• Botanical gardens : the influence of Islam, arid lands, and water in the Middle East

      Sellers, Catherine Clabby; Havens, W. H.; Deeter, M. T.; Jones, W. D. (The University of Arizona., 1988)
      The concept of the botanical garden can be traced to ancient times. The idea of the 'garden as paradise', the 'garden as orchard' and the 'chahar bagh' are part of the Persian culture, dating to 6000 B.C.. Mesopotamia is the supposed location of Eden, the oldest garden of the world. To determine the design criteria most suitable for a new botanical garden to be located in the Middle Fast, a study is required of: botanical garden history, the religious and cultural aspects of Islam which have formed design-rules for gardens , features common to arid lands, and water as a finite resource. The purpose of this study is to determine criteria for a botanical garden most suitable to the conditions of the Middle East in general, Kuwait in particular, and to identify those criteria in terms of the public benefits of recreation, education, conservation and enhancement of religious experience.
    • Evaluation of irrigation practices on the quality of turfgrass playfields in southwestern elementary schools

      Abel, Robert Harlan.; Havens, W. H.; Wilkin, D. C.; Mancino, C. F. (The University of Arizona., 1991)
      The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not sprinkler irrigation performance could be used as an indicator for turf quality and water conservation potential in southwestern elementary schools. Soil fertility, turfgrass visual quality and playing quality of seven elementary school playfields in Tucson, Arizona was assessed. Irrigation system performance was evaluated using the Water Resource Manager software. Maintenance regimes were evaluated for effectiveness in producing quality turf. Sprinkler distribution uniformity (D.U) was a function of effective turf management. Overuse put impossible demands on elementary school turf maintenance functions, the most critical of which was irrigation management. Good D.U. alone did not predict conservation potential nor did it indicate turf quality. While a qualified irrigation manager can use creative methods to conserve water even with a poorly designed system, conservation potential is lost when an unqualified manager is making irrigation decisions.