Godhamgaonkar, Anjali (The University of Arizona., 2005)
Commercial /mixed use buildings in which electric lighting consumes more than 40% of all electric energy demands are discovering a changing need for daylight under the impacts of energy costs. Using atrium in a design can provide adequate light levels into the core spaces. This research attempts to bring the interior daylighting illumination levels within a mixed used commercial -residential building in a desired range of comfortable intensity by using atrium in combination with other daylighting strategies. This research aims to achieve adequate daylight, along all the levels in the atrium and also achieve comfortable intensities in the surrounding spaces. A mixed use atrium building on a site in Tucson, Arizona, was designed and investigated for daylight which involved physical model (experimental) study and computer simulation using software Superlite. Problem areas in daylight performance of the design with respect to the desired daylight factors were identified and analyzed to optimize the daylight illuminance to a adequate level. The results reveal that for optimization, the changes in atrium roof geometry works best in combination with other daylight strategies such as window area, window sill height, light shelf, surface reflectance etc. Atrium in combination with other strategies is found to make significant contribution in daylighting the deeper spaces thereby reducing the use of artificial lighting energy.
Chatterjee, Arunima (The University of Arizona., 2007)
While the concept of global design has liberated the aesthetic genus of contemporary institutional architecture, it has brought with it a far greater set of problems in energy consumption. In order to build ‘intelligent’ buildings to counter these problems, we often design the problems and then engage into an expensive endeavour of finding possible solutions. This research aims to focus on the recent trends of building institutional geometries for the hot and dry climatic regions and analyse the case study of the east expansion of the College of Architecture in the University of Arizona, located in Tucson. The advent of mechanical cooling has encouraged the practice of building for any place disregarding the regional or climatalogical context. The ‘glass box’ is a common design solution for a day lit, aesthetically appealing post international style approach to commercial architecture. It is the view of the author that buildings born of such ideology has little empathy towards the macro and micro climate considerations. Using the case study of the new architectural expansion building is an attempt to analyze a glass dominated prototype in the desert. The research focuses on the integrity of such designs in terms of energy consumptions, thermal efficiency and comfort. Energy modelling of parametric retrofits suitable to the climate is conducted to study changes incurred from the building’s original state. The objective of this research is to investigate possibilities of globalised architectural solutions but still hold roots to climatological responses. Reference examples of similar structures built in the desert have been observed during the course of the research to benefit the parametric runs. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System, developed by the U.S. Green Building Council, provides a suite of standards for environmentally sustainable construction. LEED 2.2 Energy and Atmosphere credit runs has been a part of the project goal to gain a perspective from the USGBC LEED certification criteria to determine what can be achieved for optimal energy efficiency in this particular constitution. In particular, the study illustrates the functioning of the case study building in terms of energy consumption for space cooling. eQuest runs when compared to the utility data of similar sized buildings on campus shows an astonishing increase in the chilled water usage. Similarly, the per-square foot usage electricity for space cooling was found to be remarkably higher than the old architecture building. Energy usage pattern reflects a moderate decrease with optimization strategies on the building envelope. The results clearly show a great improvement in the building energy performance for space cooling with glazing changes and shading strategies.
This Master’s Report focuses on applying sustainable design principles to the design of Rincon Community Hospital at Civano a new healthcare facility being planned for Tucson. Civano is a pre-planned sustainable community located in Tucson, Arizona that demonstrates efficient utilization of resources and planning. Based upon the principle of human thermal comfort, the proposed hospital design emphasizes integration with the surrounding environment by focusing on the relationship of the indoor and outdoor spaces. This includes maximizing the effective use of adjacent open air spaces, transitional spaces, and courtyards that are designed to maximize thermal comfort by working with the local climate to create comfortable microclimates around the building. Rincon Community Hospital at Civano also demonstrates the application of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) principles during the design process. The proposed design for the hospital utilizes passive solar design, daylighting, earth cooling, and building orientation to create comfortable environments for human occupation that require less energy than specified by ASHRAE Standard 90.1 1999. To achieve these goals, the hospital design was developed through analysis of the physical characteristics of the site, potential for LEED® scoring, and energy analysis. The results are presented as annotated plan, section and perspective images. It is hoped that this methodology can be applied to future development of sustainable healthcare facilities in desert environments that create healthy natural environments to aid patient healing and accelerate their recovery process.
Traditionally, Natural ventilation has been a strategy for achieving thermal comfort. Today it is used to lower energy needs by substituting for mechanical ventilation. Airflow patterns for natural ventilation usage depend on the climate, site location and geophysical characteristics. This master’s report investigates compares and analyzes airflow in a residence in a humid climate in India. The author utilized graphical and hand calculation methods to simulate the airflow pattern and the natural ventilation contribution to minimizing heating and cooling demands. The research demonstrated that natural ventilations strategies saved 32.95 % of the cooling load while through optimization methods the overall savings was 50.53 %
Poonam, Anaokar Deepak (The University of Arizona., 2005)
The hypothesis of this study is to create a thermally viable microclimate for a residential outdoor space in the hot humid climate of the state of Goa in India with innovative and intelligent use of landscaping materials and shading conditions to control radiation, direct heat, air movements and moisture. This research focuses on the optimization of the performance of outdoor spaces using computer simulations. Outdoor spaces form an important part of houses in the hot-humid region as the humidity levels are high and natural air currents are the best option. A typical house in the tropical region would be defined by three types of spaces- indoor, outdoors and a combination of the indoor and the outdoor consisting of generally of a verandah or a loggia. This thesis focuses on the “indoor- outdoor” spaces where the breezes could be used to cool the space as well as the use of non–radiative materials so as to lower the temperature in the outdoor spaces and restore conditions to the thermal comfort zone. This study is aimed towards the integration of architecture with landscape architecture to achieve thermal comfort for outdoor spaces and to demonstrate how these can be optimized for better comfort for the residential structures in the tropical zone.
Deshpande, Amruta (The University of Arizona., 2007)
A building is not just a shell but a complex system, a controlled environment which is affected by climatic factors such as temperature, heat, light, air movement, humidity etc. And how you deal with all these factors affects the energy consumption, durability and comfort within. The first step towards energy efficient building design lies in climate design. Building designs sensitive to climate around them perform well with regards to energy. The natural elements such as sunlight, solar heat, wind etc when interact with the building in a desired way reduce the use of other forms of energy for creating the desired thermal comfort levels within the building. This study aims to investigate all the factors which usually affect the energy efficiency of a multi-family residential scheme such as the climate, geometry, orientation, proximity of structures to each other, their shading qualities, planning of internal spaces etc with regards to the climate it is being built in. The project will particularly focus on design and development of 12 residential units as a part of a multi-family residential development in hot and arid climatic zone and devise strategies to optimize their energy efficiency. The investigation will be furthered by use of computer simulation software to optimize the thermal performance of the cluster as a whole and the comparative results will be later verified to draw out conclusions regarding the effectiveness of these strategies.
Michael, Richard J (The University of Arizona., 2007)
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impacts on architectural form, function, and appearance of a case study residence in which the concepts of sustainability and sustainable architecture were incorporated as one of the primary design fundamentals. The case study residence located in the arid southwestern United States is an approximately 2,068 square foot home built for a family of five with four bedrooms and two bathrooms and a separate attached guest bedroom and bath. This paper will provide an overview and analysis of the residence in terms of: 1) the original project values and goals as represented by the design and computer energy modeling process and 2) the project results as captured by the qualities (structural and aesthetic) of the final constructed physical form and its post-occupancy quantitative performance (functional, spatial, and resource conservation) as measured by the home’s over two years of monitoring and use.
The objectives of the study is to examine the relationship and effectiveness of the transition space in front of the entries of a building. Transitional Space is the space in between a mechanically conditioned space and natural outdoor space, which is influenced by the external climate but architecturally bounded by the building. This study started with this goal of introducing a zone in between the air conditioned interior and natural outdoor to break the tendency of separating these two layers by a thin layer of glass door. A comfortable thermal environment in the transition zone will encourage activities to spill out of the building creating an alive and vibrant atmosphere. During this study to explore and examine the requirements of a transition space in a hot arid region like Tucson, Arizona, historical examples from similar climatic zones were identified and studied. Some local examples were also observed to determine the effectiveness of the different strategies used to achieve a thermally and visually comfortable environment. Four Buildings were selected based on the orientation of their entries in the University of Arizona campus. After analyzing some strategies were developed for these entries.
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