• Identification of Historic Streetscape Features in Three of Tucson's National Register of Historic Places Districts: Barrio Anita, Winterhaven, and Colonia Solana

      Berger, Wyatt; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Erickson, Helen; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      Historic preservation is often at odds with new development in the United States because of individuals’ and developers’ belief that “newer is better.” Part of the historic built environment includes historic streetscapes features such as sidewalks, utilities, heritage trees, fences and walls, driveways, and views and vistas. While Tucson, Arizona does have support for preservation via Certified Local Governments, zoning ordinances, and community involvement, there is no programming for historic streetscape preservation. With the destruction of historic buildings and other features to make way for wider streets and large-scale housing and office spaces, cultural resources are threatened. Though new development may be good in creating a stronger infrastructure, historic preservation supports the idea of a “sense of place” as well as sustainable benefits most individuals fail to see. This study aims to analyze the importance of historic streetscapes in three of Tucson’s National Register of Historic Places districts by using personal observations, community participation, and digital mapping techniques.
    • BLOOMING & DYING: AGAVE WITHIN TUCSON’S BUILT ENVIRONMENT

      Livingston, Margaret; McGuire, Grace; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Smith, Steve; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      This study examines one plant species in order to reveal the historical, biological, and social attachments the plant brings to the public and private landscapes in the city of Tucson, Arizona. The life cycle history, cultural attachment, and biological characteristics of the Agave genus are evaluated in terms the relationship between a native, Sonoran Desert adapted species and its use within the urban matrix. The succulent, rosette form is a characteristic that makes the agave species distinct from all other desert plants. Six particular agave species are mentioned within this writing, and are connected to the Tucson area’s cultural history, and current application of agave as a landscaping material. Agaves symbolize a rich history of human utilization and reliance, especially in the cultures of central/northern Mexico. As the industry within the U.S. for mescal products grows, agave on the landscape become distinctly agriculture based. The practices of wild harvesting agave for distillation and not allowing cultivated agaves to bloom impacts the ecosystem functions of northern Sonora, Mexico, and the southwestern United States, and severely limits the populations of wild agaves. It is estimated that in the coming years it will be almost impossible to find certain populations of wild agaves.
    • Adapting a Green Roof in Tucson, Arizona

      Iuliano, Joseph; Cutter, Shea; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Gilette, Heather (The University of Arizona., 2019-04)
      Buildings that implement a green roof on their rooftop generate economic and environmental benefits throughout its lifetime than a conventional roof cannot. A space that would normally not be utilized is transformed to benefit the building's operations and occupants. However, there is little research on green roof applications in hot and arid urban climates. This paper is based on an extensive literature review on the current capabilities of green roofs to generate enough savings and benefits to a building to combat the initial installation fee. Finding the Net Present Value (NPV) of the cost of installation and benefits of a green roof is used to create a benefit analysis. In order for more research to be done in hot and air urban green roofs there needs to be a market for it. This research paper uses a benefit analysis to break down the economic feasibility of the investment based on the savings and benefits received after construction. The site location used to generate the data for this proposal is on the College of Architecture, Planning, and Landscape East building (CAPLA East). The analysis demonstrated that a 5,000 square foot extensive green roof would be economically feasible based off of the NPV of the savings and benefits created after construction. Furthermore, the research identified that the plants best fit for the weather conditions of a green roof are the drought-resistant plants found in the Sonoran Desert that Tucson is a part of.
    • ASTORIA URBAN WATERFRONT PARK: RE-IMAGINING EXISTING ABANDONED PLAYGROUNDS IN QUEENS, NEW YORK CITY

      Livingston, Margaret; Nguyen, Truc (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The City of New York is the most populated city in the United States and thus also in the state of New York. With the population increasing every day, lands become very precious. Buildings keep growing upward to create more living and working spaces for New Yorker. With the gift of nature, water, and land, a waterfront park has become one of the attractions for New Yorkers and tourists during the daytime. However, the city has been facing an issue of sea level rise over many years. Many studies show that sea level is rising at an accelerated rate, especially along the U.S. east coast. Because of this reason, New York City officials have required designers to consider this issue in their future designs. This study documented the design process of a Master Plan for the Astoria Urban Waterfront Park in Astoria neighborhood, Queens, New York City. The project outcomes minimized the effectiveness of sea level rise while providing an inhabitable space for the residents. Astoria Urban Waterfront Park is an opportunity to restore biodiversity, create habitat for wildlife, grant access to the water, and house outdoor activities. A review of relevant literature was conducted to develop a framework for the design approach. Case reviews of other urban and waterfront parks were conducted for project outcomes and programs. In-depth site analysis and inventory were captured the site conditions and contextual surrounding. Outcomes focus on two public open spaces connected by a waterfront corridor.
    • ONE TREE AT A TIME: exploring equity in landscape architecture through incremental change

      Livingston, Margaret; Jon, Choi (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The field of Landscape Architecture has been increasingly focused on issues surrounding equity, equitable development and equitable access to green space. Rightfully so, given that low income and minority communities statistically have inequitable access to green space when compared to their more affluent neighbors and suffer from increased exposure to the harmful effects of pollution and extreme weather (Gould & Lewis 2017, Byrne, Wolch & Zhang, 2009; McConnachie & Shackleton 2010). Strategies to address these issues range in scale and approach and are often associated with words like ‘green growth’, ‘sustainable development’, ’urban greening’ and ‘urban revitalization’. While this ambiguous language presents its own challenges, addressing equity in landscape architecture is not necessarily any clearer. Through a process of literature review, case studies, research and community engagement, this project explores issues of equity in the Oracle area neighborhoods in Tucson, Arizona. Final outcomes will include two neighborhood improvement project proposals informed by community engagement and the development of resources to aid communities seeking their own neighborhood improvements. Process and outcome reflection will provide thoughts on addressing equity in landscape architecture but given the uniqueness of each community and their circumstances, definitive solutions will not be provided. It is through continued questioning that the process of promoting equity within our communities will grow, evolve and improve.
    • Rillito River Restoration Southeast Branch: Green Infrastructure Strategies and App Technology in a Xeroriparian System

      Livingston, Margaret; Elbirt Carnaval, Diana (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The Tucson basin experiences intermittent flooding events during its bimodal rain seasons. The development of the city’s infrastructure that has accompanied its increased urbanization is mostly dependent on grey infrastructure for storm water management that has been unsuccessful in slowing peak flows, recharging aquifers, and sustaining biogeochemical cycles that support habitat. A plan that focuses on an area of the south bank Rillito River, between N Craycroft Rd and N Swan Rd, will propose a series of green infrastructure strategies to manage ephemeral water flows. An investigation of hydrologically sensitive master plans in urban areas comparable to Tucson via literature review, ecological data, and the consideration of historical ecological and cultural history of the Tucson basin, will inform a design proposal that enhances biological diversity, supports economic development, enhances connectivity, and supports users’ well-being, within the urban context.
    • ABSOLUTE STREET, a new type of streetscape for future high-density urbanism

      Livingston, Margaret; An, Tai (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      During the past decades, conflicts between the natural ecosystems and the need for urban development has led to a loss of connection to green spaces in urban cores. The Park Avenue in New York represents a highly-developed central business district with limited connections to green space. Currently the pedestrian space in Park Avenue exists as only a 16-foot-wide sidewalk. With limited areas for green space, people generally move from one destination to another with a highly-straightforward purpose. The median in this area could represent a space associated with activities that would capture interest for those moving through the space. Urbanism often drives the downtown area into an antipedestrian place where structures and automobiles occupy 90% of the surface. People are active “in the cracks” of those components, where population and parking problems are often not addressed. This project focused on a modular design on Park Avenue to study different possibilities that attempt to highlight how green space and inhabitants coexist with the development of the city. Additionally, it presents a solution to replace a simple function area with one that is more multi-functional.
    • Parks are for People

      Livingston, Margaret; Moscato, Jennifer (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Rio Rico, a planned community in southern Arizona, sits along the Santa Cruz River between the Santa Rita Mountains and Coronado National Forest. The intent of this project is to provide Rio Rico with proposed locations for a network of parks paying close attention to the people and natural and cultural resources of this unique community. The project aims to create parks that are easily and safely accessible to community members of all ages. The park amenities will highlight Rio Rico’s natural resources and community assets and promote public and ecological health. Combining geospatial data with environmental and cultural analysis along with input from community meetings and public surveys, a series of parks are proposed to promote community connections, health and recreation.
    • Southside Revival: A Research-based Design Approach to Revitalizing the 6th Avenue Corridor in South Tucson

      Livingston, Margaret; Kohen, Sol (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      South Tucson, Arizona faces a slew of challenges, poor public perception, and logistical issues having to do with poor funding of redevelopment. A need exists for small town revitalization plans, rooted in main street redesign along South Tucson’s 6th Avenue corridor. Investigation into community, business, and environmental make-up was conducted, along with analysis into how policy strategies, and design solutions can be implemented. Ultimately, city-wide master planning, with a main focus on streetscape improvement through high-profile public amenities, could foster a framework for private investment, and improved public image.
    • CORONADO AIRPORT A Project in Flight

      Gamboa, Malerie (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Located at the junction of different urban tracts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the abandoned Coronado Airport was once a popular small aircraft airport. Operational from 1961 to 2001, the Coronado Airport was ultimately closed due to safety concerns, a fate shared by other small aircraft facilities around the U.S. Currently the 268 acre abandoned site contains only the two runways and several large concrete foundations where the airport buildings and hangars were once located. Although in a state of disrepair and left with only remnants of its former use, the site has the opportunity to become an effective and iconic space for the City of Albuquerque and surrounding communities. The Coronado Airport redevelopment project could also provide design and reuse concepts applicable to other equivalent sites within urban areas around the country. Through visual observations and site research this is a prime location to develop multi-purpose functions including a large natural park in an urban setting, alternative forms of active and passive recreation, while acting as a landmark for the city. The Coronado Airport redevelopment project explores the challenges of creating a destination for both locals and visitors through the reuse of an abandoned site while showcasing its transformation over time and acknowledging its former use. Moreover, the design incorporates elements of this diverse landscape context, its past use as an airport, the significant role of flight in the region, and new physical and metaphorical connections that can be enhanced and created.
    • Tomorrow's Garden: Uniting Tradition Technology Community

      Kindler, Brad (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Today challenges of climate change, population growth, biodiversity loss, and water scarcity, lead farmers to ask new questions about how to grow food in a changing environment. Additionally, innovative technology and public food preferences present challenges and opportunities for farmers to consider before planting. Honoring Tucson’s diverse community and unique history, this study proposes the design of Tomorrow’s Garden. This garden seeks to punctuate Mission Garden’s historic timeline with a demonstration of sustainable and innovative agricultural practices. Outcomes of this proposal include the design of a garden that has the capacity to adapt to changing climate, as well as build community through design process and project implementation.
    • BIODIVERSITY & INCLUSION: Leveraging community connections into shared stewardship and increased conservation capacity at Tumamoc Hill and beyond

      Livingston, Margaret; Casebeer, Nichole (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The question is not if, but ever increasingly, how and where do urban areas and conservation intersect, and further how urban regions will shape the future of the planet’s biodiversity. As reported by the IUCN, in many parts of the world they [Urban Protected Areas] are the only places not completely dominated by human influence, and the only hope for the survival of many of the world’s plant and animal species, including humans themselves. The primary goal of protected areas is conservation, and protecting the region’s natural and cultural diversity, however traditional conservation is often focused on controlling human disturbance through restrictive measures - extremely limiting and/or eliminating human access and influence to sensitive areas. Increasingly, it is being recognized that urban areas require unique conservation approaches which acknowledge the extent to which human and natural systems are interconnected, for better and for worse. Rather than focusing on the worst and eliminating these connections, more contemporary approaches focus on embracing and celebrating this contact, and building community connections to sensitive natural areas through which urban residents can positively engage with the natural environment and play a more active role in conservation. This project focuses on Tumamoc Hill, and its need to think beyond Tumamoc’s traditional “island” boundaries and a preserve & protect approach to conservation and research. It explores how UPAs are critical spaces for cultivating and disseminating ecological knowledge and strategies through which human and natural communities - which have co-evolved for 1,000’s of years - can potentially co-exist in supportive and even mutually beneficial ways. The design begins to envision how Tumamoc can cultivate community connections and creative conservation practices that will support and protect Tumamoc’s rich heritage and support conservation within its borders and even beyond.
    • IRON HORSE PARK RENOVATION: Preserving Iron Horse Park & Arroyo Chico as a critical social open space in an urban context

      Livingston, Margaret; Sanabria, David J. (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Cities are full of underutilized or neglected spaces with the potential to be re-purposed into a land use that can provide more valuable open space to urban dwellers. This action is sometimes referred to as “Infrastructure for All” Places such as brown-fields, parking lots, alleys, isolated underpasses and city washes are just some of them. Like many cities in United States, the city of Tucson is becoming more and more dense with a tendency to grow vertically, meaning that the common ground is shared; streets, sidewalks, plazas, parks, to name a few. Public spaces such as parks, give people the opportunity to interact every day, “the more they interact with each other, the more they accept each other. Encouraging people of different generations, race, and income levels to interact and share is a positive experience. Through this experience they learn that they can peacefully coexist with people who are different from themselves”. The purpose of this master's report will be to promote social interaction through the enhancement and reactivation of a city park, that has been neglected or forgotten and that may be threatened by new development and densification. “Densification is happening in Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Boston— in most cities, actually. Even sprawled-out cities like Austin, Texas, are densifying, with tall residential towers in downtown” To preserve an existing urban park by encouraging human interaction brings many benefits to the city in terms of revitalization of places, encouraging people to walk through and connect with their community, and it can also help to build the local economy.
    • Malls of Memory: DEATH AND REBIRTH IN A SUBURBAN LANDSCAPE

      Livingston, Margaret; White, Cody (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      In today’s suburban landscape, the shopping center has become a significant destination for many. Vastly sized, it has become a cultural landmark within many suburban and urban neighborhoods. Not only a space for ‘purchasing’, the suburban shopping center has become a place to shop, a place to eat, a place to meet, a place to exercise – a social space. However, with the development and dominance of big box retail stores and online shopping on the rise, suburban shopping malls as we currently know them, are slowly disappearing. Suburban malls, which were once successful in serving their suburban communities, are on the decline. These malls are suffering financially as stores close and the community no longer has reason to attend these dying monoliths – it is with this catalyst that the mall eventually has no choice but to close. With little additional places for social engagement in a suburban community, the mall has become a contradictory example of what it was once intended to do. A place for social and civic engagement, as well as an economic triumph has now become an eye sore – a burden on the community it was once designed to serve. Citizens are forced to drive elsewhere – arguably to a regional mall, or a big box power center. What if a declining mall could be repurposed or redefined to enhance the community it stands within by reimagining the shopping mall? Are there possibilities for a reimagined shopping center – possibilities that would resist the single minded consumerist approach and instill a sense of place within the community it stands? This master’s report is aimed at determining a new typology for a failing approach to consumerism, architecture and landscape architecture – an approach that focuses on social engagement and meaningful connections with the surrounding community. There have been a number of advancements and changes within consumerism in the Western World - a cycling of architectural styles, technological innovation and social trends. By focusing on the ‘next shift’ in successful urban planning, this report opens up a new possibility of both consumerism and social engagement acting harmoniously. Can these ‘dead malls’ help define a ‘sense of place’ within the community they were originally part of? Rather than discarding (literally tearing down) what once was a flourishing space of both consumerism and social engagement, can they be reimagined to enhance the community beyond a reductive view of pure consumerism, and become a new landmark that will have the potential to enhance and engage the community, as well as contribute to the economic success of a city?
    • Mission Revival: Reimagining The San Xavier Mission Del Bac’s Relationship With the Land and its Community

      Livingston, Margaret; Bonnet, Cody (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Located in the Sonoran Desert ten miles southwest of Tucson, Arizona is Mission San Xavier Del Bac, a Franciscan mission and pilgrimage site that hosts hundreds of thousands of visitors annually. Founded by Spanish missionary Father Eusebio Kino in the late 17th century, the Mission has a storied history of intercultural trade and working relationships between the Native Tohono O’odham people and Spanish settlers. In the O’odham language, the mission is called “where the water runs in” in reference to the nearby Santa Cruz River. Historically, it ran year-round and was the catalyst for agricultural development in the area, but due to repeated human intervention is now primarily a dry bed. Today, the mission is an active parish that has achieved National Historic Landmark status and National Register designation. All of these factors culminate in a historic preservation project with intricate contextual layers that must be balanced and sensitively considered, which leads to critical questions throughout the process: What was the landscape like before and after various stages of human impact? Are there historic features that can be restored and preserved? If so, should they be? Ultimately, this project seeks to answer these questions through the lens of responsive site design both at the Mission and the surrounding Reservation landscape. The story of this land is a significant one, and this project seeks to accomplish how best to share it.
    • THE SOLAR VISTA: Integrating solar energy into our neighborhood parks

      Livingston, Margaret; Johnson, Aaron (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      Urban ecology emerged, in the 1970’s, as a response to the increasing reality of growing populations causing environmental and health problems of both urban and non-urban dwellers. As such, human settlements were acknowledged by ecologists as legitimate areas of ecological study. Almost 50 years later, great strides have been made to improve the ecology within our cities. This Masters Report looks to build upon past success by rethinking the implementation of sustainable practices into the urban fabric of a city. The report examines a contextually suburban park within Tucson, Arizona as an opportunity to better integrate and showcase the, increasingly popular and affordable, practice of harnessing solar energy. A review of literature and design projects was conducted to gain an understanding of ecological design principles, multi-functional solar sites, and educational features in public spaces. Site inventory and analysis revealed the existing condition of the site, as well as possible design limitations and opportunities. In response to the research and site assessment, design solutions were made to further progress the ecological practices within our public spaces.
    • Art for Plants’ Sake: Encouraging Arid Plant Palettes Through Installation Art

      Livingston, Margaret; Lutheran, Matthew (The University of Arizona., 2019)
      The City of Tucson is currently experiencing growing pains as urban revitalization converts empty lots throughout Downtown Tucson into housing and retail. The increase in density results in a city with more pedestrian amenities, however it also reduces the amount of available urban green space. As the space for green amenities contract, the remaining landscape is converted into a commercially available plant palette, however this development provides no reference to Tucson’s environmental context. Tucson is located within the Sonoran Desert, a semi-arid region that receives 12” of annual rainfall. Limited water availability combined with extreme heat has created a unique ecosystem of diverse plant and animal life adapted to difficult conditions. The urban environment creates additional environmental constraints such as degraded soils, increased disturbance, and reduced light, which lead many urban projects to select plant material solely based on urban constraints. As urban development brings more residents into the urban core, the demand for urban parks will continue to increase. Small urban parks are a valuable refuge for residents and wildlife alike, providing relief from the urban environment. Urban parks provide important social spaces allowing the community to gather and landscape elements that reflect the community to strengthen its identity. Public art enhances the urban environment by illustrating the genus loci that bonds residents to the site and their community while engaging new users. To reflect the unique context of the Sonoran Desert, Tucson’s urban parks must educate the public about the benefits of working in concert with Tucson’s natural environment. A series of art installations will highlight the unique methods plants of the Sonoran Desert use to survive harsh desert conditions. Installation art will promote understanding of arid-adapted plants while accompanying planting displays will acclimatize the public to the aesthetics of desert landscapes. As the public becomes aware of the benefits of climate-appropriate plants they will demand that these communities are integrated into the urban landscape matrix to benefit the city and environment alike. Desert-adapted plants provide native habitat, and give residents greater connection to their city and highlighting the unique context of Tucson’s surroundings.
    • Sustainable Climate Design

      Bean, Jonathan; Lenon, Traci; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2018-12-18)
      Sustainable climate design is one that is sensitive to the environment, energy consumption, human thermal comfort, and health & wellbeing. Several tools are used including a psychometric chart, sun dial diagrams, and 3D modeling to make design decisions. A design in Green Bay, WI a cold & humid climate, is analyzed to find sustainable design strategies that achieve this goal.
    • Streetcar Track Risk to Cyclists: Education as a Solution

      Adkins, Arlie; Friberg-Landon, Alexandria; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joseph (The University of Arizona., 2018-12-14)
      The study evaluates bike safety education as a solution to bike crashes involving Tucson’s Sun Link Streetcar Tracks. Bike crashes on streetcar tracks present a problem for public safety that is complex and unique. This study measures the effect of bike safety education on bike crash rates on the streetcar tracks. A survey was used to measure bike crashes on the streetcar tracks before and after the treatment was given. The first survey measured the number of bike crashes on the tracks in the past 8 weeks and randomly divided the treatment and control groups. The control group received no education. The treatment group watched a 3 minute bike safety video. After 6 weeks, a second survey measured the number of crashes on the streetcar tracks in both groups since. The crash rates were compared before and after the treatment and between the groups. The p-value of change in crash rate between the treatment and control groups is .2209. This means that there was not a significant difference between the two groups. The change in crash rates is not likely a result of the educational video. Part of the study is an index to measure the knowledge level of participants about bike safety, specifically as it relates to the streetcar. The index used answers to questions in my survey about experience, risk perception, formal education experience, and how to cross the tracks. This index could be helpful in future studies about bike safety education. While no relationship was found between education and bike crashes on the streetcar tracks in this study, future studies could find something else. If future studies find education effective, then treating the problem might mean a slight shift in bike safety education resources to be more oriented towards the streetcar tracks. If education is not effective, then we need our infrastructure and design standards to change to prioritize safety.
    • Adaptive Reuse as a Sustainable Solution

      Breckenridge, Lauren; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Daughtrey, Cannon (The University of Arizona., 2018-12)
      The scope of the research if focusing on how adaptive reuse of historic buildings satisfies the three pillars of sustainability. The implementation of adaptive reuse will reduce environmental impact, provide a place for communities to learn and interact with, and bring money into the local economy. The methodology for the study included an online survey, case studies, and literature reviews. This allowed the research to be unbiased and to obtain current research on the topic to figure out if there is a lack of knowledge on the topic. Case studies offer real-world examples of adaptive reuse in and their payoffs. The literature reviews provide information on the concepts and strategies that are involved with adaptive reuse. An online survey was conducted to grasp the general public’s knowledge of the topic. The purpose of researching adaptive reuse in historic buildings is to persuade people to restore a property for a new use rather than constructing a new building. This practice will be able to fulfill social, environmental, and economic sustainability in communities. The findings towards the research topic implied that more research and implementation of adaptive reuse in historic buildings need to be utilized to show the benefits as a sustainable solution.