicate highly tolerant types in the populations, or an artifact of the methodology.
    • Soil-Applied Herbicides for Weed Control in Broccoli

      Umeda, K.; Gill, A.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Three commonly used herbicides for use in broccoli were effective when applied alone or in combinations as a preplant incorporated (PPI) or a preemergence (PE) application. DCPA (Dacthal®) at 10.0 lb product/A PE gave acceptable control of most weeds. Trifluralin (Treflan® SEC) at 1.0 pt/A and bensulide (Prefar® 4EC) PPI were also effective but mustard weeds were not adequately controlled. Combinations of the herbicides at lower rates did not provide any advantage in improving weed control efficacy.
    • New Insecticides for Potential Use for Whitefly Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Most experimental treatments effectively reduced Bemisia tabaci [sweetpotato whitefly (WF) also known as silverleaf WF, B. argentifolii] adults and eggs in cantaloupes relative to the untreated check at 6 days after treatment of each of five applications. Acephate (Orthene®), buprofezin (Applaud®), bifenthrin (Capture®), endosulfan, fenpropathrin (Danitol®), naled (Dibrom®), and pymetrozine(CGA -215944, Ciba) treatments had the fewest adults and eggs. Insect growth regulator (IGR) materials in combinations, pyriproxyfen (S-71639, Valent) and fenoxycarb (Ciba),were more effective in reducing WF relative to the untreated check than when applied alone. Registered products, Dibrom®, endosulfan, and methamidaphos (Monitor®) were effective in combinations or in alternating applications.
    • Dacthal® Herbicide Rate Comparison for Preemergence Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      DCPA (Dacthal®) herbicide was applied preemergence (PE) to the soil surface after onion planting and no crop injury was observed for rates of 5.3, 7.5, and 10.5 lb. a.i. /A at one of two locations. Dacthal® gave good control of London rocket and cheeseweed (90 -94 %) at one location and marginal control at the second location (79 -85 %). Dacthal® did not exhibit a rate response to control the two weeds common to both locations. The lower rate of Dacthal® did not differ in efficacy compared to higher rates to completely control lambsquarters and nettleleaf goosefoot. All rates of Dacthal® marginally controlled yellow sweetclover and other mustard weeds present. Dacthal® provided adequate weed control to allow onion stand establishment.
    • Use of Non Toxic Materials for Whitefly Control and Growth Enhancement in Crisphead Lettuce

      Molin, W. T.; Oebker, N. F.; Brown, J. K.; Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Field studies were conducted in Yuma and Tucson in 1993 to determine the effect of several non toxic substances purported to enhance growth and yield of lettuce, and to determine whether these treatments have an effect on whitefly populations. Five applications of the treatments were made beginning four weeks after planting and continuing at weekly intervals. Results indicated that there may be some positive effects of foliar applied methanol and nutrient (nitrogen/iron) treatments, as well as, from the use of Capture insecticide.
    • Broccoli Variety Trials 1994/1995

      Wilson, Mark; Oebker, Norman F.; The Barkley Company (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Field Evaluation of Potential New Fungicides for Control of Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce in 1994 and 1995

      Matheron, Michael E.; Misaghi, Iraj J.; Porchas, Martin; DeCianne, Dominic; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Leaf drop of lettuce is caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor disease development. Potential new fungicides were evaluated in field trials for control of this disease in 1994 and 1995. In the 1994 trial, Fluazinam and Topsin M provided significant decrease of disease and significant increase inmarketable yield compared to no treatment in plots infested with Sclerotinia minor or S. sclerotiorum. In 1995, Fluazinam, Topsin M, and two compounds from Ciba significantly reduced disease caused by Sclerotinia minor and increased marketable yield of treated lettuce when compared to nontreated plots.
    • Subsurface Drip Irrigation of Leaf Lettuce and Broccoli I: Spatiel Distribution of Roots and Soil Water Tension

      Thompson, Thomas L.; Maki, Kerri L.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      The objectives of this research were i) to observe the movement of the wetting front in subsurface drip irrigated lettuce and broccoli, 2) to analyze variability in soil water tension (SWT) within the profile, and 3) to determine root distributions of subsurface drip irrigated lettuce and broccoli. Lettuce and broccoli plots at the Maricopa Agricultural Center during the 1992-93 and 1993-94 winter growing seasons were intensively instrumented with automated tensiometers. During both seasons, there was good agreement between mean daily SWT, and SWT measured before irrigation. During 1992-93, the maximum variation in mean SWT among tensiometers was 2.5 kPa. Among tensiometers within the zone of greatest root density, the maximum variation was only 1.5 kPa. Therefore, the range of SWT within the lettuce root zone was small, and tensiometer placement anywhere within the root zone would have been adequate. During 1993-94, the maximum variation in mean SWT among tensiometers was 7 kPa. The maximum variation among tensiometers within the zone of greatest root density was 5.3 kPa. The larger variation in mean SWT among tensiometers, compared to lettuce, is due to the greater water use of broccoli. Tensiometer placement will be more critical for higher water use crops. During both seasons roots proliferated around the drip tubing. These results substantiate the assumption that tensiometer placement anywhere within the zone of greatest root density will be adequate for irrigation scheduling of subsurface drip irrigated crops.
    • Subsurface Drip Irrigation of Leaf Lettuce and Broccoli II: Water Balance

      Thompson, Thomas L.; Maki, Kerri L.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      The objective of this research was to estimate a season -long water balance under one subsurface trickle- irrigated plot each of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Waldmann's Green) and broccoli (Brassica olearacea L. var. Claudia). One lettuce plot during 1992-93 and one broccoli plot during 1993-94 were intensively instrumented with automated tensiometers. Tensiometer readings and estimates of evapotranspiration were used to estimate seasonal water contents in the crop root zone, and water losses due to leaching. For the monitored portion of the 1992-3 growing season, 19.1 an of irrigation water was applied, 12.5 cm of rainfall fell, and ET, was 11.5 cm. Estimated deep percolation was 60% of total water applied (irrigation plus rainfall). Leaching was periodic, and was mostly associated with rainfall events. During the monitored portion of the 19934 season, 21.2 cm of irrigation water were applied, 8.0 an of rainfall fell, and ET, was 21.9 cm. Estimated deep percolation was 28% of total water applied. Almost all of this leaching was associated with one major rainfall event. Water stored in the root zone (top 50 cm) was relatively constant at 12-14 cm water/50 cm soil except after rainfall.
    • Efficacy of Biorational Insecticides to Beet Armyworm and Cabbage Looper on Iceberg Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Four tests were conducted evaluating biorational insecticides for control of beet armyworm (BAW) and cabbage looper (CL) on iceberg lettuce. Treatment means for BAW were difficult to separate due to low population densities. The new formulation of Javelin appeared to be the most efficacious Bt overall. However, when Bts were compared on a equal cost/A basis, there were no significant derences among products for CL control. All Bts were comparable to Lannate for CL control. The neem oil extract Align, provided adequate BAW and CL control, and its efficacy at low rates seemed to be slightly enhanced by the addition of Sunspray Ultrafine Oil. Larvin at lower than label recommended rates gave good BAW and CL control as did Javelin. The tank-mix of these two products did not enhance worm control over that of the products used alone. Mustang gave good control of CL but appeared to be slightly weak against BAW.
    • An Action Threshold for Management of Sweet Potato Whitefly in Cantaloupe

      Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      A range of action thresholds for the control of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius were evaluated in field experiments with high population density of B. tabaci. Action thresholds for whitefly adults, based on seasonal whitefly averages that could result in 5% and 15 % dollar losses, of 3 and 10 adults per leaf, respectively, were tested. All thresholds were compared to weekly insecticide treatments and an untreated check The resulting best threshold treatment was 3 adults per leaf area which provided a 170% increase in net return over the untreated check. The 3 adult per leaf threshold resulted in 6 applications of insecticide, compared with 10 applications used in the weekly regime.
    • Efficacy of Insecticides to Green Peach Aphid on Iceberg Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Palumbo, John C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Three tests were conducted evaluating foliar and soil applied aphicides for efficacy to green peach aphid infesting iceberg lettuce. Aphid population densites were low in all three studies and differences among treatments were difficult to discern. At low aphid populations we could not detect whether or not soil applications of Admire enhanced or inhibited the activity of subsequent foliar applications of other aphicides. Although when used alone, some products did offer statistically significant aphid control. However, in a commercial setting these differences would probably not be significant. At low aphid populations none of the pyrethroid tank mixes evaluated gave significantly better aphid control than the products used alone. All of the experimental aphicides evaluated appeared to have some degree of efficacy to green peach aphid.