• August to July Precipitation from Tree Rings in the Forest-Steppe Zone of Central Siberia (Russia)

      Shah, S.K.; Touchan, R.; Babushkina, E.; Shishov, V.V.; Meko, D.M.; Abramenko, O.V.; Belokopytova, L.V.; Hordo, M.; Jevšenak, J.; Kędziora, W.; et al. (Tree Ring Society, 2015-01)
      The goal of this research report is to describe annual precipitation reconstruction from Pinus sylvestris trees on three sites in the Abakan region, located in the Minusinsk Depression, at the confluence of the Yenisei and Abakan Rivers, Russia. The study was performed during the 4th annual international summer course "Tree Rings, Climate, Natural Resources and Human Interaction" held in Abakan, 5-19 August 2013. The reconstruction, for the 12-month total precipitation ending in July of the growth year, is based on a reliable and replicable statistical relationship between precipitation and tree-ring growth, and shows climate variability on both interannual and interdecadal time scales. The regional tree-ring chronology accounts for 56% of the variance of observed annual precipitation in a linear regression model, with the strongest monthly precipitation signal concentrated in May and June of the current growing season. Composite 500 mb height-anomaly maps suggest that the tree-ring data from this site, supplemented by other regional tree-ring data, could yield information on long-term atmospheric circulation variability over the study area and surrounding region. © 2015 The Tree-Ring Society.
    • How to improve dendrogeomorphic sampling: Variogram analyses of wood density using X-Ray computed tomography

      Guardiola-Albert, C.; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J.A.; Stoffel, M.; Díez-Herrero, A. (Tree Ring Society, 2015-01)
      Knowledge of the spatial heterogeneity of wood is useful for industrial applications and improving dendrogeomorphic sampling, because it allows a better understanding of 3-D wood density structure in tree stems damaged by geomorphic processes. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) scanning as a means of non-destructive measurement has become an important technique in tree research as it allows the detection of internal variations in wood density. In this paper a new methodology for modelling spatial variations of relative wood density using variograms on XRCT images is developed. For each tree, XRCT images perpendicular to the stem axis were obtained with 1-mm spacing. In a first step, ImageJ software was used to process each image. Then, more than 30 one-dimensional variograms were studied for a selected number of cross-sections. The results show that there is a pattern in the diffusion of relative wood density linked to the attenuation of the geomorphic damage along the stem from the wounded area. Although the number of samples could be increased, these preliminary results demonstrate that variograms of XRCT are a useful tool to optimize dendrogeomorphic sampling, saving time and costs. © 2015 The Tree-Ring Society.
    • The Dendroclimatological Potential of Willamette Valley Quercus garryana

      Gildehaus, S.; Arabas, K.; Larson, E.; Copes-Gerbitz, K. (Tree Ring Society, 2015-01)
      We develop a 341-year Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Dougl.) tree-ring chronology in Oregon's Willamette Valley to evaluate climate-growth relationships and determine the species' dendroclimatological potential at our site and in the surrounding region. The standardized and residual chronologies exhibit significant positive correlations with previous-year April and May temperatures, inverse correlations with previous-year spring precipitation and summer PDSI, a positive correlation with current-year July precipitation and summer PDSI, and inverse correlations with current-year June temperatures. The strength of these relationships varies over time. Significant shifts in the chronologies' mean and variance align with phase changes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), with lower and more variable growth during the warmer, drier positive phase of the PDO over the instrumental record. The absence of similar shifts prior to the 1900s, suggests a lack of temporal consistency in the expression of PDO variability at our site. The strong crossdating at our site reflects a cohesive climate signal, and the climate analysis illustrates the potential to develop proxy data over multiple centuries. Together, these results indicate a potential to expand the network of currently available climate proxy data by utilizing Q. garryana in dendroclimatological research. © 2015 The Tree-Ring Society.
    • Morphological and Physiological Phenology of Pinus longaeva in the White Mountains of California

      Hallman, C.; Arnott, H. (Tree Ring Society, 2015-01)
      Natural variations and responses to climate change can be identified within climatically sensitive ecosystems by monitoring growing season events. In 1962-1964, Fritts conducted a phenologic study on Pinus longaeva in the White Mountains of California. He monitored growing season events, environmental data, and dendrometer readings. In this study morphological and physiological phenophases, dendrometer traces, and environmental data were collected throughout the summers of 2007 and 2008 in the White Mountains of California to better understand variability in Pinus longaeva phenology and identify any shifts in the growing season since the 1962-1964 study (Fritts 1969). As a result of a late-season snow storm, observable phenophases in 2008 were 12 days later than in 2007. Pollination onset was slightly earlier than in the 1962-1964, which may indicate that accumulated heat or a combination of environmental factors influence these phenophases. Duration and timing of cambial activity in the present study was similar to that recorded in the Fritts (1969) investigation despite a median summer temperature increase of at least 2°C. © 2015 The Tree-Ring Society.
    • Dendrochronological dating in Egypt: Work accomplished and future prospects

      Kuniholm, P.I.; Newton, M.; Sherbiny, H.; Bassir, H. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
      We assess the state of and potential for expansion of dendroarchaeological research in Egypt. We also report previously unpublished findings, which we hope will assist with the new effort in constructing tree-ring chronologies in Egypt. In doing so, we explain briefly some of the problems and potential of the future enterprise.
    • Tree Rings and the chronology of ancient Egypt

      Creasman, P.P. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
      A fundamental aspect of ancient Egyptian history remains unresolved: chronology. Egyptologists (and researchers in related fields that synchronize their studies with Egypt) currently rely on a variety of insufficiently precise methodologies (king lists, radiocarbon dating, etc.) from which to derive seemingly “absolute” dates. The need for genuine precision has been recognized for a century, as has the potential solution: dendrochronology. This manuscript presents a case for further progress toward the construction of a tree-ring chronology for ancient Egypt.
    • A tree-ring based late summer temperature reconstruction (AD 1675–1980) for the northeastern Mediterranean

      Trouet, V. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
      This article presents a late summer temperature reconstruction (AD 1675–1980) for the northeastern Mediterranean (NEMED) that is based on a compilation of maximum latewood density tree-ring data from 21 high-elevation sites. This study applied a novel approach by combining individual series from all sites into one NEMED master chronology. This approach retains only the series with a strong and temporally robust common signal and it improves reconstruction length. It further improved the regional character of the reconstruction by using as a target averaged gridded instrumental temperature data from a broad NEMED region (38–45°N, 15–25°E). Cold (e.g. 1740) and warm (e.g. 1945) extreme years and decades in the reconstruction correspond to regional instrumental and reconstructed temperature records. Some extreme periods (e.g. cold 1810s) reflect European-wide or global-scale climate conditions and can be explained by volcanic and solar forcing. Other extremes are strictly regional in scope. For example, 1976 was the coldest NEMED summer over the last 350 years, but was anomalously dry and hot in northwestern Europe and is a strong manifestation of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (sNAO). The regional NEMED summer reconstruction thus contributes to an improved understanding of regional (e.g. sNAO) vs. global-scale (i.e. external) drivers of past climate variability.
    • Data management in dendroarchaeology using Tellervo

      Brewer, P.W. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
      The Tellervo dendrochronological software builds upon the Tree-Ring Data Standard (TRiDaS) to provide a tool for recording and managing all manner of dendrochronological data. However, Tellervo is especially useful for dendroarchaeological research. The traditional file formats used in dendrochronology—and by association the applications that use them—have very limited and nonstandard methods for recording rich information about dendro samples and their context. Such information is especially important in dendroarchaeological research to ensure accurate conclusions are made. Tellervo is described here in the context of research carried out as part of the excavations of the Theodosian Harbor at Yenikapı, Istanbul.
    • Potential for a new multimillennial tree-ring chronology from subfossil Balkan River oaks

      Pearson, C.L.; Ważny, T.; Kuniholm, P.I.; Botić, K.; Durman, A.; Seufer, K. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
      A total of 272 oak (Quercus sp.) samples have been collected from large subfossil trees dredged from sediment deposited by the Sava and various tributary rivers in the Zagreb region of northwestern Croatia, and in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Measurement series of tree-ring widths from these samples produced 12 groups, totaling 3456 years of floating tree-ring chronologies spread through the last ca. 8000 years. This work represents the first step in creating a new, high-resolution resource for dating and paleoenvironmental reconstruction in the Balkan region and potentially a means to bridge between the floating tree-ring chronologies of the wider Mediterranean region and the continuous long chronologies from central Europe.
    • Dendroclimatology in the Eastern Mediterranean

      Touchan, R.; Meko, D.M.; Anchukaitis, K.J. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
      Dendroclimatology in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region has made important contributions to the understanding of climate variability on timescales of decades to centuries. These contributions, beginning in the mid-20th century, have value for resource management, archaeology, and climatology. A gradually expanding tree-ring network developed by the first author over the past 15 years has been the framework for some of the most important recent advances in EM dendroclimatology. The network, now consisting of 79 sites, has been widely applied in large-scale climatic reconstruction and in helping to identify drivers of climatic variation on regional to global spatial scales. This article reviews EM dendroclimatology and highlights contributions on the national and international scale.
    • An archaeometric and archaeological approach to Hellenistic–Early Roman ceramic workshops in Greece: Contribution to dating

      Kondopoulou, D.; Zananiri, I.; Rathossi, C.; de Marco, E.; Spatharas, V.; Hasaki, E. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
      The present article comprises a multidisciplinary archaeometric approach for the study of Hellenistic and Early Roman kilns in Greece. A collection of previously published and new archaeomagnetic data are combined with new results from mineralogical analytical experiments. The sampled material came from four areas, covering different geological contexts: Katerini, Olympiada, and Polymylos in mainland Greece, and the island of Paros. Extensive rock-magnetic experiments, including identification of the dominant ferromagnetic minerals present, their domain state, and mineralogical alterations during laboratory treatments, have been carried out in order to examine the magnetic properties of the studied materials and prove their suitability for reliable archaeomagnetic determinations. Magnetic cleaning provided well-defined archaeomagnetic directions, and archaeointensity measurements were carried out using both the Thellier-Thellier and Triaxe protocols. Information from both magnetic and mineralogical properties referring to firing conditions is further discussed along with archaeological information. Finally, a new dating of the four sites together with other structures of similar age was carried out using the Pavón-Carrasco model.
    • Bridging the gaps in tree-ring records: Creating a high-resolution dendrochronological network for southeastern Europe

      Ważny, T.; Lorentzen, B.; Köse, N.; Akkemik, Ü.; Boltryk, Y.; Güner, T.; Kyncl, J.; Kyncl, T.; Nechita, C.; Sagaydak, S.; et al. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
      Dendrochronological research in North-Central Europe and the East Mediterranean has produced networks of long regional oak (Quercus sp.) reference chronologies that have been instrumental in dating, provenancing, and paleoclimate research applications. However, until now these two important tree-ring networks have not been successfully linked. Oak forests and historical/archaeological sites in southeastern Europe provide the key for linking the North-Central European and East Mediterranean tree-ring networks, but previous dendrochronological research in this region has been largely absent. This article presents the initial results of a project, in which we have built oak tree-ring chronologies from forest sites and historical/archaeological sites along a north-south transect between Poland and northwestern Turkey, with the aim of linking the North-Central European and East Mediterranean tree-ring networks and creating a new pan-European oak data set for dendrochronological dating and paleoclimatic reconstruction. Correlation among tree-ring chronologies and the spatial distribution of their teleconnections are evaluated. The southeastern European chronologies provide a solid bridge between both major European dendrochronological networks. The results indicate that a dense network of chronologies is the key for bridging spatial and temporal gaps in tree-ring records. Dendrochronological sampling should be intensively continued in southeastern Europe because resources for building long oak chronologies in the region are rapidly disappearing.
    • Radiocarbon dating, mineralogy, and isotopic composition of hackberry endocarps from the Neolithic site of Aşıklı Höyük, central Turkey

      Quade, J.; Li, S.; Stiner, M.C.; Clark, A.E.; Mentzer, S.M.; Özbaşaran, M. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
      Carbonate is abundant in many Neolithic tells and is a potentially useful archive for dating and climate reconstruction. In this paper, we focus on the mineralogy, radiocarbon dating, and stable isotope systematics of carbonate in hackberry endocarps. Hackberry fruits and seeds are edible in fresh and stored forms, and they were consumed in large quantities in many Neolithic sites in the Near East, including the site of our study, Aşıkli Höyük in central Anatolia, an Aceramic Neolithic tell occupied from about 9.4 to > 10.3 BP (7.4 to > 8.3 BCE). Detailed 14C age control provided by archaeological charcoal permits a test of the fidelity in 14C dating of hackberry endocarps. Modern endocarps and leaves yield fraction modern 14C values of 1.050–1.066, consistent with levels present in the atmosphere when sampled in 2009. On the other hand, archaeological endocarps yield consistently younger ages than associated charcoal by ca. 130 14C years (ca. 220 calendar years) for samples about 10,000 years old. We speculate this is caused by the slight addition of calcite or recrystallization to calcite in the endocarp, as detected by scanning electron microscopy. Subtle addition or replacement of calcite by primary aragonite is not widely recognized in the 14C community, even though similar effects are reported from other natural carbonates such as shell carbonate. This small (but consistent) level of contamination supports the usefulness of endocarps in dating where other materials like charcoal are lacking. Before dating, however, hackberries should be carefully screened for mineralogical preservation and context. We examined the carbon and oxygen isotopic systematics of the fossil endocarps to try to establish potential source areas for harvesting. Most of the hackberries are enriched in 18O compared to local water sources, indicating that they were drawing on highly evaporated soil water, rather than the local (perched and regional) water table sampled in our study. Isotopic evidence therefore suggests that most but not all of the hackberries were harvested from nearby mesas well above the local streams and seeps fed by the water table.
    • The Interaction of Climate Change and Agency in the Collapse of Civilizations c. 2300–2000 BC

      Wiener, M.H. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
      Human history has been marked by major episodes of climate change and human response, sometimes accompanied by independent innovations. In the Bronze Age, the sequencing of causes and reactions is dependent in part on dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating. This paper explores the interaction of a major, prolonged desiccation event between c. 2300 and 2000 BC and human agency including migrations, the displacement of trading networks, warfare, the appearance of weapons made of bronze, and the first appearance of sailing vessels in the Mediterranean.
    • Editors' Note

      Jull, A.J.T.; Leavitt, S.W. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014)
    • IN MEMORIAM—Elsie Winnifred Downey

      Tree-Ring Society, 2014-07