• LULAC and Veterans Organize for Civil Rights in Tempe and Phoenix, 1940-1947

      Marín, Christine; Arizona State University (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 2001)
      World War II had a dramatic impact on Americans, including Mexican Americans in Arizona. It challenged families and communities to make sacrifices during wartime. Mexican Americans served in large numbers and with distinction in the war, and after it ended they sought to defend their rights as Americans, and to eliminate the discriminatory behavior and acts that kept them within ethnic boundaries. The segregation at Tempe Beach, the “brilliant star in Tempe’s crown,” and its “No Mexicans Allowed” policy, initiated in 1923, was one of them. Another ethnic boundary was the segregated housing policy for veterans established by the City of Phoenix in 1946. In Tempe and Phoenix, the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) Council 110, led by Placida Garcia Smith, and the American Legion Thunderbird Post 41, led by Ray Martinez, were at the front lines in the fight against racism and discrimination in the 1940s. Mexican Americans confronted public elected officials over racist practices and policies of exclusion, and utilized the court system to provide them equal justice under the law. They exercised their right to seek equality after years of segregation, and to secure their civil rights as Americans. Their actions are examples of American-style civic activism, a devotion to the United States and the ideals of freedom and democracy. The search for that freedom and holding the government accountable to its laws and ideals are what drove LULAC Council 110 and American Legion Thunderbird Post 41 as they organized and agitated for the civil rights of Mexican Americans in Tempe and Phoenix during the 1940s.
    • Mexican American Women and Social Change: The Founding of the Community Service Organization in Los Angeles, An Oral History

      Apodaca, Linda M.; California State University, Stanislaus, Ethnic and Women's Studies Department (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1999)
      The Community Service Organization, a grassroots social service agency that originated in Los Angeles in the late 1940s, is generally identified by its male leadership. Research conducted for the present oral history, however, indicates that Mexican American women were essential to the founding of the organization, as well as to its success during the forty-six years it was in operation. This paper is a history of the founding of the CSO based on interviews with eleven Mexican American women and one Mexican American man, all of whom were founding members.
    • Mexican American Youth Organization: Precursors of Change in Texas

      García, Ignacio; University of Arizona (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1987)
    • Mexicanos and Chicanos: Examining Political Involvement and Interface in the U.S. Political System

      García, John A.; University of Arizona (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1987)
    • Motivators for Colon Cancer Prevention Among Elderly Mexican Americans

      González, Judith T.; California State University, Fresno (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1990)
      This final report documents the theoretical development and preliminary empirical testing of a model that predicts the conditions under which Hispanics will seek preventive health care. Research shows that Hispanics delay preventive care, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality rates for serious diseases such as cancer. Since many serious diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes and cancer can be prevented or treated more effectively if detected early, it is crucial to understand the motivating forces behind Hispanics’ preventive health behavior. The Hispanic model, which is an extension of the Health Behavior in Cancer Prevention Model developed by Atwood, et al. (1986), includes as core variables environmental barriers to access and English-language proficiency, as well as social support, health beliefs, self-efficacy (or perceived skill), health locus of control, and health values. This correlational descriptive study employed snowballing sampling methods and consisted of 199 Hispanics between 49 and 94 years of age. Measures consist of multi-item scales whose content follows that of the Parent Project. The final instruments showed reliability (Alphas between .69 and .95), although the model testing was limited by the exclusion of some constructs that did not demonstrate reliability. The outcome of predisposition to self-care was predicted by utilization barriers to care, Chance Health Locus of Control, and General Health threat, resulting in an R-square of .07. The findings dealing with dietary preferences and preferred dietary modifications also have great implications for interventions aimed at preventing colon cancer among Hispanics. The practical health policy applications of the model are also discussed.
    • Mujeres en el Cruce: Mapping Family Separation/Reunification at a Time of Border (In)Security

      O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 2007)
      In this paper I discuss some of the findings in my study of the encounters between female migrants and immigration enforcement authorities along the U.S.-Mexico border. An objective of the research is to ascertain a more accurate picture of women temporarily suspended in the “intersection” of diametrically opposed processes: immigration enforcement and transnational mobility. Of the many issues that have emerged from this research, family separation is most palpable. This suggests a deeply entrenched relationship between immigration enforcement and the transnationalization of family ties. While this relationship may at first not be obvious, women’s accounts of family separation and family reunification show how, in reconciling these contradictory tendencies, migrant mobility is strengthened, which in turn challenges enforcement measures. In this way, the intersection not only sheds light on how opposing forces (enforcement and mobility) converge but also how each is contingent on the other. This analysis is possible in part through the use of a conceptual intersection of diametrically opposed forces, border enforcement and transnational movement, and thus proves useful in examining the transformative nature of globalized spaces.
    • National Origin Based Variations of Latino Voter Turnout in 1988: Findings from the Latino National Political Survey

      Arvizu, John R.; University of Arizona, Department of Political Science (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1994)
      The Latino community in the United States, currently estimated at over 23 million, is projected to become the largest minority group in America within the next fifteen years. However, insufficient national-level data on Latinos has resulted in relatively few studies being published on the voting behavior of this increasingly important group. Using data drawn from the first national probability sample of Latinos, the Latino National Political Survey, this paper addresses selected socio-demographic indices correlated with voter turnout. The logistic regression model empirically demonstrates the importance of distinguishing among subgroups and identifies the life-cycle effect as a principle determinant of voter turnout.
    • Of Information Highways and Toxic Byways: Women and Environmental Protest in a Northern Mexican City

      O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Pima Community College, Department of Social and Cultural Studies (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 2002)
      Women’s involvement in collective struggles for environmental quality has surged in recent years, as has research focusing on this phenomenon. Consistent with this research, a feminist lens is useful in revealing a model of community struggle that features women’s activities and strategies to expose environmental insult. I use a case study of community protest in Hermosillo, a city in the Mexican state of Sonora, to feature social networks as a means of politicizing the placement of a toxic waste dump six kilometers outside the city. A feminist perspective reveals these social networks to be more than a way to mobilize resources. It allow us to see the ways in which gender interacts with globalized relations of power, political ecology, and environmental policy, and to validate a creative way in which women can out-maneuver the gendered constraints to political participation. An analysis of how social networks served in this particular struggle suggests that they are an important component in the process through which women gained voice and authored oppositional discourse in contexts where these have been previously denied, and ultimately deconstructed the political authority that sanctioned the dump.
    • Phenotypic Discrimination and Income Differences Among Mexican Americans

      Telles, Edward E.; Murguia, Edward; University of Texas at Austin; Trinity University (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1988)
      Using a national probability sample of approximately 1,000 Mexican American heads of household, we analyze a subsample of 253 Mexican American male wage earners and present evidence of the importance of phenotype, measured by skin color and physical features, on earnings, controlling for other factors known to affect earnings. Even after controlling these variables, individuals with a dark and Native American phenotype continue to receive significantly lower earnings than individuals of a lighter and more European phenotype. A decomposition of differences in earnings reveals that most of the differential in earnings between the darkest one-third of the sample and the lighter two-thirds is due not to differences in endowments but rather to labor market discrimination. When taken as a whole, Mexican Americans in all phenotypic groups remain far from having incomes comparable to those of non-Hispanic whites.
    • Predictors of Breast Self-Examination Among Mexican American Women: A Path Analytic Model

      González, Judith T.; California State University, Fresno (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1990)
      This paper is a test of several hypothesized predictors of frequency of breast self-examination among low-income Mexican American women. Current research points to several factors as important predictors of preventive care. Among these are self-efficacy – one’s perceived capacity to perform a given action – and social support from significant others. For Mexican Americans, environmental barriers to health care are important factors. While findings are inconclusive regarding the role of language proficiency as a predictor of preventive care, the model includes this as a hypothesized predictor of frequency of breast self-examination. The findings show a strong relationship between self-efficacy and frequency of breast self-examination. Barriers to health care have a weaker direct effect upon breast self-examination. The effects of English-language proficiency are indirect and mediated by self-efficacy.
    • Reformation of Arizona's Bilingual Education Policy: Litigation or Legislation?

      Sacken, Michael Donal; University of Arizona Department of Educational Foundations and Administration (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1983)
    • Selections from A Frontier Documentary: Mexican Tucson, 1821-1856

      McCarty, Kieran; The University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies & Research Center (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1994)
    • Selections from De la Vida y Folclore de la Frontera

      Méndez, Miguel; University of Arizona (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1986)
    • Social Exchange Practices among Mexican-Origin Women in Nogales, Arizona: Prospects for Education Acquisition

      O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 2004)
      This paper summarizes quantitative and qualitative findings from a 1999 study of Mexican-origin households in Nogales, Arizona. An important finding shows that women’s educational progress is facilitated with social support, and more importantly, that a household’s investment in the education of its members is significantly raised with the increase in the education attainment level of the female head of household. These findings form the premise for arguing that by systematically building on existent cultural frameworks for social support that advance women’s educational progress, the chances for educational attainment for all Mexican-origin persons are improved.
    • Tierra No Mas Incognita: The Atlas of Mexican American History

      Ríos-Bustamante, Antonio; University of Arizona (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1990)
    • U.S. Immigration Authorities and Victims of Human and Civil Rights Abuses: The Border Interaction Project Study of South Tucson, Arizona, and South Texas

      Koulish, Robert E.; Escobedo, Manuel; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Warren, John Robert; University of Wisconsin-Madison; University of Arizona; Pima Community College; University of Wisconsin-Madison (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1994)
    • Utilizing the Informal Economy: The Case of Chicago's Maxwell Street Market

      Balkin,Steven; Morales, Alfonso; Persky, Joseph; Roosevelt University; University of Arizona, Department of Sociology; University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Economics (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 1994)
    • Viva Emiliano Zapata! Viva Benito Juarez! Helping Mexican and Chicano Middle School Students Develop a Chicano Consciousness via Critical Pedagogy and Latino/Latina Critical Race Theory

      Casas, Martha; University of Texas, El Paso, Teacher Education Department (University of Arizona, Mexican American Studies and Research Center, 2006)
      This article describes how an anti-racist curriculum constructed on Critical Race Theory (CRT) and Latino Critical Pedagogy (LatCrit) helped Mexican and Chicano middle school students enrolled in an alternative education program to alter their attitudes toward the use of English, and to change their forms of self-identification resulting in the development of a Chicano consciousness. In the beginning of this fourteen-month study, 9.6% of the students identified with the Chicano label. However, at the end of the study, 77% of the class selected the Chicano label for self-identification. Moreover, this investigation bridges the theoretical concepts of Critical Pedagogy to everyday practice in a middle school classroom. In short, the tenets of this theoretical framework were applied in the design and the implementation of the curriculum.