Citrus Research Report 1997
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
The Citrus Report, first published in 1978, is one of several commodity-based agricultural research reports published by the University of Arizona. The purpose of the report is to provide an annual research update to farmers, researchers, and those in the agricultural industry. The research is conducted by University of Arizona and USDA-ARS scientists.
Both historical and current Citrus Reports have been made available via the UA Campus Repository, as part of a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University Libraries.
Contents for Citrus Research Report 1997
- The Citrus Peel Miner, Marmara salictella, in Arizona Grapefruit in 1994
- Evaluation of Potato Leafhopper, Empoasca fabae L., Populations in Arizona Citrus
- Early Results of Scion and Rootstock Trials for Lemon in Arizona
- Efficient Irrigation and N Management for Lemons: Results for 1993-1996
- Improving Management and Control of Fungal Diseases Affecting Arizona Citrus
- Devoloping an Action Threshold for Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of Arizona
- Efficacy of Insecticide to Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of Arizona
- Chemical Control of Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of Arizona
- Studies on Stubborn Disease and its Vector in Arizona Citrus Groves and Nurseries
- An Evaluation of Biological Agents for Control of Citrus Nematode and Liohippelates Eye Gnat
- Managing Vegetation on the Orchard Floor in Flood Irrigated Arizona Citrus Groves
- Molecular Basis of Rootstock-Scion Incompatibility in Macrophylla Decline May Reveal Useful Information for Screening Compatible Rootstock-Scion Combinations
- Contributions of Beneficial Soil Fungi to Drought Stress Tolerance of Young Citrus
- Effects of Long-Term Preemergence Herbicide Use on Growth and Yield of Citrus
- Preliminary Results Regarding the Effects of Foliar Applied Roundup on Lemon Physiology and Yield
Preliminary Results Regarding the Effects of Foliar Applied Roundup on Lemon Physiology and YieldThe effect of Roundup on lemon trees was evaluated by repeatedly spraying 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 lb a.i/acre on the bottom 20 to 24 inches of the tree canopies. Leaf injury symptoms, flower and fruit counts, and yield data were collected The Roundup applications caused significant leaf injury in the sprayed area of the canopies and there was significant defoliation of branches at the higher Roundup rates. In 1996, flower and fruitier counts were not affected by the Roundup applications. However, flower and fruitier counts in 1997 in the sprayed zone of the canopy were significantly reduced by Roundup and the effect increased with increasing Roundup rate. The 1996 yield data indicated that the Roundup applications did not significantly affect lemon yield, however, the effect of Roundup on the 1997 flower and fruitier counts suggests that there may be a yield effect in 1997. The preliminary data suggest that accidental drift of Roundup on to lemon trees when spraying weeds on the orchard floor has no short-term effect on grove productivity but this conclusion must be substantiated by further data collection.
Effects of Long-Term Preemergence Herbicide Use on Growth and Yield of CitrusThe effects of several preemergence herbicides at various rates were tested on bearing Redblush' grapefruit trees and non-bearing Navel orange trees. Some of the preemergence herbicides caused foliar injury symptoms on the trees including Hyvar X Diuron, and Krovar I although they did not cause significant yield reductions in the short time period of this experiment. Several herbicides including Solicam, Surflan, and Prowl did not cause foliar injury or reduce yield and provided good weed control for various lengths of time. The Prowl treatments provided the longest period of weed control in the experiment on bearing grapefruit trees.
Contributions of Beneficial Soil Fungi to Drought Stress Tolerance of Young CitrusFour arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal isolates (Glomus sp.) from disparate edaphic conditions were screened for effects on whole -plant transpiration of juvenile 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. and Pasq.) plants of similar shoot mass and canopy leaf area. Mycorrhizal and non -mycorrhizal plants were grown in 8 -liter containers for 2.5 months under well- watered conditions before subjection to three consecutive soil drying episodes of increased severity (soil moisture tensions of -0.02 [still moist], -0.06 [moderately dry], and -0.08[dry] MPa respectively). Whole plant transpiration measurements were made on the last day of each soil drying episode and measurements were repeated on the first and second days after re- watering, when soil profiles were moist. The percent root length colonized by AM fungi differed among isolates. Three AM fungal isolates, Glomus sp. 25A, Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerde.) Gerde. & Trappe 114C, and Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith FL 208-3 increased root length and subsequently increased lemon plant water use. Conversely, plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae 51C did not enhance lemon plant root length nor improve plant water use compared with nonmycorrhizal control plants. Inoculating citrus with AM fungi that promote root extension may reduce plant water deficit stress under field conditions.
Molecular Basis of Rootstock-Scion Incompatibility in Macrophylla Decline May Reveal Useful Information for Screening Compatible Rootstock-Scion CombinationsSeveral differentially expressed markers of compatibility or incompatibility were isolated and are being molecularly characterized One marker is present in young Eureka on Macrophylla trees and on Macrophylla decline affected, Eureka on Macrophylla trees, while absent on healthy, Eureka on Macrophylla trees of the same combination. A second marker appears similar to a gene that encodes a Zn-binding homeodomain of a DNA binding protein in plant cells. This particular marker was found in the leaves of healthy trees, but absent in Macrophylla decline trees, which are known to be Zn deficient. Thirty-five markers are being characterized in all.
Managing Vegetation on the Orchard Floor in Flood Irrigated Arizona Citrus GrovesSeveral orchard floor management strategies were evaluated beginning in the fall of 1993 in experiments on the Yuma Mesa in a 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' lemon grove and in a 'Valencia' orange grove at the University of Arizona Citrus Agricultural Center (CAC) in Waddell, Arizona. On the Yuma Mesa, disking provided satisfactory weed control except underneath the tree canopies where bermudagrass, purple nutsedge, and other weed species survived. Mowing the orchard floor suppressed broadleaf weed species allowing the spread of grasses, primarily bermudagrass. Pre-emergence (Solicam and Surffan) and post-emergence (Roundup and Torpedo) herbicides were used to control weeds in the clean culture treatment in Yuma. After three harvest seasons (1994-95 through 1996-97), the clean culture treatment resulted in greater yield than the other treatments. At the CAC, clean culture (in this location no pre -emergence herbicides were used,) mowed resident weeds, and Salina strawberry clover orchard floor management schemes were compared. Again the clean culture treatment yielded more than the mowed resident weeds. The yield of the strawberry clover treatment was somewhat less than the clean culture yield but not significantly less. The presence of cover crops or weeds on the orchard floor were found to have beneficial effects on soil nitrogen and soil organic matter content, but no effect on citrus leaf nutrient content. The decrease in yield in the mowed resident weed treatments compared to the clean culture treatment in both locations was attributed to competition for water.
An Evaluation of Biological Agents for Control of Citrus Nematode and Liohippelates Eye GnatBiological agents have been employed in a series of experiments to evaluate their efftcacy,in control of the citrus nematode and Liohippelates eye gnat in the Yuma mesa area. Steinernema riobravis, an entomopathological nematode, considered climatically adapted to western Arizona temperatures, was selected from commercially available sources. Three field trials and a greenhouse study utilizing the nematodes at population ratés of one and two billion juveniles per acre were each unsuccessful in reducing the nematode or insect pest. Poor viability and survival were attributed to the negative results in each of the investigations. The microbial nematicide, DiTera, which was included in two limited trials, was found to be highly effective in suppression of citrus nematode populations infecting Yuma citrus. These results have prompted Abbott Laboratories, manufactures of the product; to establish two demonstration plots in the Yuma mesa area.
Studies on Stubborn Disease and its Vector in Arizona Citrus Groves and NurseriesSeasonal flight of beet leafhopper vectors of stubborn disease was monitored at wholesale nurseries in Yuma County, and at young citrus groves in Maricopa County using yellow sticky traps exposed at successive two-week intervals. Trapped leafhoppers were removed and assayed for presence of the citrus stubborn agent by PCR. Leafhoppers were collected live from weed plants in groves and nurseries using an insect vacuum and both leafhoppers and tissue from weed plants were assayed by PCR for the stubborn agent. Selected trees in groves in Yuma and Maricopa Counties were visually inspected for stubborn symptoms.
Chemical Control of Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of ArizonaInsecticides were evaluated for their efficacy to citrus mealybugs on lemons at three spray gallonages, 60, 240, and 600 gallons per acre. None of the products tested exhibited any activity at 60 or 240 gallons per acre. At 600 gallons per acre, Lorsban at 6 qt/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v, Supracide at 2 pt /100 gal + Kinetic at 0.25% v/v, and Applaud at 2.0 lbs -ai/A + NR -415 oil at 1.4% v/v all demonstrated the best activity. Provado at 0.1 lbs-ai/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4 %, Danitol at 0.4 lbs-ai/A + Lorsban at 4 qt/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v, and Nexter at 0.3 lbs-ai/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v showed good activity. Weaker treatments included Agri-Mek at 10 and 20 oz/A, Knack and Difenolan. For maximum control, growers should treat before the fruit is heavily infested, and use high gallonages of spray solution at a high pressure, the spray must penetrate the waxy coating to achieve activity. If applicable, a spray oil should be included to help break up the wax. However, if Supracide is used, use a high rate without oil.
Efficacy of Insecticide to Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of ArizonaNew chemistries (Alert, Success, Fipronil, Ni -25, Nexter, Danitol and Baythroid) were evaluated and compared with standard chemistries (Agri-Mek, Dimethoate and Carzol) for control of citrus thrips in lemons grown in the Yuma area. Additionally, Success was compared to Carzol in a large plot commercial demonstration. Under cool, early season conditions, all products appeared to offered good thrips control. However, under warmer conditions, Nexter, Danitol, Baythroid and Dimethoate appear weak. Among the new insecticides, Success and Fipronil appear most efficacious. Alert also appeared to have good activity at the high rate, but appeared to offer shorter residual control than Fipronil or Success. Fipronil was the only new product tested that flared mites. However, rotating sulfur into the Fipronil applications appeared to help prevent flaring. Growers can expect Baythroid and Danitol to behave similarly to Dimethoate for efficacy and residual control. Under commercial conditions, Success provided thrips control equivalent to Carzol at 1.38 lbs-ai/A.
Devoloping an Action Threshold for Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of ArizonaCommercial and University citrus groves were sampled over a two year period in an attempt to develop mathematical models capable of predicting fruit scarring based on the population of immature citrus thrips on susceptible fruit. Five predictive models were derived. One model correlated used citrus thrips populations from fetal fall to 2.0 in. diameter fruit. While in the other models, thrips populations were divided into four distinct fruit size cohorts. Four of the five models were statistically valid. Based on these models, lemons ½ in. in diameter, should be treated with insecticides when the number of immature CT reaches 1.5 per 10 pieces of fruit. While fruit > ½ should be treated if immature CT reach or exceed 2.0 per 10 fruit.
Improving Management and Control of Fungal Diseases Affecting Arizona CitrusExperiments were initiated to evaluate chemical disease management tools for Alternaria fruit rot on navel orange and Coniophora brown wood rot on lemon trees, examine the possible effect of branch diameter on development of Coniophora wood rot on lemon trees and continue evaluations of relative resistance of rootstocks to root rot and stem canker development when inoculated with P. citrophthora and P. parasitica. Rovral or Kocide did not significantly reduce the amount of Alternaria fruit rot on navel orange trees occurring in late summer and early autumn when applied during the preceding winter or spring months. Of several chemical treatments tested, only Nectec paste inhibited the development of Coniophora brown wood rot on inoculated lemon branches. The size of wood decay columns on branches 10 mm (0.5 inch) in diameter were significantly smaller than those developing on branches 50-70 mm (2.0-2.75 inches) in diameter. In extensive trials evaluating root rot caused by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica, some relatively tolerant rootstocks were found among the group of new potential rootstocks as well as currently used rootstocks such as rough lemon, C. macrophylla and Troyer citrange. C. volkameriana was relatively tolerant to the development of root rot by P. citrophthora but demonstrated variable tolerance to P. parasitica. Comprehensive evaluation of stem canker development on citrus rootstocks inoculated with P. citrophthora or P. parasitica revealed that rough lemon is usually highly susceptible to both pathogens, while C. volkameriana was at times less susceptible (more tolerant) than rough lemon to both pathogens. Some of the new potential rootstocks were highly tolerant or resistant to infection of stem tissue by P. citrophthora or P. parasitica.
Efficient Irrigation and N Management for Lemons: Results for 1993-1996Studies are being conducted which aim to improve the efficiency of irrigation and N fertilization for lemons produced on sandy soils in the low desert The first experiment evaluates the response of 'Lisbon' lemons to various flood irrigation intervals. Irrigation intervals are based on soil moisture depletion (SMD) as calculated from frequent neutron probe soil moisture measurements. Individual treatments were irrigated when total SMI) was 25 %, 40 %, 55 %, and 70 %, respectively. The second experiment compares the performance of young lemons produced under flood, trickle, and micro-spray irrigation systems. The third experiment evaluates the response of young lemons to water and N combinations (3 by 3 factorial) under micro - spray irrigation. The three irrigation rates were targeted for 30 cnbar, 20 cnbar, and 10 cnbar tension. The three N rates were 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 kg N/tree. One flood irrigation treatment was added for comparative purposes. Overall, results obtained in experiment 1 during 1994, 1995, and 1996 indicate optimal fruit growth and yield is obtained at approximately 40% SMD. The results of experiment 2 show that after 3 years, only micro-jet irrigation produced less tree growth than flood irrigation. In 1995, first year fruit yields were significantly greater for pressurized irrigation compared to flood irrigation. However, by 1996 there were no differences in yield to irrigation treatment. Results from experiment 3 show a linear response in tree growth to irrigation. In 1994 and 1995, tree growth at the high micro - spray soil moisture regime was significantly greater than trees irrigated by flood. However, in 1996 where we failed to increase the micro-spay irrigation time to meet the increased water demand by the trees, the flood irrigation regime was superior. Yields were also increased to irrigation. There were no significant differences in tree growth to N fertilization rates in 1994 and 1995. However, there was increased tree growth in 1996 and a yield increase to N fertilizer rate at the highest soil moisture regime.
Early Results of Scion and Rootstock Trials for Lemon in ArizonaFour 'Lisbon' lemon selections from the University of Arizona Citrus Budwood Certification plot were selected for evaluation on Citrus rootstock 'Frost Nucellar', 'Corona Foothills', 'Limoneira 8A' and 'Prior' were selected because of their popularity among Arizona growers or because of the lack of information about their performance under Arizona climactic and edaphic conditions. Trees were planted in 1993. Early results indicate that the 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' selection is outperforming the other selections in both growth and yield. In a similar trial, five rootstocks were selected for evaluation using 'Limoneira 8A Lisbon' as the scion. Carrizo citrange, Citrus macrophylla, Rough lemon, Swingle citrumelo and Citrus volkameriana were chosen. Trees were planted in 1993. Early results indicate that trees on C. volkameriana are superior to those on other rootstocks in both growth and yield.
Evaluation of Potato Leafhopper, Empoasca fabae L., Populations in Arizona CitrusThe potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae L., is a significant pest in the United States, and elsewhere, of alfalfa and potatoes In Arizona and in Coastal and Central California it can also be a pest of citrus. In 1994 and 1995 we collected information concerning their seasonal abundance in a large citrus orchard near Newman Peak Arizona. To do so we employed yellow sticky traps around the orchard periphery, at the same time using a D-Vac® vacuum sampler in the weeds growing in the interior of the orchard During both years peak populations occurred near mid April. This was correlated with a drop in relative humidity and a rise in ambient air temperature.
The Citrus Peel Miner, Marmara salictella, in Arizona Grapefruit in 1994The life history of the citrus peel miner was investigated. The peel miner larvae were found in low levels in grapefruit throughout the summer. In September the infestation level rose to 10%. Peel miners were also found in oleanders, mesquites, grapes and tree cottons. Peel miners were found to infest at higher levels in the skirt of the tree (less than 32. A parasitic wasp of the larval stage was discovered