• A Flexural Model for the Paradox Basin: Implications for the Tectonics of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains

      Barbeau, David Longfellow Jr.; Dickinson, William R.; DeCelles, Peter G.; Chase, Clement G.; Demko, T.; Geslin, Jeff K.; Garzione, C.; Sussman, A.; Bump, A.; Barbeau, David Longfellow Jr. (The University of Arizona., 2000)
      The Paradox Basin is a large (200 km x 265 km) asymmetric basin that developed along the southwestern flank of the basement-involved Uncompahgre uplift during the Pennsylvanian-Permian (Desmoinesian-Wolfcampian) Ancestral Rocky Mountain (ARM) orogenic event. Traditionally interpreted as a pull-apart basin, the Paradox Basin more closely resembles intraforeland flexural basins such as those that developed between the basement-cored uplifts of the Late Cretaceous-Eocene Laramide orogeny. The width, shape, subsidence history, facies architecture, and structural relationships of the Uncompahgre-Paradox system are exemplary of typical 'immobile' foreland basin systems. Along the southwest-vergent Uncompahgre thrust, ~5 km of coarse-grained syntectonic Desmoinesian-Wolfcampian sediments were shed from the Uncompahgre uplift by alluvial fans and were reworked by fluvial megafan deposystems in the proximal Paradox Basin. The coeval rise of an uplift-parallel barrier ~250 km southwest of the Uncompahgre front restricted reflux from the open ocean south and west of the basin, and promoted deposition of thick evaporite-shale and biohermal carbonate facies in the medial and distal, submarine parts of the basin, respectively. Nearshore carbonate shoal and terrestrial siliciclastic deposystems overtopped the basin during the late stages of subsidence during the Missourian through Wolfcampian. Reconstruction of an end-Permian two-dimensional uplift-basin profile from seismic, borehole, and outcrop data depicts the relationship of these deposystems to the differential accommodation space (i.e., foreland basin depozones) generated by Pennsylvanian-Permian subsidence. Flexural modeling of the restored basin profile indicates that the Paradox Basin can be described by flexural loading of a fully broken continental crust (Te = 25 km; D = 10²³ N m) by a model Uncompahgre uplift (A(c-s) = 214 km², ρ = 2670 kg /m³) and accompanying synorogenic sediments (ρ = 2325 kg /m³). The Paradox Basin's lack of flexural interference by competing loads, its location on the relatively undeformed Colorado Plateau, and its well-exposed and well-studied basin-fill provide a rare glimpse into a Paleozoic intraforeland flexural basin. Other thrust-bounded basins of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains are not so optimal for study. However, similarities in basin profiles, structural relationships and facies architectures suggest that many ARM basins share a geodynamic and tectonic history similar to the Paradox Basin's. Therefore, plate tectonic models that attempt to explain the development of ARM uplifts need to also consider the province's intraforeland flexural basins.
    • Geologic Implications of a Geo-Chemical Study of Three Two-Mica Granites in Southern Arizona

      Damon, Paul E.; Guilbert, John; Arnold, Andrew Herbert; Damon, Paul E.; Ruiz, Joaquin; Arnold, Andrew Herbert (The University of Arizona., 1986)
      The biotite + muscovite ± garnet-bearing Texas Canyon (TC), Presumido Peak (PP), and Gunnery Range (GR) granites are members of an enigmatic suite of Eocene age granites in southern Arizona. The late orogenic granites intrude Precambrian through Jurassic metasediments and metavolcanics. The major and minor element geochemistry of the high silica, weakly peraluminous granites is rather uniform. However, trace element concentrations, REE patterns, and isotopic compositions imply gross similarities between the TC and GR granites when both are compared to the PP granite. The TC and GR granites were derived from a depleted Precambrian lower crustal source area with low Rb/Sr, while the PP granite was the result of anatectic melting of an enriched Precambrian mid-to-upper crustal source. The PP granite is an integral part of a metamorphic core complex, and this tectonic setting accounts for the geochemical differences between it and both the TC and GR granites.
    • Geologic Interpretations of a Siliceous Breccia in the Colossal Cave Area, Pima County, Arizona

      Lance, John F.; Acker, Clement John; Acker, Clement John (The University of Arizona., 1958)
      In the Colossal Cave area, Pima County, Arizona, massive blocks of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks have been thrust from a southerly direction over an irregular surface of Rincon Valley granite of Laramide age. The Paleozoic rocks involved in the thrusting are the Bolsa quartzite, Abrigo formation, Martin limestone, Escabrosa limestone, Horquilla limestone, and Andrada formation. The Pantano formation (Miocene ?) is also present under the thrust sheet. The thrusting is of an imbricate nature with slip-page mainly teaking place along incompetent rock units. Large folds occur in the Escabrosa limestone and Horquilla lime-stone. A siliceous breccia is associated with thrust planes in the area. The competent units of the Paleozoic sediments were fractured and brecciated along the thrust planes. Solutions dissolved part of the silica and hematite from the Bolsa quartzite and deposited it in the fractured and brecciated zones.
    • A Geologic-Geochemical Study of the Cat Mountain Rhyolite

      Damon, Paul E.; Bikerman, Michael, 1934-; Bikerman, Michael (The University of Arizona., 1962)
      The main rock unit exposed in the southern part of the Tucson Mountains, Pima County, Arizona, is the Cat Mountain rhyolite. It forms the eastward dipping slope and the western escarpment of the mountain range, capping the large fault blocks which make up the range. Petrographic and radiometric data combine to show that the Cat Mountain rhyolite, as originally defined, consists of two major ash flow eruption sequences. The lower sequence is less uniform and continuous than the highly welded characteristically jointed upper unit. A basal non welded unit is found along the western escarpment, a partly welded transition zone is found between the welded units, and a capping partly-to-non-welded unit is exposed in protected parts of the eastern slope. The volcanic history of the area began with the emplacement of a nuee ardente deposit forming the “chaos” unit. This was followed by two ash flow pulses through the same vents, and the sequence was terminated by the intrusion of spherulitic rhyolite sealing up the vents.
    • A geological Reconnaissance of the San Pedro del Gallo Area, Durango, Mexico

      Alor, Jerjes Pantoja; Titley, Spencer R.; Alor, Jerjes Pantoja (The University of Arizona., 1963)
      The San Pedro del Gallo area 1.8 in the north-central part of Mexico, between 25°30' and 26°00' N latitude, and 104°00' and 104°20' W longitude. It covers approximately 1,900 square kilometers at the western edge of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The oldest rocks exposed in the area belong to the Villa Juarez Formation of possible Late Triassic age. These rocks, of continental origin, comprise siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate, tuff, and intercalated lavas of characteristic red color. Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks form a section with a maximum thickness of about 3,580 m. The sediments were deposited in the Mexican Geosyncline, west of the Coahuila Peninsula of pre-Aptian age. The Villa Juarez Formation is overlain with angular unconformity by orthoquartzite, quartzose sandstone, and limestone lenses of the La Gloria Formation of Oxfordian age. The La Casita Formation, which is stratigraphically above the La Gloria Formation, probably ranges in age from late Oxfordian to early Neocomian. It consists of thin-bedded limestone, black shale, and varicolored sandstone, with intercalations of coal seams and abundant ammonites. The Lower Cretaceous rocks of the area comprise the Coahuila Series, La Pena Formation, Aurora Limestone, and Cuesta del Cura Formation. Neocomian and upper Aptian rocks are represented by thin-bedded limestone, marl, and shale of the Taraises, Las Vigas, Parritas, and La Pena Formations. This sequence of rocks is overlain with apparent conformity by the medium- to thick-bedded bank-type Aurora Limestone of middle to late Albian age. A notable change of facies occurs laterally in the upper Albian and lower Cenomanian rocks, the lithology of the Aurora Limestone grading westward into the thin-bedded limestone with wavy bedding planes and black chert intercalations that characterize the Cuesta del Cura Formation. An erosional unconformity developed on the surface of the Aurora Limestone and Cuesta del Cura Formation is covered by the Indidura and Caracol Formations of Turonian to Coniacian age. These consist or thin-bedded, platy limestone, shale, and marl beds, which grade upward into a thick sequence of poorly fossiliferous calcareous sandstone, siltstone, and shale. A period of intense folding and erosion preceded the deposit of the non-marine Ahuichila Formation, of probable late Eocene and early Oligocene age. This formation was deposited with marked angular unconformity on all the older rocks, including the Villa Juarez Formation. Both, porphyritic and equigranular igneous rocks in the form of dikes, sills, plugs, and stocks intrude the bedded rocks of the area. They range in composition from quartz rhyolite porphyry to andesite and from granadiorite to monzonite. The rocks around the intrusive bodies have been metamorphosed irregularly as far as 100 m from the igneous contacts. Irregular tactite aureoles occur around intrusive bodies in the Descubridora district, west of Cerritos de Los Victorinos, and in the Sierra del Mimbre. Marble and recrystallized limestone is found west of Descubridora and in the Bajio del Bailon, and hornfels has formed in Cerrito de La Cruz and Cerrito de Las Liebres near San Pedro del Gallo, as well as in the southern part of the Sierra del Mimbre. Folowing emplacement of the intrusive bodies mineralizing solutions reacting with sedimentary rocks gave origin to the different mineralized zones in the region. The beginning of the Laramide Orogeny in the San Pedro del Gallo region is marked by Late Cretaceous uplift, which probably continued until middle or late Eocene time. Compressive forces acting in an east-west to northeast-southwest direction folded the Mesozoic strata into a series of narrow asymmetrical anticlines and synclines overturned to the east, with axial, planes almost parallel to the borders of the Coahuila Peninsula. Thrusting and faulting were important in the vicinity of San Pedro del Gallo. There is no conclusive evidence of large-scale post-Triassic and pre-Laramide deformation in the area. Extrusion of lavas ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite, accompanied by extensive block faulting, occurred during Miocene and Pliocene time. Late Tertiary uplift began during the Pliocene. The streams were rejuvenated and there was increased erosion, which caused, together with a change of climate, the overloading of some streams and local blocking of drainage by alluvial fans in the valleys, giving rise to the Santa Ines Formation. Erosion, more than deposition is the dominant event at present. Contact metasomatic silver, lead, and copper deposits in the Aurora Limestone have been mined in the Descubridora, Parranderas , and Sierra del Mimbre districts. Fluorite and barite have been extracted from veins in the La Gloria Formation and the Aurora Limestone. Thin beds and seams of coal in the La Casita Formation were mined within the town limits of San Pedro del Gallo. No important mining activity exists at present in the area studied. The area has never been tested for oil.
    • The Geology and Geochemistry of Beryllium in Southern Arizona

      Balla, John Coleman, 1936-; Lacy, Willard C.; Erickson, Einar C.; Balla, John Coleman (The University of Arizona., 1962)
      Nine beryllium deposits were studied in order to determine the geological environment of beryllium mineralization in southern Arizona. Beryllium occurs in two pegmatite areas, two contact metamorphic deposits, two quartz-tungsten veins, two quartz-feldspar veins, and in one quartz monzonite stock. It is associated in almost all of these deposits with purple fluorite and tungsten. Beryllium mineralization is associated with granitic and quartz monzonite intrusions of Laramide age, and generally occurs at the intersection of northwest-trending lineaments and the Texas lineament.
    • The Geology and Mineralization of the Sedimentary Hills Area, Pima County, Arizona

      Bennett, Paul J.; Lacy, Willard C.; Bennett, Paul J. (The University of Arizona., 1957)
      Mildly metamorphosed Cretaceous siltstones, arkoses and limey shales and a small composite stock of granitic composition are the principal rocks exposed in the Sedimentary Hills area, which lies six miles west of Tucson, Arizona. About 2400 feet of sediments were measured and assigned to the Amole Arkose Formation. The beds dip to the south and strike northwesterly. The stock is composed of two granitic facies. The northern and earlier part of the stock is a quartz monzonite which is mildly altered. The southern part of the intrusive is a granite porphyry which is altered to a greater degree and exhibits significant disseminations of chalcopyrite and pyrite. A quartz-pegmatite plug, probably a late phase of the intrusions, intrudes the quartz monzonite. Structure in the area is dominated by a large thrust zone which strikes generally parallel to the bedding. Within the Sedimentary Hills area, normal faulting and drag folding are tributary to the thrusting. Minor copper oxide minerals are frequent along large and small faults, and in the granite porphyry stock. Wide brick-red and brown gossans occur along the major thrust plane.
    • Geology and Origin of the Breccias in the Morenci-Metcalf District, Greenlee County, Arizona

      Bennett, Kenneth Carlton, 1946-; Guilbert, John M.; Titley, Spencer R.; Anthony, John W.; Bennett, Kenneth Carlton (The University of Arizona., 1975)
      Rocks of the Morenci-Metcalf district consist of Precambrian metaquartzite-schist, granodiorite, and granite overlain by Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Intrusion of igneous rocks, emplacement of breccia masses, and associated hydrothermal activity occurred in Laramide time. Breccias of the district are associated with the youngest sialic intrusive complex. This sequence includes intrusion of the Older Granite Porphyry stock, main stage district hydrothermal alteration, quartz veining, breccia formation, main stage district hydrothermal mineralization, and intrusion of the Younger Granite Porphyry plug. Breccia formation in the Morenci-Metcalf district is similar to breccia descriptions reported in the literature for other porphyry copper deposits. Three breccia types, of separate and distinct origins, are herein described as the Morenci, Metcalf and King, and Candelaria Breccias. The Morenci Breccia is an intrusion breccia that has formed along a pre-existing structural feature during the ascent and emplacement of the Older Granite Porphyry stock. It exhibits an oblate lenticular shape with angular to subrounded fragments in a matrix of quartz, K-feldspar, biotite, and minor rock flour. The Metcalf-King Breccias and numerous smaller breccia masses are the remnants of an original Older Granite Porphyry mantle above the ascending Younger Granite Porphyry complex. The breccia masses occur as large 'xenoliths' floating within the Younger Granite Porphyry plug and were formed by surging and collapse during emplacement of this intrusive. Fragments in the Metcalf and King Breccias grade from angular in the central core to rounded at the contacts and occur in a matrix of sericite, K- feldspar, quartz, and rock flour. The Candelaria Breccia is an explosion pipe and is the largest continuous breccia mass in the district. It is oval with an inverted cone appearance consisting of angular to subangular equidimensional fragments in a matrix of sericite, quartz, specularite, and rock flour. All the breccia masses occur within and subsequent to the district phyllic (quartz-sericite-pyrite) alteration zone. Main stage district copper mineralization postdates emplacement of the Older Granite Porphyry stock and breccia formation, and is prior to the intrusion of the Younger Granite Porphyry plug. Late stage quartz-sericite-pyrite-chalcopyrite veinlets occur in the Metcalf-King Breccia group. Field mapping and laboratory studies indicate that the Older Granite Porphyry stock appears to have been the main district mineralizer.
    • The Geology of the Atlas Mine Area, Pima County, Arizona

      Agenbroad, Larry D.; Anthony, John W.; Lacy, W. C.; DuBois, R. L.; Agenbroad, Larry D. (The University of Arizona., 1962)
      The Atlas Mine is located on the northwest flank of the Silver Bell mountains; Silver Bell mining district, Pima County, Arizona. The deposit is high grade (?) sine-copper mineralization in an altered sedimentary sequence. Rocks in the area include Precambrian (?) alaskite; Permian (?) limestone, quartzite and siltstone; Tertiary (?) monzonite, quartz monzonite, quarts latite porphyry and dacite porphyry; and Quaternary alluvium. The limestone has been largely metamorphosed to a mass of tactite, siltstone has been locally metamorphosed to hornfels, and the quartzite has been silicified, locally shattered and altered. Mineralization is related to NE and E-W trending fault systems, and similarly trending intrusive dikes. Predominate ore minerals are sphalerite and chalcopyrite, associated with pyrite, specular hematite and “high temperature" silicates. Copper mineralization is related to the silicified sediments. Zinc mineralization is present in silicates but is more predominate in areas of recrystallized calcite and extensive garnetization, suggesting incomplete replacement of the original sediments by the silicates. Further exploration and development should be undertaken in areas of favorable structural control, and adjacent to favored intrusives.
    • The Geology of the Bajo El Durazno Porphyry Copper-Gold Prospect, Catamarca Province, Argentina

      Guilbert, John M.; Allison, Antonia E.; Guilbert, John M.; Ruiz, Joaquin; Eastoe, Christopher J.; Allison, Antonia E. (The University of Arizona., 1986)
      The Bajo El Durazno prospect is a small, gold-rich porphyry copper-type prospect located in Catamarca Province, northwest Argentina. It is one of a cluster of at least fourteen porphyry copper-type occurrences and numerous younger polymetallic epithermal veins, all of which are genetically related to the waning stages of magmatism that produced the Farallon Negro volcanic complex, an isolated Upper Miocene shoshonitic andesitic volcanic center. Porphyry copper-type hydrothermal activity at the Bajo El Durazno prospect is associated with a small east-northeasterly elongated andesite porphyry stock. The stock was emplaced at 8.7 m.y. into comagmatic and petrologically similar andesitic volcanic breccias that form the highly dissected basal remnants of the main eruptive center of the volcanic complex. Intramineral, crudely radial andesite porphyry dikes accompanied the development of concentric zones of hydrothermal alteration centered on the stock. These alteration zones of potassium-silicate alteration in the stock and adjacent wallrocks surrounded by an essentially coeval, weakly developed propylitic alteration zone. The propylitic alteration assemblage, which occurs as both pervasive replacement and as veinlets, consists mainly of chlorite, epidote, calcite, and magnetite, with lesser clays and zeolites. The potassium-silicate alteration zone is character iced by the replacement of primary minerals by secondary biotite, magnetite, anhydrite, quartz, sericite, and calcite. Roughly coeval and coextensive with the earliest stages of potassium-silicate and propylitic alteration was a brief period of magnetite alteration consisting mainly of well-banded magnetite ± quartz ± biotite veins. This volume also includes the development of irregular magnetite-rich masses in the stock of probable late-magmatic origin. Major copper-gold mineralization with minor silver and molybdenum developed during later stages of potassium-silicate alteration after the magnetite alteration event, although highest grade mineralization is commonly localized in areas of most intense magnetite alteration. The bulk of the mineralization occurs as veins within the stock and its wallrocks near their mutual contact; these veins contain quartz, calcite, magnetite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and lesser sericite, chlorite, orthoclase, biotite, siderite, molybdenite, bornite, sphalerite, galena, tetrahedrite-tennantite, and native gold. Some of the gold and silver occur in solid solution in sulfide minerals, and supergene enrichment of copper is not economically significant. Copper and gold grades are generally less than 0.4% and 1 ppm, respectively. The three early alteration assemblages were later overprinted by patchy areas of phyllic alteration consisting mainly of the assemblage sericite, quartz, pyrite, and anhydrite/gypsum in an irregular northeasterly elongated halo. Phyllic alteration is developed to its greatest extent in an irregular annular zone straddling the boundary between the potassium- silicate and propylitic alteration zones and is generally coincident with the most highly fractured rocks in the prospect. Irregular patches of weak to intense silicification are superimposed on all other alteration types, and a number of distinctive, poorly mineralized, phyllically altered and silicified fracture zones are distributed in a somewhat radial pattern around the stock. Low grade disseminated(?) gold mineralization is found over one square kilometer in phyllically and propylitically altered rocks surrounding the central mineralized zone. A fluid inclusion study has revealed the presence of two hypersaline liquid-rich fluid inclusion types having salinities of 73.0-87.0 and 50.0-79.5 weight percent NaC1 + KCl equivalent, respectively, a single low salinity liquid-rich inclusion type (6.6-8.0 weight percent NaCl equivalent), and abundant vapor-rich inclusions. Hematite, anhydrite, and a variety of unidentified opaque and nonopaque minerals occur in many inclusions. Magnetite, potassium-silicate, and phyllic-silicic alteration in silicified zones formed at temperatures between 310° C and 500° C and were the product of the less saline of the two hypersaline fluids; this fluid episodically boiled. Copper-gold mineralization in potassium-silicate rocks probably peaked at about 395° C. Fluid salinities and temperatures gradually decreased with time, and during later stages of alteration they also decreased with greater distance from the hot center of the system, perhaps as a result of dilution. Although proof is lacking, the two high salinity fluids and the low salinity vapor may be magmatic in origin, and the low salinity fluid may represent a late-stage influx of meteoric water that encroached on the waning magmatic hydrothermal system. A depth of formation of 1.6 kilometers is estimated for the presently exposed portion of the Bajo El Durazno prospect based on the fluid inclusion data.
    • Geology of the Gore Canyon-Kremmling Area, Grand County, Colorado

      Barclay, C. S. Venable; Mayo, Evans B.; Barclay, C. S. Venable (The University of Arizona., 1968)
      The Gore Canyon-Kremmling area is in the southwestern portion of the Kremmling 15-minute quadrangle, Colorado. Precambrian rocks are biotite gneiss, the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, granophyre dikes, and quartz veins. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite intrudes the biotite gneiss, and both of these units are cut by north-northwest-trending, granophyre dikes and quartz veins. Biotite gneiss contains structure elements of a northwest and a northeast fold system. Lineations and foliations in the Boulder Creek Granodiorite are generally concordant to the northeast fold system of the gneiss. Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations, in ascending order and with their approximate thicknesses, are the State Bridge Formation, 15 feet; the Chinle and Chugwater Formations undivided, 0-95 feet; the Sundance Formations 0?-100 feet; the Morrison Formation, 250 feet; the Dakota Sandstone, 225 feet; the Benton Shale, 340 feet; the Niobrara Formation, 600 feet; and the Pierre Shale. Quaternary deposits are terrace, landslide, and modern flood-plain deposits. Laramide rock deformation is related to the Park Reuse uplift and includes faulting and, in the sediments, some folding. Some of the faults, including the regional Gore fault, are Precambrian structures reactivated in Laramide time.
    • Geology of the Owl Head Mining District, Pinal County, Arizona

      Barter, Charles F.; Mitcham, Thomas W.; Barter, Charles F. (The University of Arizona., 1962)
      The Owl Head mining District is located in south-central Pinal County, Arizona, within the Basin and Range province. Land forms, particularity pediments, characteristic of this province are abundant in this area. Precambrian rocks of the Owl Head mining district include the Pinal schist; gneiss; intrusions of granite, quartz monzonite and quartz diorite; and small amounts of Dripping Spring quartzite and metamorphosed Mescal limestone. These have been intruded by dikes and plugs of diorite and andesite, and are unconformably overlain by volcanic rocks and continental sedimentary rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. No rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras have been recognized. The structural trends of the Owl Head mining district probably reflect four major lineament directions. The dominant structural trends found in the area are north and northwest. Subordinate to these directions are northeast and easterly trends. The strike of the northerly trend varies from due north to N30°E and was probably developed during the Mazatzal Revolution. The northwest trend has probably been superposed over the northerly trend at some later date. Copper mineralization is abundant in the area and prospecting by both individuals and mining companies has been extensive. To date no ore body of any magnitude has been found, but evidence suggests that an economic copper deposit may exist within the area. The copper mineralization visible at the surface consists mainly of the secondary copper minerals chrysocolla, malachite, azurite, and chalcocite with chrysocolla being by far the most abundant. Copper minerals are found to occur in all rocks older than middle Tertiary age. Placer magnetite deposits are found in the alluvial material of this area, and one such deposit is now being mined.
    • Geology of the Palo Verde Ranch Area, Owl Head Mining District, Pinal County, Arizona

      Applebaum, Steven; Guilbert, John M.; Davis, George H.; Sumner, John S.; Applebaum, Steven (The University of Arizona., 1975)
      A quartz diorite intrusion of probable early Tertiary age that crops out over at least 6 square miles in the Palo Verde Ranch area in Pinal County, Arizona was mapped as a distinct intrusion. The quartz diorite intrudes an area comprising Pinal Schist, Oracle granite, andesitic flows, granoaplite, and dike rocks including both pegmatite and diabase. Two major physical features, the Owl Head Buttes and Chief Buttes volcanic areas, both remnants of an extensive early Tertiary series of flows of intermediate composition that covered the area, now remain as lava-capped buttes above the pediment. Weak but persistent fracture-controlled copper mineralization is found in the quartz diorite and the Pinal Schist at or near their mutual contacts in the form of chrysocolla, malachite, black copper oxides, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, and bornite, in decreasing order. Pyrite is rare. Alteration related to northeast and northwest-trending fractures increases in intensity from the common propylitic to argillic to the northeast toward the San Juan claims area. A barely discernible increase in copper sulfides mirrors the alteration zoning, although geochemical sampling showed background copper in the quartz diorite to be more uniform away from fractures.
    • Hillside Gullies and Possible Glacial Landforms Associated with the Degradation of Highland Craters on Mars

      Berman, Daniel Craig; Baker, Victor R.; Berman, Daniel Craig (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      The discovery of recent water and ice related landforms on Mars has led to a new understanding of the planet. Hundreds of examples of gullies and tongue-shaped ridges have been found on hillsides in images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). I conducted a thorough survey of these images and compiled a database of those containing gullies and tongue-shaped ridges, which may form as the result of flow of ice-rich materials. These features are found in similar mid-latitude bands. Crater counts on the ice flow features show estimated ages of the order 10⁶ y to 10⁷ y, similar to the timescale calculated for the last episode of high obliquity, when Models suggest ice deposition at these latitudes. Specific craters and various ice flow features were studied and compared in three regions: Newton Basin, Eastern Hellas, and Northern Elysium, leading to a model for crater degradation. Gullies, tongue ridges, debris aprons, and mantle deposits all may stem from recent cycles of ice deposition.
    • Infra-Red Spectrophotometry and X-Ray Diffractometry as Tools in the Study of Nickel Laterites

      Guilbert, John M.; Azevedo, Luiz Otavio Roffee; Guilbert, John M.; Hendricks, David; Eastoe, Christopher; Wachter, Bruce; Azevedo, Luiz Otavio Roffee (The University of Arizona., 1985)
      Nickel silicate laterite deposits developed on ultra-mafic rocks are similar in many general respects but they vary considerably in detail. The mineralogy of these surficial deposits is very complex and difficult to determine because of the fine grained nature and solid solution characteristics of the hydrous secondary minerals and because many of the phases are actually mineraloids that are poorly ordered or amorphous. To try some new approaches toward clarification of these phases, 24 samples from New Caledonia and Puerto Rico ranging from the ophiolite-ultramafic olivine-pyroxene-chromite-serpentine substrate rocks upward through intermediate phases of weathering to the final oxide -hydroxide iron cap phase were analyzed with the infrared spectrophotometer (IR -10) and with the automated X –ray diffractometer. Four limonite samples were also mineralogically analyzed. Goethite, secondary quartz, cryptomelane, hematite, chromite, talc, thuringite, and garnierite have been identified in various samples as weathering profile products.
    • An Investigation of the Manner and Time of Formation of Malachite

      Titley, Spencer R.; Beane, Richard Edward, 1942-; Titley, Spencer R.; Damon, Paul E.; Guilbert, John M.; Beane, Richard Edward (The University of Arizona., 1968)
      A group of minerals typical of the oxidation zone of copper deposits was studied using chemical thermodynamics, mineral stability relationships, and petrography. It has been concluded that many processes, such as alteration, can be explained using thermodynamics and are compatible with natural relationships. A mineral assemblage consisting of basic carbonates of copper and zinc was investigated with carbon isotopes and mineral stability relationships. The results obtained are consistent with processes resulting from oxidation and leaching of a sulfide deposit followed by redeposition of copper and zinc in the zone of oxidation. Four processes have been suggested by which copper could be introduced into a near-surface environment from depth. Reactions which would occur under these conditions may result in formation of mesogene or hypogene malachite and chrysocolla. A vein deposit containing minerals typical of the zone of oxidation was investigated and it has been concluded that the minerals may have formed from a hydro-thermal solution related to near-surface volcanism.
    • Las Trampas, New Mexico: Dendrochronology of a Spanish Colonial Church

      Smiley, Terah L.; Ames, Martha Hyde; Bannister, Bryant; Stokes, Marvin A.; Ames, Martha Hyde (The University of Arizona., 1972)
      Wooden beams and planks from the Spanish Colonial church and other structures in Las Trampas, north-central New Mexico, have been sampled and dated by dendrochronology. Dates of AD 1735 imply Spanish occupation of the area 16 years prior to official grant. Stockpiling of timber for church construction began as early as 1758. Exterior walls were 15 feet high by 1762 and were completed to roof level by 1764. Late in 1776, wood was cut for a dust-guard over the adobe altar and mural. According to clustering of tree-ring dates, a new altar and wooden altar screen were constructed soon after 1785. Beam re-use was prevalent. Timbers bearing early dates were incorporated into the 1785 altar screen, indicating re-use from within the church or from other pre-1760 structures. A roof viga was later used as a floor plank after reroofing. In domestic buildings, re-use of beams is repeated. Replacement of beams supporting the balcony was made in the 1860's and 1870's. Tree-ring dates indicate repairs again in the 1930's and 1943. A survey of the literature pertaining to dendrochronology of historical sites revealed that shaping of beams and lack of thorough sampling have heretofore hindered successful application. The documentary record of Las Trampas art and architectural history has been further refined by tree -ring dating, and the study reaffirms the potentials for historical sites dendrochronology.
    • Late Quaternary Plant Zonation and Climate in Southeastern Utah

      Betancourt, Julio L.; Anthony, John W.; Martin, Paul S.; Davis, Owen K.; Turner, Raymond M.; Betancourt, Julio L. (The University of Arizona., 1983)
      Plant macrofossils from packrat middens in two southeastern Utah caves outline development of modern plant zonation from the late Wisconsin. Allen Canyon Cave (2195 m) and Fishmouth Cave (1585 m) are located along a continuous gradient of outcropping Navajo Sandstone that extends from the Abajo Mountains south to the San Juan River. By holding the site constant, changes in the floral composition for a plot of less than one hectare can be observed, even if sporadically, over tens of millennia. At Allen Canyon Cave, engelmann spruce-alpine fir forest was replaced by the present vegetation consisting of pinyon-juniper woodland on exposed ridgetops and cliffside stands of Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and aspen. Xerophytic woodland plants such as pinyon, Plains prickly pear, and narrowleaf yucca arrived sometime in the middle Holocene between 7200 and 3400 B.P. At Fishmouth Cave, Utah juniper in Holocene middens replaced blue spruce, limber pine, Douglas fir, and dwarf and Rocky Mountain junipers in late Wisconsin samples. Disharmonious associations for the late Wisconsin occur only at the lower site with the xerophytes Mormon tea, Plains prickly pear, and narrowleaf yucca growing alongside subalpine conifers. One possible explanation involves the late Wisconsin absence of ponderosa and pinyon pines from the Colorado Plateaus. Released from competition at their lower limits, subalpine conifers were able to expand into lower elevations and mix with xerophytic plants found today in understories of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands. Quantitative climatic estimates are derived for the late Wisconsin by applying vertical lapse rates for temperature and precipitation to the amount of vegetation depression. The Fishmouth Cave sequence indicates a minimum lowering of 850 m for blue spruce, limber pine, and dwarf juniper. A depression of at least 700 m for engelmann spruce and alpine fir is suggested for the Allen Canyon locality. Use of conservatively low lapse rates for stations below 2080 m yields a 3-4°C cooling from present mean annual temperature and 35 to 60 percent more rainfall than today. Steeper lapse rates associated with more mountainous terrain suggest a 5°C lowering in temperature and up to 120 percent increase over modern precipitation.
    • Linkages of Laramide Thrusts, Northern Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado

      Chase, Clement G.; Bedford, Janice M.; Chase, Clement G.; Davis, George H.; Coney, Peter J.; Bedford, Janice M. (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      Laramide thrust belts in the Colorado Rocky Mountains have been mapped as discrete units with little investigation into the linkage between displacements. The Elk Range-Sawatch and Elkhorn thrust systems displaced Precambrian, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic rocks toward the southwest. The Sangre de Cristo Range and Wet Mountains thrust systems displaced rocks toward the northeast. The opposite vergence and oppositely directed displacements between these systems must be accommodated, both at present levels of exposure and at depth. Mapping of the Kerber Creek area west of the northern Sangre de Cristo Range by J.M. Bedford helped answer the question of the linkage between the opposing Elk Range-Sawatch and Sangre de Cristo Range thrusts. In the Elk Range-Sawatch system the westward displacement on the thrusts is interpreted as a minimum of 11 km in the southern Elk Range with displacement decreasing toward the north. Bryant (1966) interpreted the timing of faulting as Paleocene in age. In the Sangre de Cristo Range northeast-verging thrust system the minimum estimated eastward displacement is 8 km. Burbank and Goddard (1937) interpreted the displacement as Eocene in age. The timing of the faulting in the two areas is not necessarily different. The Kerber Creek area lies between the two regions of oppositely facing displacement. Its internal structure most closely resembles that of the more proximal Sangre de Cristo deformation. Thrusts in the Kerber Creek area place Precambrian rocks over Laramide(?) and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The structures verge toward the north-northeast and represent a minimum of several kilometers of displacement. These Laramide structures are exposed where overlying Tertiary volcanics are eroded. In the Northern Sangre de Cristo Range a set of E-W trending faults intersects the generally N-S trending Laramide thrusts, possibly representing a partitioning of northeast transport into N-S and E-W components. The E-W trending deformation can be correlated across the San Luis Valley with the thrust faults in the Kerber Creek area. Correlation of the Kerber Creek thrusts with Sangre de Cristo faults extends the northeast directed Laramide deformation 22 km northwest of the edge of the Sangre de Cristo Range. Thus the link between the oppositely verging structures must continue toward the northwest, possibly beneath the Bonanza volcanic field. Further mapping toward the southern extent of the Elk Range-Sawatch thrust system may reveal how the opposite vergence and minimum 8-10 km of displacement are accommodated.
    • Migration of Recharge Water Downgradient from the Santa Catalina Mountains into the Tucson Basin Aquifer

      Long, Austin; Barger, Erin E.; Long, Austin; Eastoe, Christopher J.; Bassett, R. L.; Barger, Erin E. (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Aquifers in the arid alluvial basins of the southwestern U.S. are recharged predominantly by infiltration from streams within the basins and by water entering along the margins of the basins from surrounding mountains (mountain -front recharge). The Tucson Basin of Southeastern Arizona is such a basin. The Santa Catalina Mountains form the northern boundary of this basin and receive more than twice as much precipitation (about 70 cm/yr) as the basin does (about 30 cm/yr). In this study environmental isotopes were employed to investigate the migration of precipitation basinward through joints and fractures. Water samples were obtained from springs in the Santa Catalina Mountains. Stable isotopes and thermonuclear bomb-produced tritium enabled qualitative characterizations of flow paths and flow velocities. Stable isotopic measurements fail to display a direct altitude effect. Tritium values indicate that although a few springs discharge pre-bomb water, most springs discharge waters from the 1960's or later.