• Herbicide Weed Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Preemergence herbicide treatments metolachlor (Dual®) and pendimethalin (Prowl®) gave better than acceptable weed control ( >85 %) of prostrate and tumble pigweeds, puncturevine, common purslane, and groundcherry in cantaloupes. Preplant incorporated treatments provided less than adequate control of pigweeds and groundcherry. Bentazon (Basagran®) applied postemergence gave good control of pigweeds but groundcherry control was marginal. Napropamide (Devrinol®), trifluralin (Treflan®), and DCPA (Dacthal (D) caused cantaloupe stand reduction and injury. Bensulide (Prefar®) and Basagran® were safe when applied on cantaloupes.
    • Herbicide Weed Control in Sweet Corn

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Preplant incorporated and/or preemergence herbicide treatments including metolachlor (Dual®), EPTC with safener (Eradicane®), cyanazine (Bladex®), pendimethalin (Prowl®), and tank-mix combinations provided good (88 %) to excellent ( >98 %) weed control of prostrate and tumble pigweeds and purslane in sweet corn.
    • Identifying Short-Range Migration by the Sweet Potato Whitefly

      Byrne, David N.; Palumbo, John C.; Orum, T. V.; Rathman, Robin J.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Populations of the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, have been shown to consist of both migratory and trivial flying morphs. The behavior of these forms as part of the process of short-range migration needed to be examined under field conditions. Insects were marked in a field of cantaloupes using fluorescent dust. During the first growing season traps, used to collect living whiteflies, were placed along 16 equally spaced transects (22.5° apart) radiating out from the field to a distance of up to 0.6 miles. Wind out of the northeast consistently carried migrating whiteflies to traps placed along transects in the southwestern quadrant because cold air drainages dictate wind direction during early morning hours. For this reason, during the second season traps were laid out in a rectangular grid extending 3 miles to the southwest of the marked field. If dispersal was entirely passive or wind directed patterns could be described using a diffusion model. Statistical examination of the data, however, demonstrate that the distribution on all days was patchy. Traps in the immediate vicinity of the marked field caught more whiteflies than the daily median. Large numbers were also collected from around the periphery of the grid. Whiteflies were far less prevalent in the grid's center. As a result, the distribution of captured whiteflies can be described as bimodal. These patterns confirm behavior observed in the laboratory, i.e., a portion of the population are trivial fliers that do not engage in migration and are consequently captured in traps near the field and a portion initially ignore vegetative cues and fly for a period of time before landing in distant traps. This second population comprises the second peak in the model that appeared 1.6 miles from the marked field. On a localized level, 1.6 miles seems to be how far whiteflies move in a day. Earlier studies indicate that whiteflies only fly one day.
    • Imidacloprid Does Not Enhance Growth and Yield of Cantaloupe in the Absence of Whitefly

      Palumbo, J. C.; Sanchez, C. A.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Imidacloprid is a new, chloronicotinyl insecticide currently being used to control sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn, also known as silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring). Large growth and yield increases of cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L.) following the use of imidacloprid have caused some to speculate that this compound may enhance growth and yield above that expected from insect control alone. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to evaluate the growth and yield response of melons to imidacloprid in the presence and absence of whitefly pressure. In greenhouse cage studies, sweetpotato whiteflies developed very high densities of nymphs and eclosed pupal cases on plants not treated with imidacloprid, and significant increases in vegetative plant growth were inversely proportional to whitefly densities. Positive plant growth responses were absent when plants were treated with imidacloprid and insects were excluded. Results from a field study showed similar whitefly control and yield responses to imidacloprid and bifenthrin+ endosulfan applications. Hence, we conclude that growth and yield response to imidacloprid is associated with control of whiteflies and the subsequent prevention of damage, rather than a compensatory physiological promotion of plant growth processes.
    • Impact of Sweet Potato Whitefly Infestation on Yield and Quality of Cantaloupe

      Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      A range of population levels of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius was evaluated in three field experiments allowing measurement of the effect of whitefly numbers on melon quality and yield. An increase in total numbers of immature whitefly was associated with significant declines in harvested melon weight, a decline in number of boxes harvested, a decrease in fruit size, a decrease in percent sugars, and an increase in sooty mold. Regression analysis of individual whitefly life stages with yield parameters indicated that adult number was a more precise parameter and higher R2 values were obtained with increased range of whitefly population densities. Adults were sampled at the third leaf node in both locations. Nymph samples were taken at varying nodes from the base of the plant. Estimates of the mean adult whitefly density resulting in 5% and 15 % dollar yield loss were 3 and 10 adults per leaf Estimates of the mean total nymph density resulting in 5% and 15% dollar yield loss 0.5 and 2 (AZ) nymphs per cm² of leaf area, respectively.
    • Insectide Combinations for Whitefly Control in Broccoli

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Two pyrethroid insecticides, fenpropathrin (Danitol®) and bifenthrin (Capture®), were evaluated in several combinations with other insecticides for whitefly control in broccoli and demonstrated good efficacy to reduce eggs and immature stage insects. At one week after the second of three applications, Danitol® or Capture® plus methamidaphos (Monitor®), acephate (Orthene®), or endosulfan (Thiodan®) significantly reduced egg counts relative to the untreated check.
    • Mixed Lettuce and Romaine Variety Trials 1994/1995

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F.; Yuma Valley Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • New Insecticides for Potential Use for Whitefly Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Most experimental treatments effectively reduced Bemisia tabaci [sweetpotato whitefly (WF) also known as silverleaf WF, B. argentifolii] adults and eggs in cantaloupes relative to the untreated check at 6 days after treatment of each of five applications. Acephate (Orthene®), buprofezin (Applaud®), bifenthrin (Capture®), endosulfan, fenpropathrin (Danitol®), naled (Dibrom®), and pymetrozine(CGA -215944, Ciba) treatments had the fewest adults and eggs. Insect growth regulator (IGR) materials in combinations, pyriproxyfen (S-71639, Valent) and fenoxycarb (Ciba),were more effective in reducing WF relative to the untreated check than when applied alone. Registered products, Dibrom®, endosulfan, and methamidaphos (Monitor®) were effective in combinations or in alternating applications.
    • Postemergence Weed Control in Onions

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Oxyfluorfen (Goal®) herbicide at 0.125 to 0.25 lb. a.i./A applied postemergence (POST) to onions at the 3-leaf stage of growth effectively controlled London rocket, yellow sweetclover, and prostrate pigweed with marginal injury to onions. Earlier POST applications on 1- and 2-leaf onions caused injury and some stand reduction. Bromoxynil (Buctril®) herbicide at 0.25 lb. a.i./A applied early POST gave generally good weed control but did not adequately control sweetclover. Buctril® applied in clear weather did not injure 1-leaf onions but caused severe injury on 2- and 3-leaf onions when applied during cloudy weather conditions. Buctril® plus pendimethalin (Prowl®) tank-mix combination applied POST provided good control of London rocket, sweetclover, and prostrate pigweed; however, onion injury was severe due to applying Buctril® in cloudy weather. Buctril® and Goal® effectively controlled weeds present in the onions but timing of POST applications was critical with respect to onion size and weather conditions to minimize injury.
    • Preemergence Herbicide Weed Control in Spinach

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Two field studies were conducted to evaluate metolachlor (Dual®) for preemergence weed control in spinach to provide support to gain registration through the IR-4 program. Dual® at 1.0 to 1.5 lb a.i./A gave acceptable control of London rocket, black mustard, lambsquarters, and knotweed. Nettleleaf goosefoot, cheeseweed, and yellow sweetclover control was not acceptable. In one test, dimethenamid (Frontier® or SAN -582H, Sandoz) controlled London rocket, lambsquarters, knotweed, and goosefoot at 0.25 lb ai. /A and did not control cheeseweed or sweetclover. Spinach was not injured by Dual® or Frontier®.
    • Relative Susceptibility of Red and Gree Color Morphs of the Green Peach Aphid to Foliar and Systemic Insecticides

      Kerns, David L.; Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Foliar and systemic insecticide bioassay techniques were developed for testing insecticide susceptibility to two color morphs of the green peach aphid. Six foliar and one systemic insecticide were used in our evaluations. These insecticides included three organophosphates, two pyrethroids, one organochlorine, and one chloronicotinyl. One of the green colored populations tested was collected from spinach, and red and green color populations were collected from the within the same cabbage field. The red morph was found to be less susceptiblethan the green morphs to Dimethoate, Karate, and Endosulfan. Their were only slight differences in susceptibility to the foliar insecticide between the green morphs. The greenmorph from spinach was found to be the most susceptible to Admire, while the two morphs collected from cabbage did not differ. Leveling off of aphid mortality at about 85% with high doses of Admire may indicate highly tolerant types in the populations, or an artifact of the methodology.
    • Soil-Applied Herbicides for Weed Control in Broccoli

      Umeda, K.; Gill, A.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Three commonly used herbicides for use in broccoli were effective when applied alone or in combinations as a preplant incorporated (PPI) or a preemergence (PE) application. DCPA (Dacthal®) at 10.0 lb product/A PE gave acceptable control of most weeds. Trifluralin (Treflan® SEC) at 1.0 pt/A and bensulide (Prefar® 4EC) PPI were also effective but mustard weeds were not adequately controlled. Combinations of the herbicides at lower rates did not provide any advantage in improving weed control efficacy.
    • Subsurface Drip Irrigation of Leaf Lettuce and Broccoli I: Spatiel Distribution of Roots and Soil Water Tension

      Thompson, Thomas L.; Maki, Kerri L.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      The objectives of this research were i) to observe the movement of the wetting front in subsurface drip irrigated lettuce and broccoli, 2) to analyze variability in soil water tension (SWT) within the profile, and 3) to determine root distributions of subsurface drip irrigated lettuce and broccoli. Lettuce and broccoli plots at the Maricopa Agricultural Center during the 1992-93 and 1993-94 winter growing seasons were intensively instrumented with automated tensiometers. During both seasons, there was good agreement between mean daily SWT, and SWT measured before irrigation. During 1992-93, the maximum variation in mean SWT among tensiometers was 2.5 kPa. Among tensiometers within the zone of greatest root density, the maximum variation was only 1.5 kPa. Therefore, the range of SWT within the lettuce root zone was small, and tensiometer placement anywhere within the root zone would have been adequate. During 1993-94, the maximum variation in mean SWT among tensiometers was 7 kPa. The maximum variation among tensiometers within the zone of greatest root density was 5.3 kPa. The larger variation in mean SWT among tensiometers, compared to lettuce, is due to the greater water use of broccoli. Tensiometer placement will be more critical for higher water use crops. During both seasons roots proliferated around the drip tubing. These results substantiate the assumption that tensiometer placement anywhere within the zone of greatest root density will be adequate for irrigation scheduling of subsurface drip irrigated crops.
    • Subsurface Drip Irrigation of Leaf Lettuce and Broccoli II: Water Balance

      Thompson, Thomas L.; Maki, Kerri L.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      The objective of this research was to estimate a season -long water balance under one subsurface trickle- irrigated plot each of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Waldmann's Green) and broccoli (Brassica olearacea L. var. Claudia). One lettuce plot during 1992-93 and one broccoli plot during 1993-94 were intensively instrumented with automated tensiometers. Tensiometer readings and estimates of evapotranspiration were used to estimate seasonal water contents in the crop root zone, and water losses due to leaching. For the monitored portion of the 1992-3 growing season, 19.1 an of irrigation water was applied, 12.5 cm of rainfall fell, and ET, was 11.5 cm. Estimated deep percolation was 60% of total water applied (irrigation plus rainfall). Leaching was periodic, and was mostly associated with rainfall events. During the monitored portion of the 19934 season, 21.2 cm of irrigation water were applied, 8.0 an of rainfall fell, and ET, was 21.9 cm. Estimated deep percolation was 28% of total water applied. Almost all of this leaching was associated with one major rainfall event. Water stored in the root zone (top 50 cm) was relatively constant at 12-14 cm water/50 cm soil except after rainfall.
    • Use of Non Toxic Materials for Whitefly Control and Growth Enhancement in Crisphead Lettuce

      Molin, W. T.; Oebker, N. F.; Brown, J. K.; Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Field studies were conducted in Yuma and Tucson in 1993 to determine the effect of several non toxic substances purported to enhance growth and yield of lettuce, and to determine whether these treatments have an effect on whitefly populations. Five applications of the treatments were made beginning four weeks after planting and continuing at weekly intervals. Results indicated that there may be some positive effects of foliar applied methanol and nutrient (nitrogen/iron) treatments, as well as, from the use of Capture insecticide.
    • Vine-Decline of Melons Caused by Monosporascus cannonballus in Arizona: Epidemiology and Cultivar Susceptibility

      Stanghellini, M. E.; Rasmussen, S. L.; Kim, D. H.; Oebker, N.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)