• The Education of Immigrant Children: The Impact of Age at Arrival

      González, Arturo; University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies & Research Center (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1998)
      The family reunification provision in U.S. immigration laws allows foreign-born children of immigrants to enter the U.S. and attend American schools. The total number of school years completed by immigrant children, however, is affected by their age at arrival. Age at arrival also affects the percentage of schooling that is attained in the U.S. This implies that immigrants with more U.S. schooling will earn more than other immigrants, holding total education constant, as long as the returns to U.S. schooling are greater than the returns to foreign schooling. Using data from the 1980 and 1990 Census, I find a negative relationship between age at arrival and education for Mexican, European and Pacific Islander and other immigrants that arrive shortly after the start of the first grade. Mexican immigrants as a whole, however, lose tile greatest amount of education from delayed entry. Estimates of the returns to American schooling indicate that those with at least a high school diploma benefit from additional years in U.S. schools. However, the added tax revenue from the increased earnings is not always greater than the cost of additional years of American schooling. Only for Mexican immigrants is it the case that the tax revenues outweigh the fiscal costs of more American education.
    • The Influence of Cultural Values On Self-Efficacy in Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors

      Estrada, Antonio L.; Estrada, Barbara D.; Quintero, Gilbert; University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies & Research Center; University of Arizona, Southwest Institute for Research on Women (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1999)
      This study seeks to examine the influence of key cultural values like machismo, familism, traditionalism, and religiosity on self-efficacy in reducing HIV risk among Mexican-origin IDUs. The purpose of this examination hinges on the importance of including cultural concepts/values not only to facilitate process, but also to add a cultural dimension to an HIV/AIDS intervention that may facilitate attitudinal and behavioral change as well. The findings suggest that culturally innovative approaches can facilitate HIV/AIDS risk reduction among male Mexican-origin drug injectors. The importance of key cultural values like machismo is underscored by its association with HIV risk reduction for both sexual and injection related risks. Intervention programs must identify strategies to incorporate cultural values in their research and evaluation of intervention efficacy. Culturally innovative approaches hold the promise of substantially reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic drug injectors, and may hold promise for other populations affected by HIV/AIDS as well.