These collections contain senior capstone projects, master's reports, and master's theses from programs in the College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape Architecture.


Contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu with questions about items in these collections.

Sub-communities within this community

Recent Submissions

  • WINDOW RETROFITS: Demonstrated need for targeted public program in Tucson, AZ

    Iuliano, Joey; Wong, Kenny; LaPlant, Cory; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture (The University of Arizona., 2022-05)
    Buildings account for over a third of U.S. energy consumption, and roughly a third of that is used for environmental conditioning. To achieve a sustainable future, we need to address the consumption of our existing buildings that do not benefit from advancements made in new construction. This study targeted a single feature previously identified in sustainable retrofits that appears to be lacking in change, window retrofits. The study focuses on Tucson, Arizona to identify a need and support for a social financing program to support the high upfront cost of completing large-scale window retrofits in urban areas. Green retrofit success is predicated on financial and policy support, which are missing in Arizona, lacking support for window retrofits in its existing sustainability programs. This study shows that nearly 40% of homes in Tucson are still operating single-pane windows and that implementation cost acts as a barrier to homeowner action. With appropriate funding, an estimated savings of $45M in annual energy production could be achieved.
  • Riparian Renewal: Rethinking Randolph Dell Ulrich Golf Course Watercourses

    Livingston, Margaret; Thomas, Keegan (The University of Arizona., 2023)
    Golf courses inherently have a lot of problems. They take up very large spaces, are generally designed for single user groups (golfers), and are very resource intensive, especially in the US Southwest. They also have a host of benefits: the sport of golf supports an active lifestyle and has health benefits associated with it, and golf courses do provide ecological value as a green space in urban settings. This masters report looks at a typical municipal golf course in Tucson Arizona, and through site analysis and background research & case reviews proposes a redesign that aims to benefit members of the community, further optimize habitats for local wildlife, all while reducing the resource dependency required of the golf course. Page
  • Designing Inclusive Public Spaces in Southern Arizona: The Development of the Tubac Nature Preserve

    Livingston, Margaret; Vasquez Cabrera, Patricia (The University of Arizona., 2023)
  • Green Links

    Livingston, Margaret; Tang, Sinlin (The University of Arizona., 2023)
    Urbanization started in the early 1800s and grew rapidly after the Civil War in the United States. Along with attracting jobs and economic gains, rapid urbanization brings greenhouse effects, erosions and natural habitat destruction. After the golden age of urbanization, old infrastructure systems are degrading and the destruction of native habitats is progressive. Year after year, studies show evidence of the inevitable climate change effects on living organisms, particularly in arid regions such as the Sonoran desert. The urban ecology study carries a simple and effective answer to these concerns. Urban Ecology and green infrastructure have designs for a green space system in urban areas that target an array of amenities and have a cost-effective implementation. This master's report looks into past studies worldwide in order to seek reasonable solutions to modern urban challenges. Specifically, a site in downtown Tucson, between Stone Ave and 6th Street, is examined through a process of literature review, case review, and design applications to mitigate the urban issues by recent developments.
  • Storytelling Historic North Fourth Avenue

    Livingston, Margaret; Houghton, B. Blake (The University of Arizona., 2023)
    Historic landscapes are often times only thought about in terms of park-scapes, this project redefines the term “historic landscape” to include urban heritage and historic districts. Through this redefined terminology, we look at the Fourth Avenue Historic District in Tucson, Arizona to understand how and why an urban district could be re-imagined as an historic landscape. From 1903 to 1967 the Fourth Avenue Historic District saw a lot of change. The changes made across the district reflect the evolving needs of the users of the district from residential to commercial purposes. The district is comprised of historic buildings, reflecting the work of several master architects, and several legacy businesses, while not contributing to the historic nature of The Avenue, are never-the-less important as contributing to the cultural significance of Fourth Avenue and Tucson. This work focuses primarily on the research done in order to provide the Historic Fourth Avenue Coalition enough material to begin an historic interpretation project. That effort, while ongoing, is an important step towards creating an education space that helps regular users and occasional visitors consider the broader impacts of the history of the community, and the cultural heritage, that Fourth Avenue represents for Tucson.
  • Designing for Conservation, Advocacy and Recreation in the High Sonoran Grasslands

    Livingston, Margaret; Potucek, Alizabeth (The University of Arizona., 2022)
    The Appleton-Whittell Research Ranch (AWRR) is an exceptional place with in the high-sonoran grasslands of the Madrean Sky Islands. The AWRR’s primary function is as an ecological research and conservation station. The Sky Island bikepacking route has increased recreational visitors to the ranch in recent years. Outdoor recreation is a quickly growing industry, especially across the Western US. Research shows that the outdoor recreation and tourism is growing faster than traditional economic pillars such as oil, mining and ranching. AWRR cultivates place-based attachment for many of its visitors- from the researchers to recreators. Design, programming, and land management play an important role in balancing conservation and recreation. Well-designed recreation opportunities with thoughtful management can be a practical way to engage the public in regional issues. This project generates design concepts for additional recreational amenities at AWRR, while still prioritizing conservation and research. The design outcomes include a proposed new trail location, signs, and lodging. A new trail designed for bikepackers at the AWRR would strengthen the connection etween recreation, outreach and conservation at the ranch.
  • Perceptions of water shortages among Tucson residents

    Apanovich, Nataliya; Barajas, Marisa; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    Arizona has been experiencing water shortages due to climate change and population growth. This has led the City of Tucson to increase water prices for the residential sector. By surveying and interviewing 14 residents of Tucson, this study looked at people’s perceptions of this new policy change to determine attitudes toward and awareness of the water crisis in Tucson. The study found that there is a relationship between the number of years people have lived in Tucson and the level of awareness of the water crisis. It also showed that people's perceptions of the impact of increased water prices are short-termed. This indicates a need for increased water awareness among the residential sector. Additionally, future studies need to look at the difference in perceptions of water crises among different age groups. This will provide a better understanding on what information should be made available to different age groups.
  • Housing, Transit, and Gentrification: What’s the Link?

    Avila, Ashley; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Apanovich, Nataliya; Bernal, Sandra; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    Studying the causes and effects of gentrification on communities is vital as the United States faces severe housing challenges, demographic changes, and new rural-urban-suburban dynamics. By using two surveys and American Community Survey data, this study explores gentrification risk, factors that contribute to gentrification, and possible mitigations towards gentrification in the Menlo Park neighborhood of Tucson, Arizona. In Menlo Park, 66% of surveyed residents show strong levels of concern regarding housing prices. While most residents mentioned the role of the streetcar in increasing housing prices, all residents surveyed would support similar transit implementations in other areas. Finally, 64% of respondents in Tucson who are familiar with gentrification show support towards Cottage Court housing in their neighborhoods, with similar levels of support for other middle density housing types. These findings can help inform future transit implementations in Tucson and provide support towards zoning reform, which would allow for more middle density housing to be created in Tucson. In addition, this study provides an overview of how transit implementation affected a historic barrio community in Tucson, while acknowledging possible ways to mitigate displacement threats.
  • What the future wants: redesigning class space for changes in learning

    Apanovich, Nataliya; Phillips, Jake; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    Educators have long struggled with keeping students in school, as traditional classrooms can be uncomfortable and disengaging. Research has shown that a better learning environment can lead to improved academic results. To address this, classroom design is crucial in prioritizing student well-being and creating a comfortable, calming, and conducive to learning environment. This study aims to assess how classroom design affects students' learning experience by analyzing survey data. A survey was conducted across three classes, with eight respondents per class, totaling 24 respondents. The results showed that most students suggested improvements to better equip the classroom for learning. The results also suggest that an ideal classroom with proper learning techniques can help students be more engaged and focused. Future studies need to be conducted to survey a larger sample of students and across different higher education institutions to better understand a relationship between student learning outcomes and classroom design.
  • Enhancing Pedestrian Safety with Tactical Urbanism

    Barker-Winkworth, Lydia Maye; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bernal, Sandra; Wong, Kenny; Apanovich, Nataliya (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    The number of pedestrian fatalities resulting from vehicle-pedestrian collisions in Tucson, Arizona, has increased between 2018 and 2022 according to the City of Tucson Police Department. The speed of a vehicle during a pedestrian-vehicle collision, or the impact speed, is a main factor in the probability of severe pedestrian injury or fatality. Tactical urbanism (TU) is a low-cost, small-scale, human-focused, temporary strategy used to address pedestrian safety and mobility issues. To determine the effectiveness of a TU project on South 6th Avenue in downtown Tucson, a quasi-experimental research design was used wherein vehicle speeds were recorded before and after the TU installation on the experimental street (6th Ave) and a selected control street (S 4th Ave). Results from a City of Tucson Department of Transportation and Mobility intercept-survey is also analyzed in this study to gain a better understanding of how perceptions of safety and mobility vary among different road user and demographic groups on the 6th Ave block. Analysis of vehicle speeds before and after the TU installation on 6th Ave show a decrease in average vehicle speed, which lowers the probability of pedestrian fatality along the block. The importance of public engagement and participation in the effectiveness of TU design is also emphasized through a literature review and the intercept survey results.
  • The Effects of Green Space on the Psychological Well-Being of Apartment Residents

    Finnegan, Molly; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Wong, Kenny; Bernal, Sandra; Apanovich, Nataliya; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    Apartment dwellers generally lack the accessibility that homeowners have, however, green space is suggested to be an important component in the psychological well-being of residents. Prior studies suggest benefits like stress reduction, mood improvement, reduced feelings of anxiety and depression, and an overall improved psychological well-being from exposure to green space and views of green space. This research study uses a questionnaire to evaluate individuals’ accessibility to green space and their levels of life satisfaction, stress, and general psychological well-being. A follow up interview with apartment residents suggests the components that comprise an effective green space that residents can enjoy and benefit from, such as adequate seating, shade, tree coverage, flowers, grass, and a sufficient size.
  • Careless College Crossings

    Brenish, Landon; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Wong, Kenny; Stocker, Phillip; Apanovich, Nataliya; Bernal, Sandra; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    This paper discusses the importance of pedestrian safety, particularly for college students who are among the most vulnerable road users. Pedestrian accidents, especially involving young adults, are a major concern. Inadequate pedestrian infrastructure is a leading contributor of these accidents. This study aims to understand the behavior and perception of college students towards pedestrian infrastructure, and whether they intentionally use safer crosswalks. The literature review highlights that pedestrian safety infrastructure has a positive impact on pedestrian confidence, increased crossing, and safer drivers. Unfortunately, it can also lead to impulsive behavior in young adults. In order to understand students perceptions of pedestrian safety infrastructure, observations of students’ walking habits were compared with traffic speeds and survey results. Understanding the perceptions and behavior of college students towards pedestrian infrastructure will help cities implement pedestrian infrastructure that promotes safe, walkable areas around universities.
  • Where is the Social Sustainability in Green Buildings?

    Shao, Stella; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bernal, Sandra; Bernal, Sandra; Apanovich, Nataliya; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    While green buildings today are labeled as “sustainable,” many of them actually fall short, especially on social sustainability metrics. Through literature review, document analysis, and site survey, this study examines what the current state of research and development is on social sustainability in green buildings and what the best practices are. The findings indicate that green building rating systems are a major trend in the academic research and are criticized for valuing environmental sustainability over social sustainability. Document analysis confirms that LEED, the most widely used green building rating system, does not adequately address social sustainability. A site survey at the LEED-certified Tulsa City-County Library demonstrates how to properly balance social and environmental sustainability in a building. Recommendations are made for future green buildings based on the data collected.
  • Winner Takes All or Win-Win: The Pros and Cons of Water Trading in Arizona

    Ferreira, Jessica; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bernal, Sandra; Apanovich, Nataliya; Bernal, Sandra; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    Water markets have been identified as one solution to addressing water scarcity in the Western United States. This paper examines how water transfers indicate water commoditization and the implications surrounding water markets' social, environmental, and economic aspects. A systematic review of the recent literature found a disparity highlighting substantially more research on the environmental and economic benefits of water markets than on the social impacts of water markets. This finding contrasts with survey responses that found Arizona residents prioritize social needs, revealing a disconnect between what academics discuss in the literature and what is important to people.
  • Assessing Community Needs in The Brownfield Site Redevelopment: A Case Study of The Broadway Volvo Site

    Apanovich, Nataliya; Bernal, Sandra; Wong, Kenny; Blas, DaviAnn; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
  • What attracts people to parks: a case study of a U.S. and South Korean park

    Woeppel, Chas; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Apanovich, Nataliya; Apanovich, Nataliya; Bernal, Sandra; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    With the increase in urbanization, green spaces are becoming fewer and fewer within cities. This study focuses on two types of parks in two different cultures, a world apart. One in Seoul, South Korea, and the other in Nashville, TN, USA. These comparisons will help to spotlight what makes the parks unique and why these two parks are used by the citizens of these two different countries. Data was gathered from the existing literature through surveying five people in each country. The results indicate there are many similarities between the two countries related to why people go to these parks, but there are also differences. Studying these differences may help to create green spaces suitable for visitors in each country.
  • Applying Sustainability Measures to Heritage Conservation In De Pere, WI

    Van Rixel, Julie; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Apanovich, Nataliya; Bernal, Sandra; Wong, Kenny (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    Heritage conservation is essential to preserving the cultural and historical identity of a specific place. Small towns and communities are losing their individuality as the world becomes more homogenized and globalized. This paper aims to examine and discuss the heritage conservation efforts in De Pere, Wisconsin, as an example to understand the challenges and opportunities faced by small communities in preserving their unique sense of place. It also addresses the misconception that it is difficult and inefficient to retrofit old buildings into energy-saving structures. It highlights the possible overlap between historic preservation and sustainability objectives and makes the case that these two aims can be reconciled through innovative and adaptable techniques. Through analysis of the preliminary pilot study data and a literature review of the various approaches and strategies that have been used in conservation, techniques are extracted and applied to De Pere, Wisconsin. Beyond implementation, the paper hopes to maintain that heritage conservation should be considered conservatively, considering the true needs of the community based on occupancy rates, income, price points, safety, and other factors. This study aims to convey that heritage conservation and old building reuse is the most sustainable option to preserve America's small towns' unique heritage.
  • Agrivoltaics Effect on the Environment and Natural Resources 2 Building: Rooftop Heat Island Effect

    Gonzalez, Isabella; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Apanovich, Nataliya; Apanovich, Nataliya (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    The combination of Photovoltaics (PV) and Agriculture brings fourth an innovative urban agriculture system called Agrivoltaics (Hall, 2023). The increased usage of human-made materials has led to an increase in ambient temperatures in urban settings, which is one of the main contributors of the urban heat island effect, especially larger cities (EPA, 2022). There is a research gap in understanding the potential of Agrivoltaics to mitigate the UHI effect in urban areas. While there has been some research on the benefits of green roofs and walls in reducing urban heat, there is limited research on the combined benefits of Agrivoltaics and green infrastructure. The relationship between Agrivoltaics and urban heat was studied using primary quantitative data collected from the Environment and Natural Resource 2 Building located on the main University of Arizona campus in Tucson, Arizona. The findings of this study indicate that the Environment and Natural Resource 2 Building rooftop Agrivoltaics system has the potential to improve the conditions of the surface area by cooling the surrounding ambient temperature. Future research should examine the economic viability of Agrivoltaics and urban heat island mitigation strategies. This will entail evaluating the costs and benefits of implementing a and identifying potential barriers to their adoption.
  • Break the Chain: The cycling gender gap in Tucson, Arizona

    Olvera, Rene; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bernal, Sandra; Bernal, Sandra (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    Tucson, Arizona is considered one of the most hazardous places for cycling. Despite the dangers, cycling has gained popularity as a convenient and beneficial mode of transportation, leading to a demand for improved infrastructure. To address the gender gap in cycling, this study examined the perceptions of different cyclists in Tucson. By employing a mixed-method approach that included a public survey and observation, the research identified key factors that contribute to the gender gap. The findings emphasize the need for new and adequate cycling infrastructure as the city expands and its residents seek more sustainable and equitable transportation options.
  • LEEDing The Way: An Analysis of Activities Performed in LEED vs non-LEED buildings

    Bernal, Sandra; Heros, Josh; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bernal, Sandra; Apanovich, Nataliya; Wong, Kenny; Bernal, Sandra (The University of Arizona., 2023-05)
    The real value in environmental design must contribute with integral solutions to education, health, and climate change simultaneously. Through qualitative concurrent data collection, this study reveals patterns with respect to activities of studying vs being social and healthy habits in LEED and non-LEED academic buildings. Using as a base case a WELL-certified building this study compared and contrasted design strategies in the spaces. Through the observations at ENR2 (a LEED Platinum certified building built in 2015) and McClelland Hall (a non-LEED building built in 1994) on The University of Arizona campus, evidence indicates that the difference in the function of LEED vs. non-LEED in higher education spaces is present with respect to activities of studying vs. being social.

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