Sorption Kinetics of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds onto Organic Modified Surfaces
AuthorSzecsödy, James Edward
Organic compounds -- Absorption and adsorption.
Soils -- Organic compound content.
AdvisorBales, Roger C.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractThe sorption of five chlorinated benzenes and sixteen other organic solutes was investigated by determining the extent of sorption and the sorption rates in a series of 40 batch and 139 column experiments using surface-modified silica of known chemical composition. These surfaces were used to represent important functional groups in soil, and consisted of porous silica with patchy surface coatings of aliphatic chains (C₁, C₈, and C₁₈), and other substituent groups (phenyl, amine, alcoholic, and carboxylic). Three possible rate-limiting steps were examined: diffusion through immobile pore fluid, diffusion through bound organic matter, and the chemical binding and release rate. First-order desorption rate coefficients were observed to be 10⁻¹ to 10⁻² s⁻¹ on unbonded, and C₈, C₁₈, amine, and alcoholic modified surfaces, and 10⁻³ to 10⁻⁵ s⁻¹ on C₁ and phenyl-polymer modified surfaces. Diffusion through immobile pore fluid had only a minor effect on the sorption rate, as evidenced by similar rates on organic-bound porous and solid particles. The diffusion rate through the bound organic layer is not rate limiting due to the small organic layer thickness. The observed slow desorption on the phenyl-polymer surface is consistent with the rate limiting step being the chemical binding and release rate. The changes in the rate with temperature and within a series of chlorinated benzenes support this conclusion. The free energies for sorption onto the phenyl-polymer surface ranged from -4.0 kcal mol⁻¹ for chlorobenzene to -6.9 kcal mol⁻¹ for pentachlorobenzene, which are within the range expected for van der Waals interactions. The observed sorption energies are slightly stronger than predicted for hydrophobic surfaces, possibly reflecting strong binding due to multiple pi-pi electron interactions on the phenyl-polymer surface. Hydrophobic solute partitioning onto natural soils, as observed by others, is less than that observed on aliphatic and phenyl hydrophobic surfaces in this study, but greater than on amine or alcoholic modified surfaces. The sorption of di-, tri-, and tetra-chlorobenzenes onto the phenyl-polymer surface is apparently driven by the overall sorption enthalpy (ΔH° = -3.9 to -4.9 kcal mo1⁻¹) and to a lesser extent by the entropy (TΔS° = 0.5 to 1.5 kcal mol⁻¹). As equilibrium of the reactions observed in this study are reached within hours, these reactions are important at small field scales where residence times are hundreds of hours or less.
Degree ProgramGraduate College