KeywordsAgriculture -- Arizona
Turfgrasses -- Arizona
Turf management -- Arizona
Plants, ornamental -- Arizona
Turfgrasses -- Variety trials
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AbstractForty nine seeded entries were overseeded into Tifway bermudagrass maintained at 5/8" inch. Improved annuals showed better turf performance in most categories than GULF annual, while hybrid(intermediate ryegrasses) showed great improvement over original release material. Annuals and hybrids were more vigorous in plot establishment after emergence until late November/early December, when perennial types increased plot cover. Poa trivilais was slower to emerge than other grasses, but had excellent performance in the coldest parts of the winter season, only to decline early in the spring for overall turfgrass quality. Turfgrass color scores were greatest on 17 February and 27 March. On 17 February, the mean color scores ranged from a low value for Gulf annual (4.0), to the Jacklin blend which averaged 8.5 (Table 3). Other darker entries included the PHD blend (8.0), B-5.1095 ryegrass (8.0), B-6.1523 ryegrass (8.0) Pick EJ ryegrass (8.0), B-6.1523 (8.0), Brea ryegrass (7.8), Pavilion ryegrass (7.8), RX ryegrass blend (7.8), Acapella ryegrass (7.8) Ringer II (7.8) and PM 102 ryegrass (7.8). Physical mowing stress was evident on 2 May, in which grasses exhibited leaf tip shredding and elongated flowering culms. Gulf and Panterra annual aul ryegrass showed the least favorable mowing response. STR 4NV (intermediate ryegrass ) had mow stress-type symptoms similar to perennial ryegrass, which was much less than that of the annual types. On 19 June, bermudagrass plot cover ranged from 17.5% (Laser PT) to 100% cover on several other entries. The Rx ryegrass blend, Bar LM TL annual ryegrass, Leaguemaster blend, and Heat PR all had 100% bermudagrass cover. The non-overseeded checks had 95% bermudagrass on 19 June. There were nine entries with 90% or more bermudagrass, ten entries that had 80-85% bermuda, four entries that had between 85-90% Bermuda, and sixteen entries with 75% or less bermudagrass on 19 June. The Champion Fine mixture had 55% bermudagrass. PHD had 63%. Pavilion had 63% bermuda as well. The Poa trivialis entries had the least amount of bermudagrass present. Entries which had high quality scores on average throughout the entire test period (early November to July 12 included the entries, Champion RB (mixture of creeping red fescue and perennial ryegrass) (6.8) ; Champion GC (mixture of fine fescue and perennial rygrass) (6.8) ; the experimental ryegrass B-6.1523 (6.7) ; Jackilin Blend A (6.7) ; the experimental ryegrass B-6.1091 (6.9) ; and B-6.0756 (6.8) ; Entries which had generally throughout the entire season had good quality and high amounts of bermudagrass on 19 June included Heat (100%), STR 4TPC (93%), STR 4QT (90%), RX (100%), Jacklin Blend A (88%), B-6.1095 (95%), and Champion STF (98%). Other entries had a quicker transition, but had lower mean quality scores otherwise, while others had high quality scores, but a slower transition.
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A recursive programming analysis of water conservation in Arizona agriculture : a study of the Phoenix active management areaLierman, Wally Kent. (The University of Arizona., 1983)Arizona agriculture faces many changes in the near future. One of the most imminent changes will come from the enactment of the 1980 Arizona Groundwater Management Act. The 1980 AGWMA is designed ultimately to curtail the use of groundwater in Arizona. Agriculture will be affected since this sector used approximately 87 percent of all water in the State in 1980. This study reports on the possible effects that a proposed pump tax and water duty policy would have on agriculture within the Phoenix Active Management Area. The PAMA is one of four such areas in the State that have been identified as needing groundwater use management. The results of this study indicate that the proposed water duty is more effective in curbing groundwater use than the proposed pump tax. Investment in more water application efficient irrigation technologies is also important in this study. However, substantial amounts of capital investment funds will be needed to begin this investment.
The ethnobotany and phenology of plants in and adjacent to two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona.Adams, Karen Rogers. (The University of Arizona., 1988)Two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona provide the setting for a study of 127 plants useful to human foragers. A view of plant part availability is based on annual phenological profiles, and on historic and prehistoric records of plant use. Food choice is limited in March and April, but high August through November. Riparian plants also offer numerous non-food resources. Trees and shrubs serve more needs in relation to number of available species than do perennial herbs (including grasses) and annuals. Southwestern ethnographic literature hints that certain native taxa (Panicum, Physalis, Populus, Salix, Typha and Vitis) might receive special care. Inherent qualities of parts, coupled with ethnographic records of preparation and use, provide a basis for speculation on which parts might survive in an ancient record. Most are expected to disintegrate in open sites. Parts sought for different needs can enter a dwelling via diverse routes that produce confusingly similar archaeological debris. Modern experiments to wash pollen from 14 separate harvests permit evaluation of plant fruit and leaves as pollen traps, to help interpret pollen recovered from ancient dwellings. High amounts of Berberis, Rumex and Ribes pollen, sometimes in clumps or as tetrads, travel on harvested fruit. Arctostaphylos, Monarda, Oxalis, Rhus, Rhamnus, Vitis and Juniperus parts carry lower amounts. Quercus and Gramineae pollen grains travel on parts of other taxa, as well as on their own fruit. The phenological profiles offer insight into group life-form activities in response to local temperature and precipitation trends. Rising and maximum temperatures coincide with intense vegetative and reproductive activity for trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Increased levels of precipitation coincide with maximum flowering and fruiting of herbaceous perennials and fall annuals. Limited data on six taxa from Utah generally agrees with observations in this study, suggesting strong genetic control in the phenology of some riparian taxa.