• Second City: An Urban Revitalization Plan for Colón, Panamá

      Hyson, Kendra (The University of Arizona., 2015)
      As the world shifts towards increased urbanization, issues of social inequity also begin to rise to the forefront, often affecting most critically those citizens who are economically disadvantaged. Areas in which there are fewer resources to defend against the negative impacts of rapid urban development tend to become a detriment to those citizens living in said areas. Such is the case with Panamá, a nation suffering from economic inequality post-rapid urbanization, much to the detriment of its citizens. Even with substantial economic growth over the last decade, Panamá still boast the second most unequal distribution of income in Latin America (Archibold 2013). The “high-value” service industries that dominate the Panamanian economy total an approximate 75-80% of the country’s annual $30 billion economy – an indication of a possibly thriving job market (Lilly and Associates, 2012). This places Panamá in a unique position to begin the mitigation of economic inequality. Colón, traditionally known as Panamá’s “Second City”, is home to the largest free trade zone in the Western Hemisphere, the Colón Free Zone (CFZ), and has been greatly impacted by this uneven distribution of wealth (U.S. Department of State 2015). Even with much emphasis on improving the CFZ, via talks of a new international airport and port expansion, little attention has been given to the city’s residents (Lilly and Associates 2012). Colón’s ideal Caribbean coastal location, beautiful tropical landscapes and historic architecture make it a prime location for trade, tourism and urban development, leaving no evident reason for the desertion currently being experienced by its citizens and landscape. The number of challenges facing Colón coupled with the city’s historic, cultural and economic significance have created a complex blend of contextual factors begging for exploration. Moreover, many of the problems in Colón deserve considerable analysis as it is in desperate need of revitalization. These challenges, problems and ongoing concerns, however, are far beyond the scope and depth of the time allotted for this master’s report. Nevertheless, this project intends to highlight some of the key components prohibiting Colón’s development, transforming those constraints into opportunities for growth. The focus of this master’s report is to investigate and conceptualize potential solutions to the issues plaguing Colón. Primarily, this report will examine what contributions landscape architectural strategies can provide to the city of Colón in helping increase quality of life for its citizens. Through cultural resilience strategies, green infrastructure, increased connectivity and sustainable tourism practices, the culminating design attempts to demonstrate how Colón can be restored to its former status as a bustling metropolis of tourism and trade.
    • IRON HORSE PARK RENOVATION: Preserving Iron Horse Park & Arroyo Chico as a critical social open space in an urban context

      Livingston, Margaret; Sanabria, David J. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Cities are full of underutilized or neglected spaces with the potential to be re-purposed into a land use that can provide more valuable open space to urban dwellers. This action is sometimes referred to as “Infrastructure for All” Places such as brown-fields, parking lots, alleys, isolated underpasses and city washes are just some of them. Like many cities in United States, the city of Tucson is becoming more and more dense with a tendency to grow vertically, meaning that the common ground is shared; streets, sidewalks, plazas, parks, to name a few. Public spaces such as parks, give people the opportunity to interact every day, “the more they interact with each other, the more they accept each other. Encouraging people of different generations, race, and income levels to interact and share is a positive experience. Through this experience they learn that they can peacefully coexist with people who are different from themselves”. The purpose of this master's report will be to promote social interaction through the enhancement and reactivation of a city park, that has been neglected or forgotten and that may be threatened by new development and densification. “Densification is happening in Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Boston— in most cities, actually. Even sprawled-out cities like Austin, Texas, are densifying, with tall residential towers in downtown” To preserve an existing urban park by encouraging human interaction brings many benefits to the city in terms of revitalization of places, encouraging people to walk through and connect with their community, and it can also help to build the local economy.
    • ASTORIA URBAN WATERFRONT PARK: RE-IMAGINING EXISTING ABANDONED PLAYGROUNDS IN QUEENS, NEW YORK CITY

      Livingston, Margaret; Nguyen, Truc (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The City of New York is the most populated city in the United States and thus also in the state of New York. With the population increasing every day, lands become very precious. Buildings keep growing upward to create more living and working spaces for New Yorker. With the gift of nature, water, and land, a waterfront park has become one of the attractions for New Yorkers and tourists during the daytime. However, the city has been facing an issue of sea level rise over many years. Many studies show that sea level is rising at an accelerated rate, especially along the U.S. east coast. Because of this reason, New York City officials have required designers to consider this issue in their future designs. This study documented the design process of a Master Plan for the Astoria Urban Waterfront Park in Astoria neighborhood, Queens, New York City. The project outcomes minimized the effectiveness of sea level rise while providing an inhabitable space for the residents. Astoria Urban Waterfront Park is an opportunity to restore biodiversity, create habitat for wildlife, grant access to the water, and house outdoor activities. A review of relevant literature was conducted to develop a framework for the design approach. Case reviews of other urban and waterfront parks were conducted for project outcomes and programs. In-depth site analysis and inventory were captured the site conditions and contextual surrounding. Outcomes focus on two public open spaces connected by a waterfront corridor.
    • Parks are for People

      Livingston, Margaret; Moscato, Jennifer (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Rio Rico, a planned community in southern Arizona, sits along the Santa Cruz River between the Santa Rita Mountains and Coronado National Forest. The intent of this project is to provide Rio Rico with proposed locations for a network of parks paying close attention to the people and natural and cultural resources of this unique community. The project aims to create parks that are easily and safely accessible to community members of all ages. The park amenities will highlight Rio Rico’s natural resources and community assets and promote public and ecological health. Combining geospatial data with environmental and cultural analysis along with input from community meetings and public surveys, a series of parks are proposed to promote community connections, health and recreation.
    • Art for Plants’ Sake: Encouraging Arid Plant Palettes Through Installation Art

      Livingston, Margaret; Lutheran, Matthew (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The City of Tucson is currently experiencing growing pains as urban revitalization converts empty lots throughout Downtown Tucson into housing and retail. The increase in density results in a city with more pedestrian amenities, however it also reduces the amount of available urban green space. As the space for green amenities contract, the remaining landscape is converted into a commercially available plant palette, however this development provides no reference to Tucson’s environmental context. Tucson is located within the Sonoran Desert, a semi-arid region that receives 12” of annual rainfall. Limited water availability combined with extreme heat has created a unique ecosystem of diverse plant and animal life adapted to difficult conditions. The urban environment creates additional environmental constraints such as degraded soils, increased disturbance, and reduced light, which lead many urban projects to select plant material solely based on urban constraints. As urban development brings more residents into the urban core, the demand for urban parks will continue to increase. Small urban parks are a valuable refuge for residents and wildlife alike, providing relief from the urban environment. Urban parks provide important social spaces allowing the community to gather and landscape elements that reflect the community to strengthen its identity. Public art enhances the urban environment by illustrating the genus loci that bonds residents to the site and their community while engaging new users. To reflect the unique context of the Sonoran Desert, Tucson’s urban parks must educate the public about the benefits of working in concert with Tucson’s natural environment. A series of art installations will highlight the unique methods plants of the Sonoran Desert use to survive harsh desert conditions. Installation art will promote understanding of arid-adapted plants while accompanying planting displays will acclimatize the public to the aesthetics of desert landscapes. As the public becomes aware of the benefits of climate-appropriate plants they will demand that these communities are integrated into the urban landscape matrix to benefit the city and environment alike. Desert-adapted plants provide native habitat, and give residents greater connection to their city and highlighting the unique context of Tucson’s surroundings.
    • Southside Revival: A Research-based Design Approach to Revitalizing the 6th Avenue Corridor in South Tucson

      Livingston, Margaret; Kohen, Sol (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      South Tucson, Arizona faces a slew of challenges, poor public perception, and logistical issues having to do with poor funding of redevelopment. A need exists for small town revitalization plans, rooted in main street redesign along South Tucson’s 6th Avenue corridor. Investigation into community, business, and environmental make-up was conducted, along with analysis into how policy strategies, and design solutions can be implemented. Ultimately, city-wide master planning, with a main focus on streetscape improvement through high-profile public amenities, could foster a framework for private investment, and improved public image.
    • THE SOLAR VISTA: Integrating solar energy into our neighborhood parks

      Livingston, Margaret; Johnson, Aaron (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Urban ecology emerged, in the 1970’s, as a response to the increasing reality of growing populations causing environmental and health problems of both urban and non-urban dwellers. As such, human settlements were acknowledged by ecologists as legitimate areas of ecological study. Almost 50 years later, great strides have been made to improve the ecology within our cities. This Masters Report looks to build upon past success by rethinking the implementation of sustainable practices into the urban fabric of a city. The report examines a contextually suburban park within Tucson, Arizona as an opportunity to better integrate and showcase the, increasingly popular and affordable, practice of harnessing solar energy. A review of literature and design projects was conducted to gain an understanding of ecological design principles, multi-functional solar sites, and educational features in public spaces. Site inventory and analysis revealed the existing condition of the site, as well as possible design limitations and opportunities. In response to the research and site assessment, design solutions were made to further progress the ecological practices within our public spaces.
    • Rillito River Restoration Southeast Branch: Green Infrastructure Strategies and App Technology in a Xeroriparian System

      Livingston, Margaret; Elbirt Carnaval, Diana (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The Tucson basin experiences intermittent flooding events during its bimodal rain seasons. The development of the city’s infrastructure that has accompanied its increased urbanization is mostly dependent on grey infrastructure for storm water management that has been unsuccessful in slowing peak flows, recharging aquifers, and sustaining biogeochemical cycles that support habitat. A plan that focuses on an area of the south bank Rillito River, between N Craycroft Rd and N Swan Rd, will propose a series of green infrastructure strategies to manage ephemeral water flows. An investigation of hydrologically sensitive master plans in urban areas comparable to Tucson via literature review, ecological data, and the consideration of historical ecological and cultural history of the Tucson basin, will inform a design proposal that enhances biological diversity, supports economic development, enhances connectivity, and supports users’ well-being, within the urban context.
    • ONE TREE AT A TIME: exploring equity in landscape architecture through incremental change

      Livingston, Margaret; Jon, Choi (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The field of Landscape Architecture has been increasingly focused on issues surrounding equity, equitable development and equitable access to green space. Rightfully so, given that low income and minority communities statistically have inequitable access to green space when compared to their more affluent neighbors and suffer from increased exposure to the harmful effects of pollution and extreme weather (Gould & Lewis 2017, Byrne, Wolch & Zhang, 2009; McConnachie & Shackleton 2010). Strategies to address these issues range in scale and approach and are often associated with words like ‘green growth’, ‘sustainable development’, ’urban greening’ and ‘urban revitalization’. While this ambiguous language presents its own challenges, addressing equity in landscape architecture is not necessarily any clearer. Through a process of literature review, case studies, research and community engagement, this project explores issues of equity in the Oracle area neighborhoods in Tucson, Arizona. Final outcomes will include two neighborhood improvement project proposals informed by community engagement and the development of resources to aid communities seeking their own neighborhood improvements. Process and outcome reflection will provide thoughts on addressing equity in landscape architecture but given the uniqueness of each community and their circumstances, definitive solutions will not be provided. It is through continued questioning that the process of promoting equity within our communities will grow, evolve and improve.
    • Mission Revival: Reimagining The San Xavier Mission Del Bac’s Relationship With the Land and its Community

      Livingston, Margaret; Bonnet, Cody (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Located in the Sonoran Desert ten miles southwest of Tucson, Arizona is Mission San Xavier Del Bac, a Franciscan mission and pilgrimage site that hosts hundreds of thousands of visitors annually. Founded by Spanish missionary Father Eusebio Kino in the late 17th century, the Mission has a storied history of intercultural trade and working relationships between the Native Tohono O’odham people and Spanish settlers. In the O’odham language, the mission is called “where the water runs in” in reference to the nearby Santa Cruz River. Historically, it ran year-round and was the catalyst for agricultural development in the area, but due to repeated human intervention is now primarily a dry bed. Today, the mission is an active parish that has achieved National Historic Landmark status and National Register designation. All of these factors culminate in a historic preservation project with intricate contextual layers that must be balanced and sensitively considered, which leads to critical questions throughout the process: What was the landscape like before and after various stages of human impact? Are there historic features that can be restored and preserved? If so, should they be? Ultimately, this project seeks to answer these questions through the lens of responsive site design both at the Mission and the surrounding Reservation landscape. The story of this land is a significant one, and this project seeks to accomplish how best to share it.
    • ABSOLUTE STREET, a new type of streetscape for future high-density urbanism

      Livingston, Margaret; An, Tai (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      During the past decades, conflicts between the natural ecosystems and the need for urban development has led to a loss of connection to green spaces in urban cores. The Park Avenue in New York represents a highly-developed central business district with limited connections to green space. Currently the pedestrian space in Park Avenue exists as only a 16-foot-wide sidewalk. With limited areas for green space, people generally move from one destination to another with a highly-straightforward purpose. The median in this area could represent a space associated with activities that would capture interest for those moving through the space. Urbanism often drives the downtown area into an antipedestrian place where structures and automobiles occupy 90% of the surface. People are active “in the cracks” of those components, where population and parking problems are often not addressed. This project focused on a modular design on Park Avenue to study different possibilities that attempt to highlight how green space and inhabitants coexist with the development of the city. Additionally, it presents a solution to replace a simple function area with one that is more multi-functional.
    • Hot Water: Sustainable production and residential applications

      Iuliano, Joey; Lopez, David; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Moeller, Colby; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      The purpose of the study is to identify how the energy of the sun can be harnessed to heat water in a residential setting. Solar thermal water heaters are used extensively throughout the world to provide a carbon dioxide free solution to an energy rich process. The negative impact of energy production to the health and environment disproportionately affects minorities and working poor. The question of how free sunlight can be used to heat water, reduce energy consumption, and energy insecurity was explored. Greece was used as a case study to determine what the possible implications could be to a town like Tucson, Arizona. Energy production in America by fossil fuels was also looked at geographically to determine where the highest potential, for the most people existed. The study found high incidences of poverty and extreme poverty close to pollution emitting power plants. The study also shows that there is high potential for transition from traditional water heating methods to solar thermal heated water in highly populated areas throughout the American southwest.
    • Creating Sustainable Spaces: A School Garden Case Study

      Iuliano, Joseph; Howell, Jacqueline Ariel; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Marston, Sallie; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      The purpose of this study was to identify elements of school gardens that promote well-being in students. Many schools are starting school garden programs around the country, and while it is common knowledge that gardens can promote well-being, the causal relationships are not well understood. To better understand what makes school gardens good for students, I spent 4 months working as a garden intern at Manzo Elementary where I observed students and interviewed teachers and other garden interns. This paper also contains a thorough review of available literature that connects human well-being and green spaces. This research found that students appear to be feel a strong connection to their school garden and a sense of ownership of it, and that kids are more excited to use these spaces than other spaces in their schools. These factors appear to promote well-being in Manzo Elementary students by increasing students’ enthusiasm for learning and teaching responsibility.
    • A Comparison Between Chinese Construction and U.S. Construction: From a Sustainability Angle

      Iuliano, Joseph; Wang, Katherine; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Zhang, Lingling; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      This paper will be examining the cause of some problems in the Chinese building industry in comparison to the American construction industry from a sustainability standpoint. The differences between the Chinese and American Construction industries are affected by many factors. As a fast-growing economy, China is experiencing rapid growth in its construction industry. Growth leads to prosperity but also sometimes expose problems.
    • The Importance of Sustainable Animal Education: A Study in Participation in Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum Desert Tortoise Program

      Kramer, Sean; Lorenz, Emily; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Dimond, Kirk; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (ASDM) has a Tortoise Adoption Program to help rehome the surplus of desert tortoises to Sonora Desert locals. Also, it has been proven that there are many benefits to early childhood learning and adopting practices at a young age. There could be many benefits to integrating a younger population into the Tortoise Adoption Program (TAP) at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
    • LEED Needs to Reevaluate Demolition to Stay Relevant

      Kramer, Sean; Holliday, Tyler; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Almanza, Gabi; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      The LEED accreditation process is recognized as the benchmark for ranking sustainable buildings in the United States. LEED certification provides building owners and operators with the tools they need to have an actionable and quantifiable effect on their site’s environmental impact (GenFlex Roofing Systems). By promoting a whole-building approach to sustainability, LEED recognizes performance in site planning, site development, water efficiency, energy efficiency, building materials, waste reduction/division, indoor air quality, and attention to regional concerns (GenFlex Roofing Systems).
    • WALKABILITY IN TUCSON: AN OVERVIEW OF CURRENT TRENDS AND GROWTH POTENTIAL

      Iuliano, Joseph; Abou-Zeid, Gabriella; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Currans, Kristina; Livingston, Margaret (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      In the United States, the transportation sector was responsible for 28% of 2016 GHG emissions—the largest contribution of any industry (U.S. EPA, 2018). To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate their effects, active modes of transportation, like walking, need be planned for. This study provides an overview of walking in Tucson, AZ and subsequent guidance for future development through a) an assessment of walk-mode splits, b) a survey on residential preferences for walking, and c) a built environment case study analysis. It found that walking constituted 11% of all trips, compared to motorized vehicles, which accounted for more than 80% of all trips. Percentage of respondent walk and car trips varied significantly by income and trip purpose. Both Tucson residents and existing literature identified destination proximity as the most important built environment factor considered in deciding to walk. A complete streets project that incorporated many built environment features found to improve walkability (e.g., street connectivity, accessibility, walking infrastructure) but failed to account for destination proximity had little impact of walking behavior. To better promote walkability in Tucson, emphasis on coordination between transportation and land use planning and connection of walkability to social and cultural values is necessary.
    • Learning for the Future: Education for Sustainable Development

      Rice, Jenny; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Herrera, Yvette; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      This capstone outlines the climate crisis that is currently perpetuated by the burning of fossil fuels. It addresses the need for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) within established curricula in a traditional and non-traditional school setting. Observations through multiple interviews (N=9) and online surveys (N=54) of University of Arizona students suggest that sustainability concepts in the primary and secondary schools need improvement. Systemic hindrances such as a heavy focus on standardized testing and lack of access to school gardens prevent the mainstreaming of ESD into the regular curriculum. Schools generally associate ESD with outdoor or environmental activities and limit the scope of lesson plans with science as the main subject to connect with. Sustainability is an interdisciplinary concept that can be addressed through nearly all subjects. Continued denial of climate science while politicizing ESD is preventing progressive action toward minimizing the negative effects of climate change. ESD, when thoroughly integrated into the education system could strengthen the opposition to policymakers who insist upon continued subsidies of fossil fuels.
    • The Negative Impacts of Solar Power

      Wang, Lujia; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-05)
      With the urban development, more and more environment problems are showing in people’s life. The air pollution causes human health problem and the global warming impact the rise of sea level. To solve the environment problems and reduce the negative effect of environment to the future generation, people start to protect environment and one of the method is using renewable energy. Solar energy is the more popular renewable energy that people use to save energy, because it was clean and the solar resources is abundant. The electricity that transfer from solar energy can improve the energy efficiency use. However, the solar energy is zero pollution and completely clean for several reasons. The following content will discuss the negative impacts of solar power and the strategy to improve the solar energy use.
    • Sustainable Building Industry in Phoenix, Arizona

      Kramer-Lazar, Sean; Kilpatrick, Timothy; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Pivo, Gary; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      This article serves as a brief analysis of the sustainable building industry in Phoenix, Arizona. The process begins by illustrating the need for this type of development by discussing the benefits, the financial feasibility, and the overall need for these types of buildings in the larger context of our world. Phoenix, Arizona’s market, environment, and population are then briefly introduced and discussed. The project incorporates both qualitative and quantitative components; including case studies of a diverse set of green buildings in Phoenix from several different asset classes, as well as in-depth discussions with industry professionals who played roles in these projects. The study aims to discern what works with regards to sustainable building in Phoenix and what does not. Quantitative data is used to understand building features, compare resulting energy savings, discuss the economics of each of the projects, and justify their overall success from a financial perspective. Qualitative data is used to understand and discuss the motivations of each of these projects as well as any additional information that industry professionals bring up. The understanding of the success of these projects is meant to inspire future developers in Phoenix, Arizona, and perhaps other markets, to pursue sustainable building as a means of producing higher quality, more prosperous development projects.