Defining the Risk of Resistance to Imidacloprid in Arizona Whitefly
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AbstractA resistance management program for imidacloprid was initiated in Arizona in 1995, the ultimate goal of which is to sustain the efficacy of this insecticide against Bemisia. The current paper reviews our progress toward defining the risk of resistance to imidacloprid in Arizona whiteflies. Bioassay methods for adult whitefly consisted of a 1 day hydroponic uptake by cotton seedlings, followed by a 2 day exposure period. Results from statewide monitoring indicate that whitefly populations throughout Arizona are susceptible to imidacloprid; however, slight increases in resistant whiteflies were observed in 1996, as compared to 1995. Thus far, selection studies with various Arizona whitefly populations have not led to reduced susceptibility to imidacloprid. In a study exploring the influences of different cropping systems on imidacloprid use, we found no major differences in susceptibility to imidacloprid between populations of whiteflies in central and southwestern Arizona. Continued effective management of Arizona whitefly will, in part, hinge on our ability to more effectively integrate our knowledge of whitefly biology with resistance management strategies.