Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Mortality Due to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Nematoda:Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae)
KeywordsAgriculture -- Arizona
Turfgrasses -- Arizona
Turf management -- Arizona
Plants, ornamental -- Arizona
Urban IPM -- Arizona
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AbstractTwo species of entomopathogenic nematode were studied in terms of their survivability, detectability by the subterranean termite Heterotermes aureus, and their ability to induce mortality in H. aureus. Heterorhabdidtis bacteriophora (Poinar) and Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) are nematodes sold commercially as a means of biological control for termites. We used a laboratory method to determine how effective these nematode species might be under field conditions. Tests showed a difference in the survivability between nematode species and also ability to kill termites. It was also shown that H. aureus had no ability to detect either nematode species when given a choice between arenas infested with nematodes and not. Though nematodes might have some limited capacity for termite control, those considering using nematodes to control Heterotermes aureus may want to consider the species of nematode before making a purchase.
Series/Report no.Series P-141
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The ethnobotany and phenology of plants in and adjacent to two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona.Asdall, Willard Van; Adams, Karen Rogers.; Mason, Charles T.; Martin, Paul S.; Davis, Owen K.; Turner, Raymond M. (The University of Arizona., 1988)Two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona provide the setting for a study of 127 plants useful to human foragers. A view of plant part availability is based on annual phenological profiles, and on historic and prehistoric records of plant use. Food choice is limited in March and April, but high August through November. Riparian plants also offer numerous non-food resources. Trees and shrubs serve more needs in relation to number of available species than do perennial herbs (including grasses) and annuals. Southwestern ethnographic literature hints that certain native taxa (Panicum, Physalis, Populus, Salix, Typha and Vitis) might receive special care. Inherent qualities of parts, coupled with ethnographic records of preparation and use, provide a basis for speculation on which parts might survive in an ancient record. Most are expected to disintegrate in open sites. Parts sought for different needs can enter a dwelling via diverse routes that produce confusingly similar archaeological debris. Modern experiments to wash pollen from 14 separate harvests permit evaluation of plant fruit and leaves as pollen traps, to help interpret pollen recovered from ancient dwellings. High amounts of Berberis, Rumex and Ribes pollen, sometimes in clumps or as tetrads, travel on harvested fruit. Arctostaphylos, Monarda, Oxalis, Rhus, Rhamnus, Vitis and Juniperus parts carry lower amounts. Quercus and Gramineae pollen grains travel on parts of other taxa, as well as on their own fruit. The phenological profiles offer insight into group life-form activities in response to local temperature and precipitation trends. Rising and maximum temperatures coincide with intense vegetative and reproductive activity for trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Increased levels of precipitation coincide with maximum flowering and fruiting of herbaceous perennials and fall annuals. Limited data on six taxa from Utah generally agrees with observations in this study, suggesting strong genetic control in the phenology of some riparian taxa.
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