• Geology of the Gore Canyon-Kremmling Area, Grand County, Colorado

      Barclay, C. S. Venable; Mayo, Evans B.; Barclay, C. S. Venable (The University of Arizona., 1968)
      The Gore Canyon-Kremmling area is in the southwestern portion of the Kremmling 15-minute quadrangle, Colorado. Precambrian rocks are biotite gneiss, the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, granophyre dikes, and quartz veins. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite intrudes the biotite gneiss, and both of these units are cut by north-northwest-trending, granophyre dikes and quartz veins. Biotite gneiss contains structure elements of a northwest and a northeast fold system. Lineations and foliations in the Boulder Creek Granodiorite are generally concordant to the northeast fold system of the gneiss. Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations, in ascending order and with their approximate thicknesses, are the State Bridge Formation, 15 feet; the Chinle and Chugwater Formations undivided, 0-95 feet; the Sundance Formations 0?-100 feet; the Morrison Formation, 250 feet; the Dakota Sandstone, 225 feet; the Benton Shale, 340 feet; the Niobrara Formation, 600 feet; and the Pierre Shale. Quaternary deposits are terrace, landslide, and modern flood-plain deposits. Laramide rock deformation is related to the Park Reuse uplift and includes faulting and, in the sediments, some folding. Some of the faults, including the regional Gore fault, are Precambrian structures reactivated in Laramide time.
    • Geology of the Owl Head Mining District, Pinal County, Arizona

      Barter, Charles F.; Mitcham, Thomas W.; Barter, Charles F. (The University of Arizona., 1962)
      The Owl Head mining District is located in south-central Pinal County, Arizona, within the Basin and Range province. Land forms, particularity pediments, characteristic of this province are abundant in this area. Precambrian rocks of the Owl Head mining district include the Pinal schist; gneiss; intrusions of granite, quartz monzonite and quartz diorite; and small amounts of Dripping Spring quartzite and metamorphosed Mescal limestone. These have been intruded by dikes and plugs of diorite and andesite, and are unconformably overlain by volcanic rocks and continental sedimentary rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. No rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras have been recognized. The structural trends of the Owl Head mining district probably reflect four major lineament directions. The dominant structural trends found in the area are north and northwest. Subordinate to these directions are northeast and easterly trends. The strike of the northerly trend varies from due north to N30°E and was probably developed during the Mazatzal Revolution. The northwest trend has probably been superposed over the northerly trend at some later date. Copper mineralization is abundant in the area and prospecting by both individuals and mining companies has been extensive. To date no ore body of any magnitude has been found, but evidence suggests that an economic copper deposit may exist within the area. The copper mineralization visible at the surface consists mainly of the secondary copper minerals chrysocolla, malachite, azurite, and chalcocite with chrysocolla being by far the most abundant. Copper minerals are found to occur in all rocks older than middle Tertiary age. Placer magnetite deposits are found in the alluvial material of this area, and one such deposit is now being mined.
    • Geology of the Palo Verde Ranch Area, Owl Head Mining District, Pinal County, Arizona

      Applebaum, Steven; Guilbert, John M.; Davis, George H.; Sumner, John S.; Applebaum, Steven (The University of Arizona., 1975)
      A quartz diorite intrusion of probable early Tertiary age that crops out over at least 6 square miles in the Palo Verde Ranch area in Pinal County, Arizona was mapped as a distinct intrusion. The quartz diorite intrudes an area comprising Pinal Schist, Oracle granite, andesitic flows, granoaplite, and dike rocks including both pegmatite and diabase. Two major physical features, the Owl Head Buttes and Chief Buttes volcanic areas, both remnants of an extensive early Tertiary series of flows of intermediate composition that covered the area, now remain as lava-capped buttes above the pediment. Weak but persistent fracture-controlled copper mineralization is found in the quartz diorite and the Pinal Schist at or near their mutual contacts in the form of chrysocolla, malachite, black copper oxides, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, and bornite, in decreasing order. Pyrite is rare. Alteration related to northeast and northwest-trending fractures increases in intensity from the common propylitic to argillic to the northeast toward the San Juan claims area. A barely discernible increase in copper sulfides mirrors the alteration zoning, although geochemical sampling showed background copper in the quartz diorite to be more uniform away from fractures.
    • Hillside Gullies and Possible Glacial Landforms Associated with the Degradation of Highland Craters on Mars

      Berman, Daniel Craig; Baker, Victor R.; Berman, Daniel Craig (The University of Arizona., 2003)
      The discovery of recent water and ice related landforms on Mars has led to a new understanding of the planet. Hundreds of examples of gullies and tongue-shaped ridges have been found on hillsides in images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). I conducted a thorough survey of these images and compiled a database of those containing gullies and tongue-shaped ridges, which may form as the result of flow of ice-rich materials. These features are found in similar mid-latitude bands. Crater counts on the ice flow features show estimated ages of the order 10⁶ y to 10⁷ y, similar to the timescale calculated for the last episode of high obliquity, when Models suggest ice deposition at these latitudes. Specific craters and various ice flow features were studied and compared in three regions: Newton Basin, Eastern Hellas, and Northern Elysium, leading to a model for crater degradation. Gullies, tongue ridges, debris aprons, and mantle deposits all may stem from recent cycles of ice deposition.
    • Infra-Red Spectrophotometry and X-Ray Diffractometry as Tools in the Study of Nickel Laterites

      Guilbert, John M.; Azevedo, Luiz Otavio Roffee; Guilbert, John M.; Hendricks, David; Eastoe, Christopher; Wachter, Bruce; Azevedo, Luiz Otavio Roffee (The University of Arizona., 1985)
      Nickel silicate laterite deposits developed on ultra-mafic rocks are similar in many general respects but they vary considerably in detail. The mineralogy of these surficial deposits is very complex and difficult to determine because of the fine grained nature and solid solution characteristics of the hydrous secondary minerals and because many of the phases are actually mineraloids that are poorly ordered or amorphous. To try some new approaches toward clarification of these phases, 24 samples from New Caledonia and Puerto Rico ranging from the ophiolite-ultramafic olivine-pyroxene-chromite-serpentine substrate rocks upward through intermediate phases of weathering to the final oxide -hydroxide iron cap phase were analyzed with the infrared spectrophotometer (IR -10) and with the automated X –ray diffractometer. Four limonite samples were also mineralogically analyzed. Goethite, secondary quartz, cryptomelane, hematite, chromite, talc, thuringite, and garnierite have been identified in various samples as weathering profile products.
    • An Investigation of the Manner and Time of Formation of Malachite

      Titley, Spencer R.; Beane, Richard Edward, 1942-; Titley, Spencer R.; Damon, Paul E.; Guilbert, John M.; Beane, Richard Edward (The University of Arizona., 1968)
      A group of minerals typical of the oxidation zone of copper deposits was studied using chemical thermodynamics, mineral stability relationships, and petrography. It has been concluded that many processes, such as alteration, can be explained using thermodynamics and are compatible with natural relationships. A mineral assemblage consisting of basic carbonates of copper and zinc was investigated with carbon isotopes and mineral stability relationships. The results obtained are consistent with processes resulting from oxidation and leaching of a sulfide deposit followed by redeposition of copper and zinc in the zone of oxidation. Four processes have been suggested by which copper could be introduced into a near-surface environment from depth. Reactions which would occur under these conditions may result in formation of mesogene or hypogene malachite and chrysocolla. A vein deposit containing minerals typical of the zone of oxidation was investigated and it has been concluded that the minerals may have formed from a hydro-thermal solution related to near-surface volcanism.
    • Las Trampas, New Mexico: Dendrochronology of a Spanish Colonial Church

      Smiley, Terah L.; Ames, Martha Hyde; Bannister, Bryant; Stokes, Marvin A.; Ames, Martha Hyde (The University of Arizona., 1972)
      Wooden beams and planks from the Spanish Colonial church and other structures in Las Trampas, north-central New Mexico, have been sampled and dated by dendrochronology. Dates of AD 1735 imply Spanish occupation of the area 16 years prior to official grant. Stockpiling of timber for church construction began as early as 1758. Exterior walls were 15 feet high by 1762 and were completed to roof level by 1764. Late in 1776, wood was cut for a dust-guard over the adobe altar and mural. According to clustering of tree-ring dates, a new altar and wooden altar screen were constructed soon after 1785. Beam re-use was prevalent. Timbers bearing early dates were incorporated into the 1785 altar screen, indicating re-use from within the church or from other pre-1760 structures. A roof viga was later used as a floor plank after reroofing. In domestic buildings, re-use of beams is repeated. Replacement of beams supporting the balcony was made in the 1860's and 1870's. Tree-ring dates indicate repairs again in the 1930's and 1943. A survey of the literature pertaining to dendrochronology of historical sites revealed that shaping of beams and lack of thorough sampling have heretofore hindered successful application. The documentary record of Las Trampas art and architectural history has been further refined by tree -ring dating, and the study reaffirms the potentials for historical sites dendrochronology.
    • Late Quaternary Plant Zonation and Climate in Southeastern Utah

      Betancourt, Julio L.; Anthony, John W.; Martin, Paul S.; Davis, Owen K.; Turner, Raymond M.; Betancourt, Julio L. (The University of Arizona., 1983)
      Plant macrofossils from packrat middens in two southeastern Utah caves outline development of modern plant zonation from the late Wisconsin. Allen Canyon Cave (2195 m) and Fishmouth Cave (1585 m) are located along a continuous gradient of outcropping Navajo Sandstone that extends from the Abajo Mountains south to the San Juan River. By holding the site constant, changes in the floral composition for a plot of less than one hectare can be observed, even if sporadically, over tens of millennia. At Allen Canyon Cave, engelmann spruce-alpine fir forest was replaced by the present vegetation consisting of pinyon-juniper woodland on exposed ridgetops and cliffside stands of Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and aspen. Xerophytic woodland plants such as pinyon, Plains prickly pear, and narrowleaf yucca arrived sometime in the middle Holocene between 7200 and 3400 B.P. At Fishmouth Cave, Utah juniper in Holocene middens replaced blue spruce, limber pine, Douglas fir, and dwarf and Rocky Mountain junipers in late Wisconsin samples. Disharmonious associations for the late Wisconsin occur only at the lower site with the xerophytes Mormon tea, Plains prickly pear, and narrowleaf yucca growing alongside subalpine conifers. One possible explanation involves the late Wisconsin absence of ponderosa and pinyon pines from the Colorado Plateaus. Released from competition at their lower limits, subalpine conifers were able to expand into lower elevations and mix with xerophytic plants found today in understories of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands. Quantitative climatic estimates are derived for the late Wisconsin by applying vertical lapse rates for temperature and precipitation to the amount of vegetation depression. The Fishmouth Cave sequence indicates a minimum lowering of 850 m for blue spruce, limber pine, and dwarf juniper. A depression of at least 700 m for engelmann spruce and alpine fir is suggested for the Allen Canyon locality. Use of conservatively low lapse rates for stations below 2080 m yields a 3-4°C cooling from present mean annual temperature and 35 to 60 percent more rainfall than today. Steeper lapse rates associated with more mountainous terrain suggest a 5°C lowering in temperature and up to 120 percent increase over modern precipitation.
    • Linkages of Laramide Thrusts, Northern Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado

      Chase, Clement G.; Bedford, Janice M.; Chase, Clement G.; Davis, George H.; Coney, Peter J.; Bedford, Janice M. (The University of Arizona., 1994)
      Laramide thrust belts in the Colorado Rocky Mountains have been mapped as discrete units with little investigation into the linkage between displacements. The Elk Range-Sawatch and Elkhorn thrust systems displaced Precambrian, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic rocks toward the southwest. The Sangre de Cristo Range and Wet Mountains thrust systems displaced rocks toward the northeast. The opposite vergence and oppositely directed displacements between these systems must be accommodated, both at present levels of exposure and at depth. Mapping of the Kerber Creek area west of the northern Sangre de Cristo Range by J.M. Bedford helped answer the question of the linkage between the opposing Elk Range-Sawatch and Sangre de Cristo Range thrusts. In the Elk Range-Sawatch system the westward displacement on the thrusts is interpreted as a minimum of 11 km in the southern Elk Range with displacement decreasing toward the north. Bryant (1966) interpreted the timing of faulting as Paleocene in age. In the Sangre de Cristo Range northeast-verging thrust system the minimum estimated eastward displacement is 8 km. Burbank and Goddard (1937) interpreted the displacement as Eocene in age. The timing of the faulting in the two areas is not necessarily different. The Kerber Creek area lies between the two regions of oppositely facing displacement. Its internal structure most closely resembles that of the more proximal Sangre de Cristo deformation. Thrusts in the Kerber Creek area place Precambrian rocks over Laramide(?) and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The structures verge toward the north-northeast and represent a minimum of several kilometers of displacement. These Laramide structures are exposed where overlying Tertiary volcanics are eroded. In the Northern Sangre de Cristo Range a set of E-W trending faults intersects the generally N-S trending Laramide thrusts, possibly representing a partitioning of northeast transport into N-S and E-W components. The E-W trending deformation can be correlated across the San Luis Valley with the thrust faults in the Kerber Creek area. Correlation of the Kerber Creek thrusts with Sangre de Cristo faults extends the northeast directed Laramide deformation 22 km northwest of the edge of the Sangre de Cristo Range. Thus the link between the oppositely verging structures must continue toward the northwest, possibly beneath the Bonanza volcanic field. Further mapping toward the southern extent of the Elk Range-Sawatch thrust system may reveal how the opposite vergence and minimum 8-10 km of displacement are accommodated.
    • Migration of Recharge Water Downgradient from the Santa Catalina Mountains into the Tucson Basin Aquifer

      Long, Austin; Barger, Erin E.; Long, Austin; Eastoe, Christopher J.; Bassett, R. L.; Barger, Erin E. (The University of Arizona., 1996)
      Aquifers in the arid alluvial basins of the southwestern U.S. are recharged predominantly by infiltration from streams within the basins and by water entering along the margins of the basins from surrounding mountains (mountain -front recharge). The Tucson Basin of Southeastern Arizona is such a basin. The Santa Catalina Mountains form the northern boundary of this basin and receive more than twice as much precipitation (about 70 cm/yr) as the basin does (about 30 cm/yr). In this study environmental isotopes were employed to investigate the migration of precipitation basinward through joints and fractures. Water samples were obtained from springs in the Santa Catalina Mountains. Stable isotopes and thermonuclear bomb-produced tritium enabled qualitative characterizations of flow paths and flow velocities. Stable isotopic measurements fail to display a direct altitude effect. Tritium values indicate that although a few springs discharge pre-bomb water, most springs discharge waters from the 1960's or later.
    • The Nucleation and Evolution of Riedel Shear Zones as Deformation Bands in Porous Sandstone

      Davis, George H.; Ahlgren, Stephen G.; Davis, George H.; Chase, Clement G.; DeCelles, Peter G.; Ahlgren, Stephen G. (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      Riedel shear zones are geometric fault patterns commonly associated with strike-slip fault systems. The progressive evolution of natural Riedel shear zones within the Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah is interpreted from the spatial evolution of small-scale, incipient Proto-Riedel Zones (PRZs) to better-developed Riedel shear zones using field mapping and three-dimensional digital modeling. PRZs nucleate as a tabular zone of localized shearing marked by en èchelon deformation bands, each of which is no more than a few mm wide and tens of cm long, and oriented at 55° - 85° to the trend of the zone. With increasing strain, deformation bands and sedimentary markers are sheared ductily through granular flow and assume a sigmoidal form. The temporal and spatial evolution of bands comprising a Riedel shear zone suggests that PRZs nucleate as transitional-compactional deformation bands under localized, supra-lithostatic fluid pressure. Subsequent bands develop under modified regional stresses as conjugate shear fractures within the strain- hardened axis of the PRZ. These antithetic driven systems are not compatible with traditional synthetic driven models of Riedel shear zones. Unlike most synthetic driven examples, these antithetic driven systems are not controlled by preexisting "basement" structures, thus their geometries reflect a primary propagation or secondary passive deformation mechanism.
    • A Paleocene Paleomagnetic Pole from the Gringo Gulch Volcanics, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

      Barnes, Arthur E.; Smiley; Butler, R.E.; Barnes, Arthur E. (The University of Arizona., 1980)
      Paleomagnetic data from 25 sites (5 samples per site) in andesite flows of the Gringo Gulch Volcanics in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, were analyzed to determine a lower Paleocene paleomagnetic pole. Alternating-field demagnetization to 500 oe peak field was sufficient to erase secondary viscous components. The mean direction of magnetization (inclination = -58.8°, declination = 167.5 °) was obtained by averaging the site mean directions of the 25 sites, which are all reversed. The resultant lower Paleocene pole position is at lat. 77.0 °N, 1on. 201.0 °E (dp = 1.2 °, dm = 1.7 °).
    • Paleocurrent Analysis of the Upper Miocene Formation, Los Angeles Basin, California

      Bennett, John Newton, 1943-; Wright, Jerome J.; Pye, W. D.; Harshberger, J. W.; Schreiber, Joseph F. Jr.; Bennett, John Newton, Jr. (The University of Arizona., 1967)
      Almost all sandstone beds occurring in the Upper Miocene formations at the Los Angeles basin were deposited by turbidity currents. Primary textures and structures indicative of turbidites occur in fair abundance throughout all three Upper Miocene formations. All accessible outcrops of the Puente, Modelo, and Upper Miocene portion of the Monterey and Capistrano Formations were scrutinized for sandstone beds containing primary sedimentary structures. Through study of these structures, the direction of current movement was determined. The pattern of current movement displayed reveals that sediment was being transported into the Los Angeles basin from all sides. Current directions and mineralogic studies indicate that essentially three source areas were supplying sediment into the basin. These source areas are 1) the San Gabriel Mountains, 2) an area to the east of the Santa Ana Mountains, and 3) a ridge of metamorphic rock paralleling the present coast line. The majority of sediment was derived from an area in the San Gabriel Mountains located northeast or the basin. This is evidenced by the fact that the thickness, grain size, and total sand content of the Upper Miocene units decrease southwestward across the basin.
    • Paleocurrents and Depositional Environments of the Dakota Group (Cretaceous), San Miguel County, New Mexico

      Bejnar, Craig Russel; Wilson, Richard F.; Schreiber, Joseph F. Jr.; Kremp, Gerhard O. W.; Bejnar, Craig Russel (The University of Arizona., 1975)
      The Dakota Group surrounding Las Vegas, New Mexico, consists of three units: 1) a basal, predominately trough cross-stratified, conglomeratic sandstone, 2) middle intercalated, thin-bedded sandstone and carbonaceous shale, and 3) upper, predominately tabular-planar cross-stratified, sandstone containing trace fossils. These units represent, respectively, 1) a fluvial piedmont plain, 2) fluvial coastal plain, and 3) a beach, littoral, and shallow marine complex. The cross-stratification in the lower sandstone unit indicates an easterly paleoslope. The cross-stratification in the upper sandstone unit has a bimodal distribution almost at right angles to the paleoslope, suggesting deposition by longshore currents. The standard deviation of the cross-stratification in the lower sandstone unit of 78° is typical of fluvial deposits. The standard deviation in the upper sandstone unit of 97° indicates a marine origin.
    • Paleomagnetism of Miocene Volcanic Rocks in the Mojave Region of Southeastern California

      Acton, Gary Dean; Butler, Robert F.; Acton, Gary Dean (The University of Arizona., 1986)
      Paleomagnetic data were collected from Miocene volcanic rocks in the Turtle Mountains, Clipper Mountain, Colton Hills, and Piute Range of the southern Basin and Range (SBR) province in southeastern California as well as in the Soledad Mountains of the Mojave block in southern California. The data from these two tectonic provinces yield significantly different paleomagnetic directions, which probably indicates the existence of a major crustal and /or lithospheric discontinuity in the area between the Barstow Basin and the Clipper Mountain. Comparing the mean direction from the SBR data to the Miocene expected direction indicates no statistically significant rotation (R = -0.2° ± 18.2°) or flattening (F = -6.5° ± 9.2°). A similar comparison for the Soledad Mountain data, which were combined with data of Burke et al. (1982) from the Barstow Basin, yields a significant rotation of -43.5° ± 12.9° and flattening of 19.3° ± 10.6° for the Mojave block. These Mojave block values may be exaggerated a few degrees due to inadequate averaging of secular variation and possible improper structural corrections.
    • A Palynological Analysis of Part of Death Valley Core DV93-1: 166-114 KA

      Davis, Owen K.; Bader, Nicholas E.; Davis, Owen K.; Quade, Jay; Dettman, David; Bader, Nicholas E. (The University of Arizona., 1999)
      Salt Core DV93 -1, from Badwater Basin in California's Death Valley, spans the past 192 ka. An analysis of fossil palynomorphs from 151.8 m (ca. 166 ka) to 103.5 m (ca. 114 ka) delimits four pollen zones. Zone 1, the "cheno -am" zone (151.8 to 143.5 m depth, 166 -154 ka), contains high percentages of Chenopodiaceae /Amaranthus pollen, and correlates with marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 7. Zone 2, the juniper zone (143.5 to 117.3 m, 154 -124 ka), correlates with OIS 6 and contains high percentages of Cupressaceae pollen and low percentages of Ambrosia pollen. A simultaneous drop in juniper and increase in oak (Quercus) pollen, followed by replacement of Artemisia with Ambrosia, occurs at the Zone 2 /Zone 3 (oak zone) boundary (124 ka), corresponding to OIS Termination II warming. Zone 4, the Asteraceae zone (108.8 to 103.5 m, 119 -115 ka), contains higher percentages of Asteraceae and cheno -am pollen, indicating further warming.
    • Pollen in Fecal Pellets as an Environmental Indicator

      Bartos, Frances Maribel; Martin, Paul S.; Solomon, Allen M.; Kremp, G.O.W.; Bartos, Frances Maribel (The University of Arizona., 1972)
      Identification of pollen in fecal pellets is a potential technique for describing an animals diet and in turn the vegetation of an area. Mule deer and Bighorn Sheep pellets representing both summer and winter browsing and a variety of habitats were examined using relative percentages and the absolute pollen frequencies. In addition, fossil pellets from Stanton's Cave, Grand Canyon, Arizona, were examined and compared with modern pellets. Absolute pollen frequencies of individual pellets showed higher values and greater variation for summer pellets than for winter pellets. Relative pollen percentages for a specific vegetation type showed more variation in fecal pellets than in soil surface samples. Unless specifically being eaten, arboreal pollen types such as Pinus are less abundant in fecal pellets than in soil samples. Unlike soil surface samples, arboreal pollen types in fecal pellets are frequently limited to the immediate source area.
    • Precambrian Geology of the Cottonwood Cliffs Area, Mohave County, Arizona

      Davis, George H.; Beard, Linda Sue; Davis, George H.; Coney, Peter J.; Lucchitta, Ivo; Beard, Linda Sue (The University of Arizona., 1985)
      A belt of Early Proterozoic rocks crops out in the Cottonwood Cliffs area, northwest Arizona. The belt contains an eastern and a western assemblage separated by the Slate Mountain fault. The western assemblage consists of mafic to felsic metavolcanic rocks, metapelites, and metaconglomerates. The eastern assemblage consists of phyllites, felsic to intermediate metavolcanic rocks, metagraywackes, and metagabbro bodies. The belt is bounded to the east by foliated granodiorite. The Valentine granite intruded the belt on the west and north. Steeply-plunging lineations and fold axes, and northeast-trending vertical foliation dominate the structural fabric. The regional elongation direction is near-vertical, as indicated by mineral and pebble lineations, and is parallel to fold axes. Although only one deformational event is evident, the intensity of that event may have obliterated evidence of any earlier deformation. Tertiary basalts and the Peach Springs Tuff locally overly the metamorphic rocks. Cenozoic normal faults in the area are mostly of minor displacement.
    • Primary Sediment Production from Granitic Rocks in Southeastern Arizona

      Acaba, Joseph Michael; Schreiber, Joseph F., Jr.; Acaba, Joseph Michael (The University of Arizona., 1992)
      Isolated granitic rock bodies (granites, granodiorites, quartz monzonites) in the vicinity of Benson in southeastern Arizona were studied to trace the behavior of rock weathering. Thin sections of fresh granites were examined to characterize the original mineralogy which consisted mainly of quartz, feldspars, and micas. The weathering products show up on the granites as grus and soil profiles as well as down slope in the basin deposits. X -ray diffraction studies of the < 2 micrometers fraction of the weathering products proved illite, smectite, illite-smectite mixed layer, and kaolinite to be the dominant clays; quartz and feldspar also persisted into this size fraction. Silt sized material produced similar results. The quartz monzonite of Texas Canyon afforded a special study of the initial weathering stages of feldspars and micas. In the < 2 micrometers fraction obtained from granitic material placed in an ultra sonic bath, the feldspars weathered to a Na-montmorillinite while biotite weathered to vermiculite.
    • Provenance and Petrofacies, Upper Devonian Sandstones, Philip Smith Mountains and Arctic Quadrangles Brooks Range, Alaska

      Coney, Peter J.; Anderson, Arlene Verona; Coney, Peter J.; Anderson, Arlene Verona (The University of Arizona., 1987)
      A petrographic study of upper Devonian sandstones (Endicott and Hammond Terranes), Philip Smith Mountains and Arctic quadrangles, Brooks Range, Alaska, shows that the sand-sized detritus was derived from two petrographic provenances. Detrital modes, calculated from point counts of thin sections, show that the provenance for the Devonian clastic wedge (Endicott Terrane) was a recycled orogenic belt with major components of quartz, chert, and lithic fragments. Three petrofacies are distinguished. Their distribution indicates compositional changes vertically and laterally which reflect changing compositions in the source area. A petrographically different provenance supplied the sandstones that overlie the Skajit Limestone (Hammond Terrane). Characterized by high feldspar and abundant volcanic rock fragments, this petrofacies indicates first-cycle deposition close to the source area. A magmatica arc provenance is suggested.