Mexican American Women and Social Change: The Founding of the Community Service Organization in Los Angeles, An Oral History
AuthorApodaca, Linda M.
AffiliationCalifornia State University, Stanislaus, Ethnic and Women's Studies Department
KeywordsWomen in community organization -- California -- Los Angeles
Los Angeles Community Service Organization
Hispanic American women -- California -- Los Angeles -- Social conditions
Community leadership -- California -- Los Angeles
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RightsThe MASRC Working Paper Series © The Arizona Board of Regents
Collection InformationThe goal of the Mexican American Studies & Research Center's Working Paper Series is to disseminate recent research on the Mexican American experience. The Center welcomes papers from the social sciences, public policy fields, and the humanities. Areas of particular interest include economic and political participation of Mexican Americans, health, immigration, and education. The Mexican American Studies & Research Center assumes no responsibility for statements or opinions of contributors to its Working Paper Series.
AbstractThe Community Service Organization, a grassroots social service agency that originated in Los Angeles in the late 1940s, is generally identified by its male leadership. Research conducted for the present oral history, however, indicates that Mexican American women were essential to the founding of the organization, as well as to its success during the forty-six years it was in operation. This paper is a history of the founding of the CSO based on interviews with eleven Mexican American women and one Mexican American man, all of whom were founding members.
Series/Report no.MASRC Working Paper Series; 27
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BUDBREAK AND FRUITFULNESS OF DESERT GRAPES (VITIS VINIFERA L.) (DEFOLIATION, PRUNING, HORMONES).DUARTE, MIGUEL ANGEL. (The University of Arizona., 1983)Dinitro-ortho-cresol (500, 1000, and 2000 ppm) and dormant oil (2.5, 5.0, and 10%) were applied to Thompson Seedless and Perlette grapevines alone and in combination to enhance budbreak and fruitfulness. Applications were made immediately after pruning. Use of these materials during the winter, immediately after pruning, had no effect on either fruitfulness or budbreak in Perlette or Thompson Seedless. Thompson Seedless cuttings collected in August were exposed to six temperatures (7, 13, 18, 24, 29 and 35 C) for five time periods (2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks). After temperature treatment the cuttings were planted in the greenhouse at 24 (+OR-) 1 C. Cuttings exposed to 24, 29 and 35 C broke sooner than those exposed to 7, 13, 18 C at all time periods. The percentage of the bud openings of cuttings at 29 C for a period of 2 and 4 weeks was 95% and 100% respectively. The optimum temperature for budburst was 29 C. Gibberellic acid, Thiourea, dinitro-ortho-sec-butyl-phenol (DINOSEB), potassium nitrate and Endothal were used at two concentrations alone and in combination, to break rest of Thompson Seedless buds. Thiourea at 2% and DINOSEB at 1000 ppm alone were the only treatments which gave a higher percentage of bud opening after 20 forcing days at 25 (+OR-) 1 C temperature. Similar results were obtained from cuttings taken in both winter and summer. Three times after harvest, Perlette and Thompson Seedless were defoliated using the senesce enhancer Endothal. Defoliation times (4, 8, and 12 weeks) after harvest were used. In half of the treatments, regrowth was controlled with Endothal. Gibberellic acid (1000 ppm) Thiourea (2%) and DINOSEB (2000 ppm) were applied at the time of defoliation. The four- and twelve-week defoliation periods with new vine growth controlled for improving budbreak and fruitfulness were best. Growth regulators did not improve the defoliation treatments. The best treatments hastened budbreak by 10 days, more than doubled vine fruitfulness, and increased sugar content in berries resulting in a 10-day earlier harvest than in the control. Results were similar in both Thompson Seedless and Perlette. Thompson Seedless and Cardinal vines grown under Arizona desert conditions were defoliated 4 weeks after harvest with 2000 ppm Endothal. Two weeks later they were pruned and treated with 1000 ppm gibberellic acid, 2% Thiourea, and 1000 ppm DINOSEB. Cardinal and Thompson Seedless vines produced a second commercial crop in December of the same year. Thiourea (2%) and 1000 ppm DINOSEB did not have a significant effect; however, 1000 ppm Gibberellic acid reduced the number of clusters per vine.
Hydrologic effects of vegetative practices on ponderosa pine watersheds in ArizonaBustamante Gonzalez, Angel (The University of Arizona., 2000)Impacts of vegetation manipulation treatments on the hydrologic regime of ponderosa pine watersheds in Arizona were evaluated in this dissertation. First, the Seasonal-Kendall test was applied to detect trends in the precipitation and water yield of the control watershed. Then the long-term implications of two levels of forest cutting (clear cut and strip cut with thinning) on the water yield of the treated watersheds were assessed by means of the traditional paired watershed method and plots of cumulative recursive residuals (CUSUM). CUSUM plots were proposed as a complementary tool to evaluate the duration of water yield changes following treatment. Next, BROOK90, a conceptual hydrologic model, was used to assess water yield changes of ponderosa pine watersheds associated with vegetative practices. The model was optimized and verified in the control watershed to determine if the model was applicable to the environment where the experiment was conducted. Then the model was optimized for the pre-treatment period of the treated watersheds and the optimized parameters were used to simulate the water yield of the post-treatment period. Finally, results obtained with the traditional paired watershed approach were compared with those obtained with the modeling simulation. The two methods were in reasonable agreement.
Wettability modification of polysilicon for stiction reduction in silicon based micro-electromechanical structuresAlmanza Workman, Angeles (The University of Arizona., 2002)Surface micromachining using deposited polysilicon films is a technology that is widely used for the fabrication of micro-electromechanical structures. One of the biggest yield and reliability problems in the fabrication of such structures is "stiction" or adhesion to the substrate. This may occur during the drying step that is required after wet processing and/or during use of a device. Deposition of self-assembled monolayer coatings is one of the most successful approaches to chemical modification of silicon surfaces to reduce stiction. This approach involves making the surfaces of pre-oxidized polysilicon highly hydrophobic. As a result, microstructures come out of the final water rinse extremely dry without being broken or adhered to the substrate. Available technology requires that these coatings are applied from organic media . However, increasing pressure on semiconductor companies to reduce the generation of organic wastes has sparked interest in the feasibility of applying these coatings from aqueous media. The objective of this research was to develop the chemistry and techniques for the application of hydrophobic coatings on polysilicon from aqueous media. The results obtained from three commercially available water dispersible silanes and cationic alkoxysilanes are discussed. Key experimental variables that were investigated are concentration of reactive silane, type of oxidation pretreatment of polysilicon, pH and temperature of the silane dispersion and curing temperature of the coating. The stability of the dispersions was characterized by viscosity measurements. The formation and quality of the films were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry, dynamic contact angle measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings showed contact angles greater than 100°. It was found using AFM that the structure of these films is a continuous film with some particulates attributed to bulk polymerization of the precursor molecule in water. EIS results indicated that the coatings had low porosity as well as high charge transfer resistance across the silicon/HF interface. Ellipsometric analysis showed that thickness of these coatings is roughly a (statistical) monolayer. The stability improvement of the dispersions by the addition of quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants is also discussed.