Tree-Ring Bulletin, Volume 54 (1997)
ABOUT THE COLLECTION
Tree-Ring Research is the peer-reviewed journal of the Tree-Ring Society. The journal was first published in 1934 under the title Tree-Ring Bulletin. In 2001, the title changed to Tree-Ring Research.
The Tree-Ring Society and the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona partnered with the University Libraries to digitize back issues for improved searching capabilities and long-term preservation. New issues are added on an annual basis, with a rolling wall of five years.
Contact the Editor of Tree-Ring Research at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Computer Assisted, Independent Observer Verification of Tree-Ring MeasurementsThe importance of tree-ring analyses to forestry and other disciplines (e.g., climate and ecology) requires that tree-ring measurements be as accurate as possible. Accuracy of tree-ring measurement, although often emphasized, may not be stressed as much as other areas of the research. Nonetheless, poor quality measurement data compromise the reliability of interpretations. Possible errors include individual ring mismeasurement errors, consecutive ring errors, multiple ring misdating errors, and multiple ring systematic errors. Verification of measurements can be accomplished by an independent observer who remeasures certain segments from randomly selected cores or cross sections and then uses the computer program VERIFY5 to quantitatively and qualitatively compare both sets of measurements. This program features analyses-such as comparative statistics, least squares analysis, and outlier detection-that can isolate specific measurement errors. Such errors can be minimized by: (1) proper training in the hardware and software used; (2) training in certain rudimentary dendrochronological skills; (3) developing a deliberate measuring pace; (4) consistently using VERIFY5 by an independent observer; (5) using a quality control program (such as COFECHA) to further check measurements and crossdating.
Ring Width and Ring Diameter as Functions of Ring Number in Suppressed Maples and OaksPhipps showed that the cross-sectional area of successive tree rings in suppressed red maples and chestnut oaks, sampled at three-foot intervals above the base, is approximately constant. I show that this invariance in cross-sectional area is consistent with ring width varying as the inverse square root of ring number and with mean ring diameter and trunk diameter each scaling as the square root of ring number. These results may be useful in formulating growth rules for tree trunks of selected species, under constant environmental conditions, in terms of a single independent variable. For example, if elastic similarity holds, trunk height is proportional to the two-thirds power of trunk diameter. This relation implies that trunk height scales as the cube root of ring number. Thus, trunk height and trunk diameter may, in principle, both be expressed in terms of one independent variable, ring number.
The Dendrochronology of the Reconstruction of KinishbaDendroarchaeology is often discussed with reference to prehistoric contexts; however, it is equally relevant in historical contexts. Dendroarchaeological analysis independently dates the modem reconstruction of prehistoric Kinishba Pueblo with higher resolution than known documentary sources provide and illuminates reroofing practices. Kinishba is a large Mountain Mogollon pueblo on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in east-central Arizona. Historically, the reconstructed Kinishba is attributed to the 1930s work of Byron Cummings. Nineteen dates from structural beams in nine rooms of the pueblo form a tight cluster with a strong terminal peak at 1950. This peak combined with beam and architectural attributes provides evidence for an undocumented, extensive reroofing episode. Thus, the target event was not the building of reconstructed rooms as originally expected, but replacement of the original reconstructed roofs. This study illustrates two important dendroarchaeological points. First, preconceived ideas, even if based on sound research, should not influence sample dating, which should be free of bias. Second, this study illustrates the importance of tree-ring dates in archaeology and the potential conflict between other types of data and tree-ring dates.
The "Many Fragments Curse:" A Special Case of the Segment Length CurseThe "many fragments curse," a special case of the segment length curse, occurs in den- drochronology when time series are broken into fragments, either because of missing part of a sample (e.g., a rot pocket) or when a section of ring growth cannot be crossdated (e.g., a section with extremely suppressed growth and/or many rings absent). We exorcise this curse by inserting values to connect fragments of measurements. This technique permits fitting a single detrending curve to the connected series and thus preserves the low-frequency variance contained in the entire series. Inserted values are discarded after detrending and do not otherwise affect calculations of final corn- posite chronologies. As an example from junipers sampled at a site in Qinghai Province, China, 66 of 117 increment cores have nondatable sections of wood and one core has a gap of rotten wood between dated fragments. After connecting fragments by inserting values and then detrending, the chronology constructed from connected fragments has stronger century to multicentury scale variation than the chronology constructed from separate fragments. This approach is adapted to the library of computer programs developed for dendrochronological research under the auspices of the International Tree-Ring Data Bank.