• An Action Threshold for Management of Sweet Potato Whitefly in Cantaloupe

      Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      A range of action thresholds for the control of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius were evaluated in field experiments with high population density of B. tabaci. Action thresholds for whitefly adults, based on seasonal whitefly averages that could result in 5% and 15 % dollar losses, of 3 and 10 adults per leaf, respectively, were tested. All thresholds were compared to weekly insecticide treatments and an untreated check The resulting best threshold treatment was 3 adults per leaf area which provided a 170% increase in net return over the untreated check. The 3 adult per leaf threshold resulted in 6 applications of insecticide, compared with 10 applications used in the weekly regime.
    • Dry Bulb Onion Variety Trial

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; McGrath, B.; Pettigrew, T.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Forty-five different dry bulb onion varieties were grown and evaluated to provide a comparison of varietal characteristics including firmness, size, shape, and maturity.
    • Relative Susceptibility of Red and Gree Color Morphs of the Green Peach Aphid to Foliar and Systemic Insecticides

      Kerns, David L.; Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Foliar and systemic insecticide bioassay techniques were developed for testing insecticide susceptibility to two color morphs of the green peach aphid. Six foliar and one systemic insecticide were used in our evaluations. These insecticides included three organophosphates, two pyrethroids, one organochlorine, and one chloronicotinyl. One of the green colored populations tested was collected from spinach, and red and green color populations were collected from the within the same cabbage field. The red morph was found to be less susceptiblethan the green morphs to Dimethoate, Karate, and Endosulfan. Their were only slight differences in susceptibility to the foliar insecticide between the green morphs. The greenmorph from spinach was found to be the most susceptible to Admire, while the two morphs collected from cabbage did not differ. Leveling off of aphid mortality at about 85% with high doses of Admire may indicate highly tolerant types in the populations, or an artifact of the methodology.
    • Comparative Efficacy of B.t. Insecticides Against Lepidopterous Pests in Cabbage

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Several commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Al) insecticides were applied on cabbage and lepidopterous pests including Tricoplusia it (cabbage looper, CL), Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm, BAW), and Plutella xvlostella (diamondback moth, DBM) were effectively reduced in population. The ten commercial products did not appear to vary significantly in controlling CL, the dominant species present in the cabbage.
    • Insectide Combinations for Whitefly Control in Broccoli

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Two pyrethroid insecticides, fenpropathrin (Danitol®) and bifenthrin (Capture®), were evaluated in several combinations with other insecticides for whitefly control in broccoli and demonstrated good efficacy to reduce eggs and immature stage insects. At one week after the second of three applications, Danitol® or Capture® plus methamidaphos (Monitor®), acephate (Orthene®), or endosulfan (Thiodan®) significantly reduced egg counts relative to the untreated check.
    • Basal Crop Coefficients for Vegetables in Central Arizona

      Martin, E. C.; Slack, D. C.; Pegelow, E. J.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      The world supply of quality water for irrigation of crops is being depleted. Growers in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, where irrigation is a requirement for crop production, are looking for ways to conserve their water use and increase their irrigation efficiency. One tool that has been useful in helping growers reduce their irrigation water inputs is computerized irrigation scheduling programs. This study is part of a joint project between the government of Egypt (National Agricultural Research Project), USA1D and The University of Arizona. Working together, researchers from Egypt and Arizona are developing water management tools that will help both countries better use their scarce water resources in arid environments. The main thrust of this segment of the project is to develop water use data on vegetables grown in both regions. These data will then be used to develop crop coefficient data to be used in AZSCHED, a computerized irrigation scheduling program developed at the University of Arizona. Using a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system, carrots, cauliflower, head lettuce, and tomatoes were grown to determine water use patterns and develop basal crop coefficients. Water use data were collected using a neutron moisture gauge and a time domain reflectometer (TDR). Soil water data were collected 1 day following an irrigation and just prior to the next irrigation. Additionally, three different watering regimens were employed using available water content in the rootzone as a trigger to initiate irrigation (20 %, 30% and 40% depletion). The carrots, cauliflower and lettuce were planted in early October, 1993, using a randomized block design. Yield data showed no significant differences between treatments for any of the vegetables. Also, the soil moisture data did not indicate water stress in the treatments. In March of 1994, tomato transplants were planted and the irrigation treatments were altered to 30 %, 40% and 50% depletion, in an attempt to get significant differences between treatments. The results for all four vegetables showed high variability in soil water data between replications, although an initial determination of basal crop coefficients was possible. Additional data will be required to better refine the crop coefficients.
    • Admire® Insecticide Use and Influence on Cantaloupe Growth

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Cantaloupe growth was influenced by using imidacloprid (Admire®) insecticide to control, suppress, or reduce whiteflies. The growth rate of cantaloupe was evaluated at regular intervals after crop emergence and a rate response was observed with greater growth with respect to increase in Admire® rate. Following at planting time applications, at 3 and 4 weeks after treatment (WAT) cantaloupe plants had more foliar growth and a greater number of leaves with increasing Admire® rate. At 5 to 8 WAT, cantaloupe vines exhibited greater growth with increasing rates of Admire®.
    • Vine-Decline of Melons Caused by Monosporascus cannonballus in Arizona: Epidemiology and Cultivar Susceptibility

      Stanghellini, M. E.; Rasmussen, S. L.; Kim, D. H.; Oebker, N.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Cabbage Variety Trials 1994/1995

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F.; Yuma Valley Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Soil-Applied Herbicides for Weed Control in Broccoli

      Umeda, K.; Gill, A.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Three commonly used herbicides for use in broccoli were effective when applied alone or in combinations as a preplant incorporated (PPI) or a preemergence (PE) application. DCPA (Dacthal®) at 10.0 lb product/A PE gave acceptable control of most weeds. Trifluralin (Treflan® SEC) at 1.0 pt/A and bensulide (Prefar® 4EC) PPI were also effective but mustard weeds were not adequately controlled. Combinations of the herbicides at lower rates did not provide any advantage in improving weed control efficacy.
    • Mixed Lettuce and Romaine Variety Trials 1994/1995

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F.; Yuma Valley Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Field Evaluation of Potential New Fungicides for Control of Powdery Mildew of Cantaloupe in 1994

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Powdery mildew of cantaloupe in Arizona is caused by the plant pathogenic fungus Sphaerotheca fuliginea. The disease is found in melon fields each year; however, the incidence and severity of the disease is quite variable. Disease development is favored by low relative humidity, moderate temperatures, and succulent plant growth. Potential new fungicides were evaluated for disease control in a field trial conducted in the spring of 1994. In this study, Rally and Reach provided the highest level of disease control and highest percentages of marketable fruit when compared to untreated cantaloupe plants.
    • Identifying Short-Range Migration by the Sweet Potato Whitefly

      Byrne, David N.; Palumbo, John C.; Orum, T. V.; Rathman, Robin J.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Populations of the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, have been shown to consist of both migratory and trivial flying morphs. The behavior of these forms as part of the process of short-range migration needed to be examined under field conditions. Insects were marked in a field of cantaloupes using fluorescent dust. During the first growing season traps, used to collect living whiteflies, were placed along 16 equally spaced transects (22.5° apart) radiating out from the field to a distance of up to 0.6 miles. Wind out of the northeast consistently carried migrating whiteflies to traps placed along transects in the southwestern quadrant because cold air drainages dictate wind direction during early morning hours. For this reason, during the second season traps were laid out in a rectangular grid extending 3 miles to the southwest of the marked field. If dispersal was entirely passive or wind directed patterns could be described using a diffusion model. Statistical examination of the data, however, demonstrate that the distribution on all days was patchy. Traps in the immediate vicinity of the marked field caught more whiteflies than the daily median. Large numbers were also collected from around the periphery of the grid. Whiteflies were far less prevalent in the grid's center. As a result, the distribution of captured whiteflies can be described as bimodal. These patterns confirm behavior observed in the laboratory, i.e., a portion of the population are trivial fliers that do not engage in migration and are consequently captured in traps near the field and a portion initially ignore vegetative cues and fly for a period of time before landing in distant traps. This second population comprises the second peak in the model that appeared 1.6 miles from the marked field. On a localized level, 1.6 miles seems to be how far whiteflies move in a day. Earlier studies indicate that whiteflies only fly one day.
    • New Insecticides for Potential Use for Whitefly Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Most experimental treatments effectively reduced Bemisia tabaci [sweetpotato whitefly (WF) also known as silverleaf WF, B. argentifolii] adults and eggs in cantaloupes relative to the untreated check at 6 days after treatment of each of five applications. Acephate (Orthene®), buprofezin (Applaud®), bifenthrin (Capture®), endosulfan, fenpropathrin (Danitol®), naled (Dibrom®), and pymetrozine(CGA -215944, Ciba) treatments had the fewest adults and eggs. Insect growth regulator (IGR) materials in combinations, pyriproxyfen (S-71639, Valent) and fenoxycarb (Ciba),were more effective in reducing WF relative to the untreated check than when applied alone. Registered products, Dibrom®, endosulfan, and methamidaphos (Monitor®) were effective in combinations or in alternating applications.
    • Dacthal® Herbicide Rate Comparison for Preemergence Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      DCPA (Dacthal®) herbicide was applied preemergence (PE) to the soil surface after onion planting and no crop injury was observed for rates of 5.3, 7.5, and 10.5 lb. a.i. /A at one of two locations. Dacthal® gave good control of London rocket and cheeseweed (90 -94 %) at one location and marginal control at the second location (79 -85 %). Dacthal® did not exhibit a rate response to control the two weeds common to both locations. The lower rate of Dacthal® did not differ in efficacy compared to higher rates to completely control lambsquarters and nettleleaf goosefoot. All rates of Dacthal® marginally controlled yellow sweetclover and other mustard weeds present. Dacthal® provided adequate weed control to allow onion stand establishment.
    • Evaluation of Admire Soil Treatments on Colonization of Green Peach Aphid and Marketability of Lettuce

      Palumbo, John; Kerns, David; Hannan, Todd; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Admire (imidacloprid), applied as a soil treatment, protected lettuce plants from developing infestations of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), for 60-100 d after planting based on two small plot and two commercial field trials. Admire applied 7.6 cm sub-seed furrow provided longer and more consistent protection from green peach aphid than treatments applied to the soil surface, as a side-dress, or 15.2 cm sub-seed furrow. Surface band applications of Admire provided inconsistent control probably because of inadequate hydrological incorporation into the soil. In small plot trials, effective control of aphids by Admire applied 7.6 cm sub seed furrow resulted in greater than 90.0% marketable heads while the untreated plots contained 20.0% marketable heads. When used in a commercial setting, Admire applied 7.6 cm sub-seed furrow on leaf lettuce prevented aphid colonization (<3 aphids per plant) for approximately 100 d after planting, while the untreated and commercial standard treated areas contained 30.7 and 26.8 aphids per plant respectively at 100 d after planting. In addition, marketability of lettuce was greater in Admire treated plots. As a sub-seed furrow treatment, Admire provides a more suitable approach to aphid control than is currently available with foliar insecticides.
    • Herbicide Weed Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Preemergence herbicide treatments metolachlor (Dual®) and pendimethalin (Prowl®) gave better than acceptable weed control ( >85 %) of prostrate and tumble pigweeds, puncturevine, common purslane, and groundcherry in cantaloupes. Preplant incorporated treatments provided less than adequate control of pigweeds and groundcherry. Bentazon (Basagran®) applied postemergence gave good control of pigweeds but groundcherry control was marginal. Napropamide (Devrinol®), trifluralin (Treflan®), and DCPA (Dacthal (D) caused cantaloupe stand reduction and injury. Bensulide (Prefar®) and Basagran® were safe when applied on cantaloupes.
    • Efficacy of Insecticides to Green Peach Aphid on Iceberg Lettuce

      Kerns, David L.; Palumbo, John C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Three tests were conducted evaluating foliar and soil applied aphicides for efficacy to green peach aphid infesting iceberg lettuce. Aphid population densites were low in all three studies and differences among treatments were difficult to discern. At low aphid populations we could not detect whether or not soil applications of Admire enhanced or inhibited the activity of subsequent foliar applications of other aphicides. Although when used alone, some products did offer statistically significant aphid control. However, in a commercial setting these differences would probably not be significant. At low aphid populations none of the pyrethroid tank mixes evaluated gave significantly better aphid control than the products used alone. All of the experimental aphicides evaluated appeared to have some degree of efficacy to green peach aphid.
    • Field Evaluation of Potential New Fungicides for Control of Sclerotinia Leaf Drop of Lettuce in 1994 and 1995

      Matheron, Michael E.; Misaghi, Iraj J.; Porchas, Martin; DeCianne, Dominic; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Leaf drop of lettuce is caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor disease development. Potential new fungicides were evaluated in field trials for control of this disease in 1994 and 1995. In the 1994 trial, Fluazinam and Topsin M provided significant decrease of disease and significant increase inmarketable yield compared to no treatment in plots infested with Sclerotinia minor or S. sclerotiorum. In 1995, Fluazinam, Topsin M, and two compounds from Ciba significantly reduced disease caused by Sclerotinia minor and increased marketable yield of treated lettuce when compared to nontreated plots.
    • Impact of Sweet Potato Whitefly Infestation on Yield and Quality of Cantaloupe

      Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      A range of population levels of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius was evaluated in three field experiments allowing measurement of the effect of whitefly numbers on melon quality and yield. An increase in total numbers of immature whitefly was associated with significant declines in harvested melon weight, a decline in number of boxes harvested, a decrease in fruit size, a decrease in percent sugars, and an increase in sooty mold. Regression analysis of individual whitefly life stages with yield parameters indicated that adult number was a more precise parameter and higher R2 values were obtained with increased range of whitefly population densities. Adults were sampled at the third leaf node in both locations. Nymph samples were taken at varying nodes from the base of the plant. Estimates of the mean adult whitefly density resulting in 5% and 15 % dollar yield loss were 3 and 10 adults per leaf Estimates of the mean total nymph density resulting in 5% and 15% dollar yield loss 0.5 and 2 (AZ) nymphs per cm² of leaf area, respectively.