Analysis of the relationship between ring-width indices of pedunculate oaks (Quercus robur L.) in the Niepotomice Forest with average monthly air temperatures (1826-1980) and total monthly precipitation (1881-1985) in Cracow revealed a strict relationship between tree -growth and the precipitation of June-July, May-July, and June-August. These relationships are described by a high percentage of agreement, at or around 70 %, and coefficients of correlation (rx) of 0.40 (June-July), 0.36 (May-July) and 0.30 (June-August). The group of 10 oaks with the highest coefficients between growth and precipitation yielded still higher correlations: 0.50, 0.50, and 0.41, respectively. High total monthly precipitation in June and July favors radial growth, while low precipitation reduces radial growth. The influence of air temperature on oak ring-width indices is less significant. The highest positive correlation occurs for January to April of the preceding year. Correlations for the years of radial growth have values close to or below (June) zero except for August.
The relative weights on individual trees in a biweight site chronology can indicate the consistency of tree growth responses to macroclimate and can be the basis for stratifying trees in climate-growth analyses. This was explored with 45 years of ring-width indices for 200 trees from five even-aged jack pine (Pints banksiana Lamb.) stands. Average individual-tree relative weights were similar, but most trees had at least one transient occurrence of low relative weight. The standard deviations of individual-tree relative weights suggested that some trees had mom variable growth responses than others. The trees were classified by the average and standard deviation of their relative weights, and biweight site chronologies were then calculated for these subgroups. Chronologies derived from trees with low average weights, and from trees with high standard deviation of weights, sometimes appeared to be different from chronologies derived from the remaining trees.
The signal strength of a biweight site chronology is properly viewed as an outcome of analysis rather than as a property of the forest-climate system. It can be estimated by the evenness of the empirical weights that are assigned to individual trees. The approach is demonstrated for a 45-year biweight chronology obtained from 40 jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees. The annual evenness of the empirical weights is calculated by indices derived from the Shannon and Simpson diversity indices, and the variances are found by the jackknife procedure. The annual estimates are then averaged to find an overall estimate of biweight signal strength for the 45-year period. These techniques are most useful for determining sample sizes for the biweight procedure, and for comparing different methods of detrending and standardizing data sets prior to applying the biweight mean-value function.
Travis, David J.; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Belanger, Roger P.(Tree-Ring Society, 1990)
The basis for the selection of trees to be used in the production of dendrochronologies has long been an issue (Douglass 1946; Fritts 1976). In humid regions the common practice has been to use trees that appear to be in good health. As a part of a larger study involving the impact of ice storms on tree-ring increments (Travis 1989), we show that trees stressed as a result of ice damage produced a stronger climatic signal than nondamaged trees.
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