• Dilemmas of the High Achieving Chicana: The Double-Bind Factor in Male/Female Relationships

      González, Judith T. (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1987)
      The central research question of this exploratory study is to determine if college educated, ethnically identified and preferred endogamous Chicanas experience significantly more psychological distress due to a conflict between their educational achievements and beliefs that Chicano males are threatened by high achieving women. The specific perceptions are: that Mexican American males feel threatened by their educational accomplishments, tend to exclude them from political and organizational activities, and that college attainment will cause them to be seen as elitist by the larger Chicano community. This study uses descriptive and correlational analysis to explore the relationship between ethnic identification, preferred endogamy and perceptions that Chicanas high achievements pose a threat to Chicano males as predictive factors for higher psychological distress. The sample consists of 508 randomly selected Chicanas at five colleges, varying in selectivity from a private university to a community college. The majority of respondents are single and under thirty. A sample of 160 Chicano males were also randomly selected from three of the same five college campuses and were used to make comparisons on the threat dimension. The instrument is a mail questionnaire.
    • Motivators for Colon Cancer Prevention Among Elderly Mexican Americans

      González, Judith T.; California State University, Fresno (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1990)
      This final report documents the theoretical development and preliminary empirical testing of a model that predicts the conditions under which Hispanics will seek preventive health care. Research shows that Hispanics delay preventive care, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality rates for serious diseases such as cancer. Since many serious diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes and cancer can be prevented or treated more effectively if detected early, it is crucial to understand the motivating forces behind Hispanics’ preventive health behavior. The Hispanic model, which is an extension of the Health Behavior in Cancer Prevention Model developed by Atwood, et al. (1986), includes as core variables environmental barriers to access and English-language proficiency, as well as social support, health beliefs, self-efficacy (or perceived skill), health locus of control, and health values. This correlational descriptive study employed snowballing sampling methods and consisted of 199 Hispanics between 49 and 94 years of age. Measures consist of multi-item scales whose content follows that of the Parent Project. The final instruments showed reliability (Alphas between .69 and .95), although the model testing was limited by the exclusion of some constructs that did not demonstrate reliability. The outcome of predisposition to self-care was predicted by utilization barriers to care, Chance Health Locus of Control, and General Health threat, resulting in an R-square of .07. The findings dealing with dietary preferences and preferred dietary modifications also have great implications for interventions aimed at preventing colon cancer among Hispanics. The practical health policy applications of the model are also discussed.
    • Predictors of Breast Self-Examination Among Mexican American Women: A Path Analytic Model

      González, Judith T.; California State University, Fresno (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1990)
      This paper is a test of several hypothesized predictors of frequency of breast self-examination among low-income Mexican American women. Current research points to several factors as important predictors of preventive care. Among these are self-efficacy – one’s perceived capacity to perform a given action – and social support from significant others. For Mexican Americans, environmental barriers to health care are important factors. While findings are inconclusive regarding the role of language proficiency as a predictor of preventive care, the model includes this as a hypothesized predictor of frequency of breast self-examination. The findings show a strong relationship between self-efficacy and frequency of breast self-examination. Barriers to health care have a weaker direct effect upon breast self-examination. The effects of English-language proficiency are indirect and mediated by self-efficacy.