• Herbicide Weed Control in Cantaloupes

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Preemergence herbicide treatments metolachlor (Dual®) and pendimethalin (Prowl®) gave better than acceptable weed control ( >85 %) of prostrate and tumble pigweeds, puncturevine, common purslane, and groundcherry in cantaloupes. Preplant incorporated treatments provided less than adequate control of pigweeds and groundcherry. Bentazon (Basagran®) applied postemergence gave good control of pigweeds but groundcherry control was marginal. Napropamide (Devrinol®), trifluralin (Treflan®), and DCPA (Dacthal (D) caused cantaloupe stand reduction and injury. Bensulide (Prefar®) and Basagran® were safe when applied on cantaloupes.
    • Herbicide Weed Control in Sweet Corn

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Preplant incorporated and/or preemergence herbicide treatments including metolachlor (Dual®), EPTC with safener (Eradicane®), cyanazine (Bladex®), pendimethalin (Prowl®), and tank-mix combinations provided good (88 %) to excellent ( >98 %) weed control of prostrate and tumble pigweeds and purslane in sweet corn.
    • Cauliflower Variety Trials 1994/1995

      Wilcox, Mark; Cuming, Jim; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Cabbage Variety Trials 1994/1995

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F.; Yuma Valley Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Crisphead Lettuce Variety Trials 1994/1995

      Wilcox, Mark; Oebker, Norman F.; Yuma Valley Agricultural Center (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Field Evaluation of Potential New Fungicides for Control of Lettuce Downey and Powdery Mildew in 1994 and 1995

      Matheron, Michael E.; Porchas, Martin; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Downy and powdery mildew are caused by the plant pathogenic fungi Bremia lactucae and Erysiphe cichoracearum, respectively. Cool and moist environmental conditions favor development of downy mildew, while warmer and dry weather is conducive for development of powdery mildew. Potential new fungicides were evaluated for control of these diseases during 1994 and 1995. In 1994, downy mildew did not occur in the test plots; however, powdery mildew was severe and was controlled most effectively by Microthiol. In the 1995 study, both downy and powdery mildew developed in the test plots. The highest level of downy mildew control was achieved with three experimental compounds, Fluazinam, Dimethomorph, and BAS-490. The most effective fungicides for control of powdery mildew in 1995 were BAS-490 and Microthiol.
    • Impact of Sweet Potato Whitefly Infestation on Yield and Quality of Cantaloupe

      Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      A range of population levels of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius was evaluated in three field experiments allowing measurement of the effect of whitefly numbers on melon quality and yield. An increase in total numbers of immature whitefly was associated with significant declines in harvested melon weight, a decline in number of boxes harvested, a decrease in fruit size, a decrease in percent sugars, and an increase in sooty mold. Regression analysis of individual whitefly life stages with yield parameters indicated that adult number was a more precise parameter and higher R2 values were obtained with increased range of whitefly population densities. Adults were sampled at the third leaf node in both locations. Nymph samples were taken at varying nodes from the base of the plant. Estimates of the mean adult whitefly density resulting in 5% and 15 % dollar yield loss were 3 and 10 adults per leaf Estimates of the mean total nymph density resulting in 5% and 15% dollar yield loss 0.5 and 2 (AZ) nymphs per cm² of leaf area, respectively.
    • Relative Susceptibility of Red and Gree Color Morphs of the Green Peach Aphid to Foliar and Systemic Insecticides

      Kerns, David L.; Palumbo, John C.; Byrne, David N.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Foliar and systemic insecticide bioassay techniques were developed for testing insecticide susceptibility to two color morphs of the green peach aphid. Six foliar and one systemic insecticide were used in our evaluations. These insecticides included three organophosphates, two pyrethroids, one organochlorine, and one chloronicotinyl. One of the green colored populations tested was collected from spinach, and red and green color populations were collected from the within the same cabbage field. The red morph was found to be less susceptiblethan the green morphs to Dimethoate, Karate, and Endosulfan. Their were only slight differences in susceptibility to the foliar insecticide between the green morphs. The greenmorph from spinach was found to be the most susceptible to Admire, while the two morphs collected from cabbage did not differ. Leveling off of aphid mortality at about 85% with high doses of Admire may indicate highly tolerant types in the populations, or an artifact of the methodology.
    • Imidacloprid Does Not Enhance Growth and Yield of Cantaloupe in the Absence of Whitefly

      Palumbo, J. C.; Sanchez, C. A.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Imidacloprid is a new, chloronicotinyl insecticide currently being used to control sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn, also known as silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring). Large growth and yield increases of cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L.) following the use of imidacloprid have caused some to speculate that this compound may enhance growth and yield above that expected from insect control alone. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to evaluate the growth and yield response of melons to imidacloprid in the presence and absence of whitefly pressure. In greenhouse cage studies, sweetpotato whiteflies developed very high densities of nymphs and eclosed pupal cases on plants not treated with imidacloprid, and significant increases in vegetative plant growth were inversely proportional to whitefly densities. Positive plant growth responses were absent when plants were treated with imidacloprid and insects were excluded. Results from a field study showed similar whitefly control and yield responses to imidacloprid and bifenthrin+ endosulfan applications. Hence, we conclude that growth and yield response to imidacloprid is associated with control of whiteflies and the subsequent prevention of damage, rather than a compensatory physiological promotion of plant growth processes.
    • Insectide Combinations for Whitefly Control in Broccoli

      Umeda, K.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Two pyrethroid insecticides, fenpropathrin (Danitol®) and bifenthrin (Capture®), were evaluated in several combinations with other insecticides for whitefly control in broccoli and demonstrated good efficacy to reduce eggs and immature stage insects. At one week after the second of three applications, Danitol® or Capture® plus methamidaphos (Monitor®), acephate (Orthene®), or endosulfan (Thiodan®) significantly reduced egg counts relative to the untreated check.
    • Dry Bulb Onion Variety Trial

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; McGrath, B.; Pettigrew, T.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Forty-five different dry bulb onion varieties were grown and evaluated to provide a comparison of varietal characteristics including firmness, size, shape, and maturity.
    • Comparative Efficacy of B.t. Insecticides Against Lepidopterous Pests in Cabbage

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Several commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Al) insecticides were applied on cabbage and lepidopterous pests including Tricoplusia it (cabbage looper, CL), Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm, BAW), and Plutella xvlostella (diamondback moth, DBM) were effectively reduced in population. The ten commercial products did not appear to vary significantly in controlling CL, the dominant species present in the cabbage.
    • Vine-Decline of Melons Caused by Monosporascus cannonballus in Arizona: Epidemiology and Cultivar Susceptibility

      Stanghellini, M. E.; Rasmussen, S. L.; Kim, D. H.; Oebker, N.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
    • Preemergence Herbicide Weed Control in Spinach

      Umeda, K.; Fredman, C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      Two field studies were conducted to evaluate metolachlor (Dual®) for preemergence weed control in spinach to provide support to gain registration through the IR-4 program. Dual® at 1.0 to 1.5 lb a.i./A gave acceptable control of London rocket, black mustard, lambsquarters, and knotweed. Nettleleaf goosefoot, cheeseweed, and yellow sweetclover control was not acceptable. In one test, dimethenamid (Frontier® or SAN -582H, Sandoz) controlled London rocket, lambsquarters, knotweed, and goosefoot at 0.25 lb ai. /A and did not control cheeseweed or sweetclover. Spinach was not injured by Dual® or Frontier®.
    • An Action Threshold for Management of Sweet Potato Whitefly in Cantaloupe

      Palumbo, J. C.; Oebker, Norman F. (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1995-08)
      A range of action thresholds for the control of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius were evaluated in field experiments with high population density of B. tabaci. Action thresholds for whitefly adults, based on seasonal whitefly averages that could result in 5% and 15 % dollar losses, of 3 and 10 adults per leaf, respectively, were tested. All thresholds were compared to weekly insecticide treatments and an untreated check The resulting best threshold treatment was 3 adults per leaf area which provided a 170% increase in net return over the untreated check. The 3 adult per leaf threshold resulted in 6 applications of insecticide, compared with 10 applications used in the weekly regime.