• A Paleocene Paleomagnetic Pole from the Gringo Gulch Volcanics, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

      Barnes, Arthur E.; Smiley; Butler, R.E.; Barnes, Arthur E. (The University of Arizona., 1980)
      Paleomagnetic data from 25 sites (5 samples per site) in andesite flows of the Gringo Gulch Volcanics in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, were analyzed to determine a lower Paleocene paleomagnetic pole. Alternating-field demagnetization to 500 oe peak field was sufficient to erase secondary viscous components. The mean direction of magnetization (inclination = -58.8°, declination = 167.5 °) was obtained by averaging the site mean directions of the 25 sites, which are all reversed. The resultant lower Paleocene pole position is at lat. 77.0 °N, 1on. 201.0 °E (dp = 1.2 °, dm = 1.7 °).
    • Paleocurrent Analysis of the Upper Miocene Formation, Los Angeles Basin, California

      Bennett, John Newton, 1943-; Wright, Jerome J.; Pye, W. D.; Harshberger, J. W.; Schreiber, Joseph F. Jr.; Bennett, John Newton, Jr. (The University of Arizona., 1967)
      Almost all sandstone beds occurring in the Upper Miocene formations at the Los Angeles basin were deposited by turbidity currents. Primary textures and structures indicative of turbidites occur in fair abundance throughout all three Upper Miocene formations. All accessible outcrops of the Puente, Modelo, and Upper Miocene portion of the Monterey and Capistrano Formations were scrutinized for sandstone beds containing primary sedimentary structures. Through study of these structures, the direction of current movement was determined. The pattern of current movement displayed reveals that sediment was being transported into the Los Angeles basin from all sides. Current directions and mineralogic studies indicate that essentially three source areas were supplying sediment into the basin. These source areas are 1) the San Gabriel Mountains, 2) an area to the east of the Santa Ana Mountains, and 3) a ridge of metamorphic rock paralleling the present coast line. The majority of sediment was derived from an area in the San Gabriel Mountains located northeast or the basin. This is evidenced by the fact that the thickness, grain size, and total sand content of the Upper Miocene units decrease southwestward across the basin.
    • Paleocurrents and Depositional Environments of the Dakota Group (Cretaceous), San Miguel County, New Mexico

      Bejnar, Craig Russel; Wilson, Richard F.; Schreiber, Joseph F. Jr.; Kremp, Gerhard O. W.; Bejnar, Craig Russel (The University of Arizona., 1975)
      The Dakota Group surrounding Las Vegas, New Mexico, consists of three units: 1) a basal, predominately trough cross-stratified, conglomeratic sandstone, 2) middle intercalated, thin-bedded sandstone and carbonaceous shale, and 3) upper, predominately tabular-planar cross-stratified, sandstone containing trace fossils. These units represent, respectively, 1) a fluvial piedmont plain, 2) fluvial coastal plain, and 3) a beach, littoral, and shallow marine complex. The cross-stratification in the lower sandstone unit indicates an easterly paleoslope. The cross-stratification in the upper sandstone unit has a bimodal distribution almost at right angles to the paleoslope, suggesting deposition by longshore currents. The standard deviation of the cross-stratification in the lower sandstone unit of 78° is typical of fluvial deposits. The standard deviation in the upper sandstone unit of 97° indicates a marine origin.
    • Paleomagnetism of Miocene Volcanic Rocks in the Mojave Region of Southeastern California

      Acton, Gary Dean; Butler, Robert F.; Acton, Gary Dean (The University of Arizona., 1986)
      Paleomagnetic data were collected from Miocene volcanic rocks in the Turtle Mountains, Clipper Mountain, Colton Hills, and Piute Range of the southern Basin and Range (SBR) province in southeastern California as well as in the Soledad Mountains of the Mojave block in southern California. The data from these two tectonic provinces yield significantly different paleomagnetic directions, which probably indicates the existence of a major crustal and /or lithospheric discontinuity in the area between the Barstow Basin and the Clipper Mountain. Comparing the mean direction from the SBR data to the Miocene expected direction indicates no statistically significant rotation (R = -0.2° ± 18.2°) or flattening (F = -6.5° ± 9.2°). A similar comparison for the Soledad Mountain data, which were combined with data of Burke et al. (1982) from the Barstow Basin, yields a significant rotation of -43.5° ± 12.9° and flattening of 19.3° ± 10.6° for the Mojave block. These Mojave block values may be exaggerated a few degrees due to inadequate averaging of secular variation and possible improper structural corrections.
    • A Palynological Analysis of Part of Death Valley Core DV93-1: 166-114 KA

      Davis, Owen K.; Bader, Nicholas E.; Davis, Owen K.; Quade, Jay; Dettman, David; Bader, Nicholas E. (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      Salt Core DV93 -1, from Badwater Basin in California's Death Valley, spans the past 192 ka. An analysis of fossil palynomorphs from 151.8 m (ca. 166 ka) to 103.5 m (ca. 114 ka) delimits four pollen zones. Zone 1, the "cheno -am" zone (151.8 to 143.5 m depth, 166 -154 ka), contains high percentages of Chenopodiaceae /Amaranthus pollen, and correlates with marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 7. Zone 2, the juniper zone (143.5 to 117.3 m, 154 -124 ka), correlates with OIS 6 and contains high percentages of Cupressaceae pollen and low percentages of Ambrosia pollen. A simultaneous drop in juniper and increase in oak (Quercus) pollen, followed by replacement of Artemisia with Ambrosia, occurs at the Zone 2 /Zone 3 (oak zone) boundary (124 ka), corresponding to OIS Termination II warming. Zone 4, the Asteraceae zone (108.8 to 103.5 m, 119 -115 ka), contains higher percentages of Asteraceae and cheno -am pollen, indicating further warming.
    • Pollen in Fecal Pellets as an Environmental Indicator

      Bartos, Frances Maribel; Martin, Paul S.; Solomon, Allen M.; Kremp, G.O.W.; Bartos, Frances Maribel (The University of Arizona., 1972)
      Identification of pollen in fecal pellets is a potential technique for describing an animals diet and in turn the vegetation of an area. Mule deer and Bighorn Sheep pellets representing both summer and winter browsing and a variety of habitats were examined using relative percentages and the absolute pollen frequencies. In addition, fossil pellets from Stanton's Cave, Grand Canyon, Arizona, were examined and compared with modern pellets. Absolute pollen frequencies of individual pellets showed higher values and greater variation for summer pellets than for winter pellets. Relative pollen percentages for a specific vegetation type showed more variation in fecal pellets than in soil surface samples. Unless specifically being eaten, arboreal pollen types such as Pinus are less abundant in fecal pellets than in soil samples. Unlike soil surface samples, arboreal pollen types in fecal pellets are frequently limited to the immediate source area.
    • Precambrian Geology of the Cottonwood Cliffs Area, Mohave County, Arizona

      Davis, George H.; Beard, Linda Sue; Davis, George H.; Coney, Peter J.; Lucchitta, Ivo; Beard, Linda Sue (The University of Arizona., 1985)
      A belt of Early Proterozoic rocks crops out in the Cottonwood Cliffs area, northwest Arizona. The belt contains an eastern and a western assemblage separated by the Slate Mountain fault. The western assemblage consists of mafic to felsic metavolcanic rocks, metapelites, and metaconglomerates. The eastern assemblage consists of phyllites, felsic to intermediate metavolcanic rocks, metagraywackes, and metagabbro bodies. The belt is bounded to the east by foliated granodiorite. The Valentine granite intruded the belt on the west and north. Steeply-plunging lineations and fold axes, and northeast-trending vertical foliation dominate the structural fabric. The regional elongation direction is near-vertical, as indicated by mineral and pebble lineations, and is parallel to fold axes. Although only one deformational event is evident, the intensity of that event may have obliterated evidence of any earlier deformation. Tertiary basalts and the Peach Springs Tuff locally overly the metamorphic rocks. Cenozoic normal faults in the area are mostly of minor displacement.
    • Primary Sediment Production from Granitic Rocks in Southeastern Arizona

      Acaba, Joseph Michael; Schreiber, Joseph F., Jr.; Acaba, Joseph Michael (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      Isolated granitic rock bodies (granites, granodiorites, quartz monzonites) in the vicinity of Benson in southeastern Arizona were studied to trace the behavior of rock weathering. Thin sections of fresh granites were examined to characterize the original mineralogy which consisted mainly of quartz, feldspars, and micas. The weathering products show up on the granites as grus and soil profiles as well as down slope in the basin deposits. X -ray diffraction studies of the < 2 micrometers fraction of the weathering products proved illite, smectite, illite-smectite mixed layer, and kaolinite to be the dominant clays; quartz and feldspar also persisted into this size fraction. Silt sized material produced similar results. The quartz monzonite of Texas Canyon afforded a special study of the initial weathering stages of feldspars and micas. In the < 2 micrometers fraction obtained from granitic material placed in an ultra sonic bath, the feldspars weathered to a Na-montmorillinite while biotite weathered to vermiculite.
    • Provenance and Petrofacies, Upper Devonian Sandstones, Philip Smith Mountains and Arctic Quadrangles Brooks Range, Alaska

      Coney, Peter J.; Anderson, Arlene Verona; Coney, Peter J.; Anderson, Arlene Verona (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      A petrographic study of upper Devonian sandstones (Endicott and Hammond Terranes), Philip Smith Mountains and Arctic quadrangles, Brooks Range, Alaska, shows that the sand-sized detritus was derived from two petrographic provenances. Detrital modes, calculated from point counts of thin sections, show that the provenance for the Devonian clastic wedge (Endicott Terrane) was a recycled orogenic belt with major components of quartz, chert, and lithic fragments. Three petrofacies are distinguished. Their distribution indicates compositional changes vertically and laterally which reflect changing compositions in the source area. A petrographically different provenance supplied the sandstones that overlie the Skajit Limestone (Hammond Terrane). Characterized by high feldspar and abundant volcanic rock fragments, this petrofacies indicates first-cycle deposition close to the source area. A magmatica arc provenance is suggested.
    • Quaternary Ostracode Paleoecology and Its Link to Climate Change in the Bonneville Basin: A Detailed Study of the Glad800 Core GSL00-4, Great Salt Lake, Utah

      Cohen, Andrew; Balch, Deborah P.; Cohen, Andrew; Flessa, Karl W.; Davis, Owen; Balch, Deborah P. (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      We report the results of a detailed paleoecological study of the Bonneville Basin covering the last ~240,000 years. Our study used fossil ostracodes and a sedimentological record obtained from the August 2000 GLAD800 drilling operation at the Great Salt Lake. We analyzed 125 samples, taken at ~1 meter intervals from core GSL00-4, for ostracodes and other paleoecologic and sedimentological indicators of environmental change. Multivariate analyses applied to the ostracode data indicate an alternation between three major environments at the core site over the cored interval. The environments fluctuated most often between shallow saline, open -water lake conditions (when the lake was high enough to inundate the core site) and salt or freshwater, spring -fed marsh (when the water level was at or lower than the core site). But occasionally, the core site was submerged by deep fresh water. Immediately following deep lake phases, crashes in lake level from rapid desiccation resulted in the deposition of thick evaporite units. These environmental changes are consistent with shoreline studies of regional lake level fluctuations, but provide considerable new detail on both the timing and environmental conditions associated with the various lake phases. Our age model (using dates obtained from ¹⁴C, U- series, tephra and biostratigraphic chronologies) allowed us to associate the core's record of regional paleohydrology to the marine oxygen isotope stages record of global climate change. The core contains high resolution, continuous records for the last three glacial/interglacial sequences. In each case we found that fresh open-water conditions (i.e. lake highstands) correspond with maximum glacial advances, except for the smaller, less intense OIS 4 glaciation, when the lake remained saline. Salt and freshwater marshes were dominant environments for most of the interglacials. However, throughout most of the Quaternary, this basin has contained a shallow, saline open-water lake.
    • Radius Effect of the Alkaline Earths on the Rate of Inversion of Aragonite to Calcite

      Bennett, Catheryn MacDonald; Schreiber, Joseph F. Jr.; Bennett, Catheryn MacDonald (The University of Arizona., 1972)
      The effect of magnesium, strontium, and other alkaline earths on the formation and persistence of metastable carbonates in the natural environment was investigated to determine the nature of the controlling mechanism. Barium and beryllium were studied to evaluate the effect of ionic radius; magnesium and strontium, in order to determine if the results correlate with the usual order of stability for complexes and adsorbed species. Known weights of aragonite were placed in contact with solutions of beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium. Samples were covered and periodically both pH and percent composition of aragonite determined; supernatant liquids and precipitates were analyzed for cation concentrations by atomic absorption spectroscopy and titrimetric methods. Results indicated that the order of effectiveness of alkaline earth metals in inhibiting recrystallization is : Be > Mg > Sr > Ba. This is the expected order of effectiveness for both surface and solution effects. A solution effect (i.e., sequestration of bicarbonate ions) is strongly suggested by the chemical behavior of each cation.
    • A Re-Os Study of Sulfides from the Bagdad Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit, Northern Arizona, USA

      Ruiz, Joaquin; Barra-Pantoja, Luis Fernando; Ruiz, Joaquin; Patchett, P. Jonathan; Titley, Spencer R.; Barra-Pantoja, Luis Fernando (The University of Arizona., 2001)
      Use of Re-Os systematics in sulfides from the Bagdad porphyry Cu-Mo deposit provide information on the timing of mineralization and the source of the ore -forming elements. Analyzed samples of pyrite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite mainly from the quartz monzonite and porphyritic quartz monzonite units are characterized by a moderate to strong potassic alteration (secondary biotite and K- feldspar). Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite are between 330 and 730 ppm. Two molybdenite samples from the quartz monzonite and porphyritic quartz monzonite provide a Re-Os isotope age of 71.7 ± 0.3 Ma. A third sample from a molybdenite vein in Precambrian rocks yields an age of 75.8 ± 0.4 Ma. These molybdenite ages support previous suggestions of two mineralization episodes in the Bagdad deposit. An early event at 76 Ma and a later episode at 72 Ma. Pyrite Os and Re concentrations range between 0.008-0.016 and 3.9-6.8 ppb, respectively. Chalcopyrite contains a wide range of Os (6 to 91 ppt) and Re (1.7 to 69 ppb) concentrations and variable ¹⁸⁷Os/¹⁸⁸Os ratios that range between 0.13 to 22.27. This variability in the chalcopyrite data may be attributed to different copper sources, one of them the Proterozoic volcanic massive sulfides in the district, or to alteration and remobilization of Re and Os. Analyses from two pyrite samples yield an eight point isochron with an age of 77 ± 15 Ma and an initial ¹⁸⁷Os/¹⁸⁸Os ratio of 2.12. This pyrite Re-Os isochron age is in good agreement with the molybdenite ages. We interpret the highly radiogenic initial 1870s/188Os as an indication that the source of Os and, by inference, the ore-forming elements for the Bagdad deposit, was mainly the crust. This conclusion agrees with previous Pb and Nd isotope studies and supports the notion that a significant part of the metals and magmas have a crustal source.
    • Regional Structure and Stratigraphy of Sierra El Aliso, Central Sonora, Mexico

      Stewart, John; Bartolini, Claudio; Coney, Peter J.; Ruiz, Joaquin; Bartolini, Claudio (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      Assemblages of Paleozoic age and less significant Triassic and possibly Cretaceous-Tertiary volcanic rocks constitute the Sierra El Aliso, 186 km east-southeast of Hermosillo, Sonora. The Paleozoic section consists of approximately 2000 m of allochthonous Ordovician to Permian pelagic and hemipelagic deposits that accumulated in continental slope, continental rise and ocean floor (?) environments. The lower Paleozoic is characterized by graptolitic black shale and radiolarian chert, quartzite, argillite and local limestone. The upper Paleozoic is predominantly turbidite carbonates rich in benthonic foraminifera, and conodont faunas, subordinate bedded chert, siltstone, sandstone and chert-clast conglomerate. After Early Permian time, but prior to the deposition of the Late Triassic Barranca Group the Paleozoic section was imbricated along south-southeast vergent thrust faults. The Triassic rocks unconformably overlie the Paleo-zoic strata and all thrust faults. The Triassic and older rocks are overlain by the Cretaceous-Tertiary volcanics.
    • Resistivity and Induced-Polarization Responses Over Two Different Earth Geometries

      Akman, Hulya Hayriye; Wait, James R.; Sumner, J. S.; Nabighian, M. N.; Sternberg, B.; Akman, Hulya Hayriye (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The object of the thesis is to obtain the apparent- resistivity curves and induced-polarization (IP) effects that are utilized in geophysical exploration. Two different earth geometries, the thin horizontal conductive layer and vertical dike, were studied. The solution for both cases is identical. First, quasi- static electrical conditions were assumed, so that the problem could be solved using potential fields. The exact solution to the problem was obtained by using the Bessel integral formulation. Also, the image method was employed to find the potential fields. We noticed that the image -type series converges best when the dike or layer was thick (ratio of thickness to electrode spacing, b/a, is large) and the reflection coefficient was not near ±1. Otherwise, it is preferable to employ the thin conductive sheet model. The next step was to determine the dilution and distortion factors which are relevant to the induced polarization response. Finally, numerical results were obtained using a Fortran computer program. These calculations were compared with some results taken from the literature and good agreement is seen.
    • The San Alberto Lead-Zinc Ore Body at Cerro de Pasco Mine, Cerro de Pasco, Peru

      Ascencios C., Alejandro; Lacy, W. C.; Ascencios C., Alejandro (The University of Arizona., 1966)
      This thesis presents briefly the geology of the Cerro de Pasco district to acquaint the reader with the general geological setting of the district. A study of ore controls for a typical lead-zinc replacement body at the world famous Cerro de Pasco mine in Peru, 102 km northeast of Lima, was undertaken for purposes of better understanding. The particular body selected, the San Alberto Ore Body, occurs as a northeast extension of a main mass of pyrite, known as the "pyrite body", and is enclosed in Triassic- Jurassic limestone. Primary ore controls were determined to be a "Y"-like intersection formed by NS Longitudinal Faulting with a NE striking bedding fault. Resultant brecciation created the necessary permeable conditions whereby ore fluids were channeled away from the pyrite body into the limestone for ore emplacement. Three phases of hydrothermal rock alteration were identified as silicic alteration, chloritic alteration and an outer zone of bleaching and recrystallization. One peculiarity is found in the mineral composition of the silicic alteration, and a hypothesis is presented to explain it. The paragenetic sequence given for hypogene and gangue minerals was determined from the examination of more than 150 thin and polished sections.
    • Saturated Hydrocarbons in Fatty Tissue of Beef Heart

      Nagy, B.; Bandurski, Eric Lord; Bandurski, Eric Lord (The University of Arizona., 1972)
      Saturated hydrocarbons were extracted from fatty tissue of beef heart and identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A complete series of normal alkanes from C₁₄ to C₃₅ was identified together with three isoprenoid hydrocarbons, 2, 6, 10, 14- tetramethylpentadecane (pristane), 2, 6, 10, 14- tetramethylhexadecane (phytane), and 2, 6, 10- trimethyltridecane. In addition, a C₁₇ branched alkane with an isoprenoid-like fragmentation pattern was identified but the spectrum could not be matched with that of a C₁₇ isoprenoid hydro-carbon reported in sediments. The distribution pattern of the ṉ-alkanes is very similar to that reported in pasture plants, indicating that the ṉ-alkanes are derived from the steer's diet. The isoprenoids have not yet been reported in plant tissues, suggesting that they might be produced in the steer from the phytol side chain of chlorophyll a.
    • Small Vertebrates of the Bidahochi Formation, White Cone, Northeastern Arizona

      Baskin, Jon Alan, 1947-; Lindsay, Everett H.; Baskin, Jon Alan (The University of Arizona., 1975)
      Two taxa of amphibians, five taxa of reptiles, and eighteen taxa of mammals were collected by screen-washing sediments from the upper Bidahochi Formation at White Cone peak, northeastern Arizona. Five new species of mammals were recovered. They include Perognathoides bidahochiensis (Heteromyidae), Bensonomys yazhi (Cricetidae), Bensonomys bradyi (Cricetidae), Paronychomys alticuspis (Cricetidae), and Martes (Plionictis) repenningi (Mustelidae). Bensonomys yazhi and Bensonomys bradyi are close to the stem of Central and South Americal hesperomyine radiation. The radiation began in the southwest United States and Mexico during the Hemphillian. The middle member of the Bidahochi Formation is dated at 6.7 m. y. by a basalt from Roberts Mesa. The paleomagnetic data and the White Cone local fauna support this middle Hemphillian date.
    • Spatial Ability Development in the Geosciences

      Hall-Wallace, Michelle; Baldwin, Tammy Katherine; Hall-Wallace, Michelle; Wallace, Terry C.; Butler, Robert; Baldwin, Tammy Katherine (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      We designed an experiment to evaluate change in students' spatial skills as a result of specific interventions. Our test subjects included high school students in earth science classes, college level non-science majors enrolled in large enrollment introductory geoscience courses and introductory level geoscience students. All students completed spatial tests to measure their ability to mentally rotate three-dimensional objects and to construct a three-dimensional object from a two-dimensional representation. Results show a steady improvement in spatial skills for all groups. They also indicate that students choosing science majors typically have much higher spatial skills as they enter college. Specific interventions to improve spatial skills included having a subgroup of the non-science majors and high school students complete a suite of Geographic Information System (GIS) activities. The intervention at the high school level was more extensive and resulted in significant improvements in both categories of spatial ability. At the college level, the non-science majors that received the intervention showed no significant difference from those that did not, probably because the time spent on the intervention was too short. The geoscience majors had nearly three times the improvement of non-science majors in both categories of spatial ability attributed to hands-on weekly laboratory experiences. These results reveal a wide range of abilities among all groups of students, and suggest that we evaluate teaching strategies in all courses to ensure that students can interpret and understand the visual imagery used in lectures.
    • Stratigraphical Analysis of Triassic and Lower Jurassic Rocks in Northeastern Arizona

      Ashouri, Ali-Reza; Wilson, Richard F.; Peirce, H. W.; Smiley, T. L.; Ashouri, Ali-Reza (The University of Arizona., 1980)
      A review of all available surface and subsurface data on Triassic and Lower Jurassic rocks in northeastern Arizona has revealed the following information. The Moenkopi Formation, the Chinle Formation, and the Glen Canyon Group of Triassic and Early Jurassic age are present throughout most of the study area. These units form a sequence of continental and transitional marine origin that shows notable vertical and lateral facies changes. The Moenkopi Formation thickening west and northwestward with a maximum thickness of 134 meters. The unit comprises sandstone and shale, and shows more shaley facies westward. The Chinle Formation shows minimum thickness to the north and thickens toward east and south with a maximum thickness toward west. This unit dominantly consists of sandy shale, but contains more sandstone westward and north westward. The unit contains some limestone in north and northern region. The Chinle Formation is overlain by the Glen Canyon Group, which in ascending order comprises the Wingate Sandstone, the Moenave Formation, the Kayenta Formation, and the Navajo Sandstone. The Wingate Sandstone shows its maximum thickness in the central and southcentral region of the study area and thins west and eastward. This unit mainly comprises sandstone, particularly in its upper part. The Moenave Formation displays its zero thickness, in the eastern region and shows its maximum thickness, 198 meters, in the west-central part. The unit mainly consist of sandstone. The Kayenta Formation attains its greatest thickness, 204 meters, in the southwestern part of the region and thins east and northward. This formation contains high percentages of sandstone. Within the area of this study, the Navajo Sandstone is the thickest formation in the Glen Canyon Group. This unit almost entirely consist of sandstone pinches out toward the south and east, and displays its maximum thickness, 300 meters, northward.
    • Stratigraphy and Depositional History of the Pantano Formation (Oligocene-Early Miocene), Pima County, Arizona

      Schreiber, J. F. Jr.; Balcer, Richard Allen; Schreiber, J. F. Jr.; Dickinson, W. R.; Balcer, Richard Allen (The University of Arizona., 1984)
      The Pantano Formation comprises 1,250 m of alluvial, fluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic rocks deposited in a basin formed in response to regional extension during mid- Tertiary time in southeastern Arizona. During deposition, the locations and composition of sediment source areas varied as contemporaneous uplift occurred adjacent to the basin. The lower half of the formation was deposited as alluvial fans that prograded northward, westward, and southward; the upper half was deposited during southwestward retreat of alluvial fan deposition and the onset of lacustrine deposition. An andesite flow separates the two depositional regimes. Radiometric dates of 24.4 ± 2.6 m.y. B.P. for the andesite and 36.7 ± 1.1 m.y. B.P. for a rhyolitic tuff disconformably underlying the formation indicate that deposition occurred during Oligocene to early Miocene time. Proper stratigraphic sequencing and description, paleocurrent analysis, and gravel provenance study aided in understanding the depositional history of the formation.