Of Information Highways and Toxic Byways: Women and Environmental Protest in a Northern Mexican City
AuthorO'Leary, Anna Ochoa
AffiliationPima Community College, Department of Social and Cultural Studies
KeywordsWomen -- Political activity -- Mexico -- Hermosillo
Environmental protection -- Citizen participation -- Case studies
Environmental protection -- Mexico -- Hermosillo -- Citizen participation
Social networks -- Mexico -- Hermosillo
Protest movements -- Mexico -- Hermosillo -- Case studies
Women political activists -- Mexico -- Hermosillo
Hazardous waste sites -- Mexico -- Hermosillo
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RightsThe MASRC Working Paper Series © The Arizona Board of Regents
Collection InformationThe goal of the Mexican American Studies & Research Center's Working Paper Series is to disseminate recent research on the Mexican American experience. The Center welcomes papers from the social sciences, public policy fields, and the humanities. Areas of particular interest include economic and political participation of Mexican Americans, health, immigration, and education. The Mexican American Studies & Research Center assumes no responsibility for statements or opinions of contributors to its Working Paper Series.
AbstractWomen’s involvement in collective struggles for environmental quality has surged in recent years, as has research focusing on this phenomenon. Consistent with this research, a feminist lens is useful in revealing a model of community struggle that features women’s activities and strategies to expose environmental insult. I use a case study of community protest in Hermosillo, a city in the Mexican state of Sonora, to feature social networks as a means of politicizing the placement of a toxic waste dump six kilometers outside the city. A feminist perspective reveals these social networks to be more than a way to mobilize resources. It allow us to see the ways in which gender interacts with globalized relations of power, political ecology, and environmental policy, and to validate a creative way in which women can out-maneuver the gendered constraints to political participation. An analysis of how social networks served in this particular struggle suggests that they are an important component in the process through which women gained voice and authored oppositional discourse in contexts where these have been previously denied, and ultimately deconstructed the political authority that sanctioned the dump.
Series/Report no.MASRC Working Paper Series; 30
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Outdoor spatial spraying against dengue: A false sense of security among inhabitants of Hermosillo, MexicoReyes-Castro, Pablo A.; Castro-Luque, Lucia; Diaz-Caravantes, Rolando; Walker, Kathleen R.; Hayden, Mary H.; Ernst, Kacey C.; Univ Arizona (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017-05-17)Background Government-administered adulticiding is frequently conducted in response to dengue transmission worldwide. Anecdotal evidence suggests that spraying may create a "false sense of security' for residents. Our objective was to determine if there was an association between residents' reporting outdoor spatial insecticide spraying as way to prevent dengue transmission and both their reported frequency of dengue prevention practices and household entomological indices in Hermosillo, Mexico. Methodology/Principal findings A non-probabilistic survey of 400 households was conducted in August 2014. An oral questionnaire was administered to an adult resident and the outer premises of the home were inspected for water-holding containers and presence of Ae. aegypti larvae and pupae. Self-reported frequency of prevention practices were assessed among residents who reported outdoor spatial spraying as a strategy to prevent dengue (n = 93) and those who did not (n = 307). Mixed effects negative binomial regression was used to assess associations between resident's reporting spraying as a means to prevent dengue and container indices. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to determine associations with presence/absence of larvae and pupae. Those reporting spatial spraying disposed of trash less frequently and spent less time indoors to avoid mosquitoes. They also used insecticides and larvicides more often and covered their water containers more frequently. Their backyards had more containers positive for Ae. aegypti (RR = 1.92) and there was a higher probability of finding one or more Ae. aegypti pupae (OR = 2.20). Survey respondents that reported spatial spraying prevented dengue were more likely to be older and were exposed to fewer media sources regarding prevention. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that the perception that outdoor spatial spraying prevents dengue is associated with lower adoption of prevention practices and higher entomological risk. This provides some support to the hypothesis that spraying may lead to a "false sense of security". Further investigations to clarify this relationship should be conducted. Government campaigns should emphasize the difficulty in controlling Ae. aegypti mosquitoes and the need for both government and community action to minimize risk of dengue transmission.
New Perspectives on the Spatial Analysis of Urban Employment Distribution and Commuting Patterns: the Cases of Hermosillo and Ciudad Obregon, MexicoDall'erba, Sandy; Rodríguez-Gámez, Liz Ileana; Tong, Daoqin; Plane, David; Dall'erba, Sandy (The University of Arizona., 2012)Whereas no prior contribution has focused on the case of a medium-sized city in a developing country, such as Mexico, to explore how urban structure and its expansion has affected the spatial distribution of employment, three distinct, but related papers were developed, which combine urban economics literature and spatial sciences techniques to fill this gap and provide new evidence. The first paper, entitled "Spatial Distribution of Employment in Hermosillo, 1999 and 2004" identifies where employment subcenters are. Testing the presence of spatial effects, it concludes that an incipient process of employment suburbanization has taken place; however, the city still exhibits a monocentric structure. As a complement, a second paper, "Employment Density in Hermosillo, 1999-2004: A Spatial Econometric Approach of Local Parameters" tests if the Central Business District (CBD), despite suburbanization, maintains the traditional attributes of attracting activities and influencing the organization of employment around it. The CBD is still attractive, but its influence varies across space and economic sector, conclusions that were masked by global estimations. Thirdly, a study was essential to uncover how important is the urban structure and the suburbanization of jobs in explaining the dispersion resulting of households and workplaces (commuting). The paper entitled "Commuting in a Developing City: The Case of Ciudad Obregon, Mexico" examines this issue. To take advantage of the commuting information available, the study area was switched. In general, the results are consistent with those suggested by urban economics; moreover, the inclusion of workplace characteristics was a novelty to model commuting behavior and proves that space matters. Additionally, new evidence was provided to the field of spatial science through the applications of techniques able to expose the spatial effects associated with the distribution of employment, more specifically, the Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis(ESDA), Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) with spatial effects, as well as the generalized multilevel hierarchical linear model (GMHL) were used. The new findings produced for this dissertation provide a more comprehensive understanding of urban dynamics and could help to improve the planning process. It is hoped that this dissertation will contribute to that development as well as stimulate further research.
Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 in children exposed to arsenic from playground dust at elementary schools in Hermosillo, Sonora, MexicoGarcía-Rico, Leticia; Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Beamer, Paloma I; Burgess, Jefferey L; O'Rourke, Mary K; Lantz, Clark R; Furlong, Melissa; Martinez-Cinco, Marco; Mondaca-Fernandez, Iram; Balderas-Cortes, Jose J; et al. (SPRINGER, 2020-02)Arsenic exposure in adults has been associated with increased serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a biomarker which is associated with chronic respiratory disease, lung inflammation, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between serum MMP-9 levels in children, urinary arsenic, arsenic chronic daily intake (CDI) and arsenic exposure from playground dust. This cross-sectional study examined 127 children from five elementary schools, in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Arsenic was analyzed in the dust using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer. Total urinary arsenic was determined by inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry. Serum was analyzed for MMP-9 using ELISA. Arsenic levels in playground dust averaged 16.9 +/- 4.6 mg/kg. Urinary arsenic averaged 34.9 +/- 17.1 mu g/L. Arsenic concentration in playground dust was positively associated with serum MMP-9 levels in crude analyses and after adjustment (P < 0.01), MMP-9 and CDI were positively associated only after adjustment (P < 0.01), and no association was found between MMP-9 and urinary arsenic. In conclusion, our study showed an association in children between serum MMP-9 levels and playground dust arsenic concentrations. Therefore, exposure to arsenic in dust where children spend significant time may manifest toxic effects.