• Chemical Control of Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of Arizona

      Kerns, David L.; Maurer, Michael; Langston, Dave; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Insecticides were evaluated for their efficacy to citrus mealybugs on lemons at three spray gallonages, 60, 240, and 600 gallons per acre. None of the products tested exhibited any activity at 60 or 240 gallons per acre. At 600 gallons per acre, Lorsban at 6 qt/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v, Supracide at 2 pt /100 gal + Kinetic at 0.25% v/v, and Applaud at 2.0 lbs -ai/A + NR -415 oil at 1.4% v/v all demonstrated the best activity. Provado at 0.1 lbs-ai/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4 %, Danitol at 0.4 lbs-ai/A + Lorsban at 4 qt/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v, and Nexter at 0.3 lbs-ai/A + NR-415 oil at 1.4% v/v showed good activity. Weaker treatments included Agri-Mek at 10 and 20 oz/A, Knack and Difenolan. For maximum control, growers should treat before the fruit is heavily infested, and use high gallonages of spray solution at a high pressure, the spray must penetrate the waxy coating to achieve activity. If applicable, a spray oil should be included to help break up the wax. However, if Supracide is used, use a high rate without oil.
    • Devoloping an Action Threshold for Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of Arizona

      Kerns, David L.; Maurer, Michael; Langston, Dave; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Commercial and University citrus groves were sampled over a two year period in an attempt to develop mathematical models capable of predicting fruit scarring based on the population of immature citrus thrips on susceptible fruit. Five predictive models were derived. One model correlated used citrus thrips populations from fetal fall to 2.0 in. diameter fruit. While in the other models, thrips populations were divided into four distinct fruit size cohorts. Four of the five models were statistically valid. Based on these models, lemons ½ in. in diameter, should be treated with insecticides when the number of immature CT reaches 1.5 per 10 pieces of fruit. While fruit > ½ should be treated if immature CT reach or exceed 2.0 per 10 fruit.
    • Effects of Long-Term Preemergence Herbicide Use on Growth and Yield of Citrus

      McCloskey, William B.; Maurer, Michael; Wright, Glenn; Department of Plant Sciences; Maricopa County Cooperative Extension (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      The effects of several preemergence herbicides at various rates were tested on bearing Redblush' grapefruit trees and non-bearing Navel orange trees. Some of the preemergence herbicides caused foliar injury symptoms on the trees including Hyvar X Diuron, and Krovar I although they did not cause significant yield reductions in the short time period of this experiment. Several herbicides including Solicam, Surflan, and Prowl did not cause foliar injury or reduce yield and provided good weed control for various lengths of time. The Prowl treatments provided the longest period of weed control in the experiment on bearing grapefruit trees.
    • Efficacy of Insecticide to Citrus Thrips on Lemons in the Low Desert Areas of Arizona

      Kerns, David L.; Maurer, Michael; Langston, Dave; Tellez, Tony; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      New chemistries (Alert, Success, Fipronil, Ni -25, Nexter, Danitol and Baythroid) were evaluated and compared with standard chemistries (Agri-Mek, Dimethoate and Carzol) for control of citrus thrips in lemons grown in the Yuma area. Additionally, Success was compared to Carzol in a large plot commercial demonstration. Under cool, early season conditions, all products appeared to offered good thrips control. However, under warmer conditions, Nexter, Danitol, Baythroid and Dimethoate appear weak. Among the new insecticides, Success and Fipronil appear most efficacious. Alert also appeared to have good activity at the high rate, but appeared to offer shorter residual control than Fipronil or Success. Fipronil was the only new product tested that flared mites. However, rotating sulfur into the Fipronil applications appeared to help prevent flaring. Growers can expect Baythroid and Danitol to behave similarly to Dimethoate for efficacy and residual control. Under commercial conditions, Success provided thrips control equivalent to Carzol at 1.38 lbs-ai/A.
    • Improving Management and Control of Fungal Diseases Affecting Arizona Citrus

      Matheron, Michael; Maurer, Michael; Porchas, Martin; Wright, Glenn (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1997-11)
      Experiments were initiated to evaluate chemical disease management tools for Alternaria fruit rot on navel orange and Coniophora brown wood rot on lemon trees, examine the possible effect of branch diameter on development of Coniophora wood rot on lemon trees and continue evaluations of relative resistance of rootstocks to root rot and stem canker development when inoculated with P. citrophthora and P. parasitica. Rovral or Kocide did not significantly reduce the amount of Alternaria fruit rot on navel orange trees occurring in late summer and early autumn when applied during the preceding winter or spring months. Of several chemical treatments tested, only Nectec paste inhibited the development of Coniophora brown wood rot on inoculated lemon branches. The size of wood decay columns on branches 10 mm (0.5 inch) in diameter were significantly smaller than those developing on branches 50-70 mm (2.0-2.75 inches) in diameter. In extensive trials evaluating root rot caused by Phytophthora citrophthora and P. parasitica, some relatively tolerant rootstocks were found among the group of new potential rootstocks as well as currently used rootstocks such as rough lemon, C. macrophylla and Troyer citrange. C. volkameriana was relatively tolerant to the development of root rot by P. citrophthora but demonstrated variable tolerance to P. parasitica. Comprehensive evaluation of stem canker development on citrus rootstocks inoculated with P. citrophthora or P. parasitica revealed that rough lemon is usually highly susceptible to both pathogens, while C. volkameriana was at times less susceptible (more tolerant) than rough lemon to both pathogens. Some of the new potential rootstocks were highly tolerant or resistant to infection of stem tissue by P. citrophthora or P. parasitica.